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remote memory [keywords]
- Cuban internationalism - An alternative form of globalization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Rev Psychiatry 2014 Oct; 26(5):595-601.
Abstract This paper looks at how the principles of internationalism have been integral to the Cuban healthcare system and to Cuba's cooperation and medical support in other countries around the world. The paper details the range and scope of Cuban health internationalism and the principles that underpin the Cuban approach of long-term collaboration, humane care, contextualization, trans-disciplinarity, respect for collective/historical memory and an ethical stance. The paper details the role of Cuban psychologists who have contributed to disaster relief work and gives an example of the Cuban approach in relation to Haiti following the earthquake in 2010.
- 2014 Report on the Milestones for the US National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Alzheimers Dement 2014 Oct; 10(5S):S430-S452.
With increasing numbers of people with Alzheimer's and other dementias across the globe, many countries have developed national plans to deal with the resulting challenges. In the United States, the National Alzheimer's Project Act, signed into law in 2011, required the creation of such a plan with annual updates thereafter. Pursuant to this, the US Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) released the National Plan to Address Alzheimer's Disease in 2012, including an ambitious research goal of preventing and effectively treating Alzheimer's disease by 2025. To guide investments, activities, and the measurement of progress toward achieving this 2025 goal, in its first annual plan update (2013) HHS also incorporated into the plan a set of short, medium and long-term milestones. HHS further committed to updating these milestones on an ongoing basis to account for progress and setbacks, and emerging opportunities and obstacles. To assist HHS as it updates these milestones, the Alzheimer's Association convened a National Plan Milestone Workgroup consisting of scientific experts representing all areas of Alzheimer's and dementia research. The workgroup evaluated each milestone and made recommendations to ensure that they collectively constitute an adequate work plan for reaching the goal of preventing and effectively treating Alzheimer's by 2025. This report presents these Workgroup recommendations.
- Enhancement of Islet Engraftment and Achievement of Long-Term Islet Allograft Survival by Toll-Like Receptor 4 Blockade. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transplantation 2014 Oct 21.
Toll-like receptors are key players in sterile inflammation phenomena and can link the innate and adaptive immune systems by enhancing graft immunogenicity. They are also considered mediators of types 1 and 2 diabetes development. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) in mediating the inflammatory and immune responses to pancreatic islets, thereby promoting inflammatory destruction and immune rejection of islet grafts.Experiments were conducted in murine and human in vitro systems and in vivo murine islet transplant models, using species-specific anti-TLR4 monoclonal antibodies. In vitro, mixed lymphocyte-islet reaction experiments were performed to assess T-cell activation and proliferation. In vivo, both a syngeneic (B6-to-B6) marginal mass islet transplant model to assess the impact of TLR4 blockade on islet engraftment and an allogeneic (DBA1-to-B6) model were used.In vitro TLR4 blockade decreased lipopolysaccharide-mediated β-cell apoptosis and T-cell activation and proliferation against allogeneic islets. In vivo, TLR4 blockade resulted in significantly better syngeneic marginal mass islet engraftment and in indefinite allogeneic islet graft survival. Tolerance was not observed because donor-specific skin graft rechallenge in nonrejecting animals resulted in rejection of both skin and islets, but without accelerated rejection as compared to naive animals.Taken together, our data indicate that TLR4 blockade leads to a significant improvement of syngeneic islet engraftment and of allogeneic islet graft survival. A mechanism of graft accommodation with concurrent inhibition of donor-specific immune memory is likely to be involved.
- KIBRA gene polymorphism has no association with verbal or visual episodic memory performance. [Journal Article]
- Front Aging Neurosci 2014.:270.
Inter-individual variability in memory performance has been suggested to result, in part, from genetic differences in the coding of proteins involved in long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study examined the effect of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the KIBRA gene (rs17070145) on episodic memory performance, using multiple measures of verbal and visual episodic memory. A total of 256 female and 130 male healthy, older adults (mean age = 60.86 years) were recruited from the Tasmanian Healthy Brain Project (THBP), undergoing both neuropsychological and genetic testing. The current study showed no significant effect of the KIBRA polymorphism on performance on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Task, Logical Memory test, Paired Associates Learning test or Rey Complex Figure Task. The results suggest there is little to no functional significance of KIBRA genotype on episodic memory performance, regardless of modality.
- PGC-1α Provides a Transcriptional Framework for Synchronous Neurotransmitter Release from Parvalbumin-Positive Interneurons. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Oct 22; 34(43):14375-87.
Accumulating evidence strongly implicates the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in the pathophysiology of multiple neurological disorders, but the downstream gene targets of PGC-1α in the brain have remained enigmatic. Previous data demonstrate that PGC-1α is primarily concentrated in inhibitory neurons and that PGC-1α is required for the expression of the interneuron-specific Ca(2+)-binding protein parvalbumin (PV) throughout the cortex. To identify other possible transcriptional targets of PGC-1α in neural tissue, we conducted a microarray on neuroblastoma cells overexpressing PGC-1α, mined results for genes with physiological relevance to interneurons, and measured cortical gene and protein expression of these genes in mice with underexpression and overexpression of PGC-1α. We observed bidirectional regulation of novel PGC-1α-dependent transcripts spanning synaptic [synaptotagmin 2 (Syt2) and complexin 1 (Cplx1)], structural [neurofilament heavy chain (Nefh)], and metabolic [neutral cholesterol ester hydrolase 1 (Nceh1), adenylate kinase 1 (Ak1), inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase J (Inpp5j), ATP synthase mitochondrial F1 complex O subunit (Atp5o), phytanol-CoA-2hydroxylase (Phyh), and ATP synthase mitrochondrial F1 complex α subunit 1 (Atp5a1)] functions. The neuron-specific genes Syt2, Cplx1, and Nefh were developmentally upregulated in an expression pattern consistent with that of PGC-1α and were expressed in cortical interneurons. Conditional deletion of PGC-1α in PV-positive neurons significantly decreased cortical transcript expression of these genes, promoted asynchronous GABA release, and impaired long-term memory. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PGC-1α is required for normal PV-positive interneuron function and that loss of PGC-1α in this interneuron subpopulation could contribute to cortical dysfunction in disease states.
- Medial Temporal Lobe Coding of Item and Spatial Information during Relational Binding in Working Memory. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Oct 22; 34(43):14233-42.
Several models have proposed that different medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions represent different kinds of information in the service of long-term memory. For instance, it has been proposed that perirhinal cortex (PRC), parahippocampal cortex (PHC), and hippocampus differentially support long-term memory for item information, spatial context, and item-context relations present during an event, respectively. Recent evidence has indicated that, in addition to long-term memory, MTL subregions may similarly contribute to processes that support the retention of complex spatial arrangements of objects across short delays. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivoxel pattern similarity analysis to investigate the extent to which human MTL regions independently code for object and spatial information, as well as the conjunction of this information, during working memory encoding and active maintenance. Voxel activity patterns in PRC, temporopolar cortex, and amygdala carried information about individual objects, whereas activity patterns in the PHC and posterior hippocampus carried information about the configuration of spatial locations that was to be remembered. Additionally, the integrity of multivoxel patterns in the right anterior hippocampus across encoding and delay periods was predictive of accurate short-term memory for object-location relationships. These results are consistent with parallel processing of item and spatial context information by PRC and PHC, respectively, and the binding of item and context by the hippocampus.
- Regulation of Presynaptic Ca2+, Synaptic Plasticity and Contextual Fear Conditioning by a N-terminal β-Amyloid Fragment. [Journal Article]
- J Neurosci 2014 Oct 22; 34(43):14210-8.
Soluble β-amyloid has been shown to regulate presynaptic Ca(2+) and synaptic plasticity. In particular, picomolar β-amyloid was found to have an agonist-like action on presynaptic nicotinic receptors and to augment long-term potentiation (LTP) in a manner dependent upon nicotinic receptors. Here, we report that a functional N-terminal domain exists within β-amyloid for its agonist-like activity. This sequence corresponds to a N-terminal fragment generated by the combined action of α- and β-secretases, and resident carboxypeptidase. The N-terminal β-amyloid fragment is present in the brains and CSF of healthy adults as well as in Alzheimer's patients. Unlike full-length β-amyloid, the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment is monomeric and nontoxic. In Ca(2+) imaging studies using a model reconstituted rodent neuroblastoma cell line and isolated mouse nerve terminals, the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment proved to be highly potent and more effective than full-length β-amyloid in its agonist-like action on nicotinic receptors. In addition, the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment augmented theta burst-induced post-tetanic potentiation and LTP in mouse hippocampal slices. The N-terminal fragment also rescued LTP inhibited by elevated levels of full-length β-amyloid. Contextual fear conditioning was also strongly augmented following bilateral injection of N-terminal β-amyloid fragment into the dorsal hippocampi of intact mice. The fragment-induced augmentation of fear conditioning was attenuated by coadministration of nicotinic antagonist. The activity of the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment appears to reside largely in a sequence surrounding a putative metal binding site, YEVHHQ. These findings suggest that the N-terminal β-amyloid fragment may serve as a potent and effective endogenous neuromodulator.
- Effect of rituximab on B-cell phenotype and serum B-cell activating factor levels in patients with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Exp Immunol 2014 Oct 22.
Autoantibodies inhibiting the activity of the metalloproteinase, ADAMTS13, underlay the pathogenesis of Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP). Rituximab (RTX) combined with plasma-exchange (PEX) is an effective treatment in TTP. Patients can remain in remission for extended periods following PEX/RTX and this is associated with continuing reduction in antibodies to ADAMTS13. Factors controlling B-cell differentiation to autoantibody production including stimulation through the B-cell receptor and interactions with B-cell activating factor (BAFF) may thus impact length of remission. In this cross-sectional study, we measured naïve and memory B-cell phenotypes (using CD19/IgD/CD27) following PEX/RTX treatment in TTP patients at B-cell return (n=6) and in 12 patients in remission 10-68 months post-RTX. We also investigated relationships amongst serum BAFF, soluble CD23 (sCD23- a surrogate measure of acquiring B-memory (CD27+) phenotype), and BAFF-Receptor (BAFF-R) expression. At B-cell return after PEX/RTX, naïve B-cells predominated and BAFF-R expression was reduced compared to healthy controls (p<0.001). In the remission group, despite numbers of CD19+B-cells within normal limits in most patients, % and absolute numbers of pre-switch and memory B-cells remained low, with sCD23 levels at the lower end of the normal range. BAFF levels were inversely correlated with BAFF-R expression and time after therapy. In conclusion, the long-term effects of RTX therapy in patients with TTP included slow regeneration of memory B-cell subsets and persistently reduced BAFF-R expression across all B-cell sub-populations. This may reflect the delay in selection and differentiation of potentially autoreactive (ADAMTS13 specific) B-cells, resulting in relatively long periods of low disease activity after therapy.
- Effects of Repeated Administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) on Avoidance Memory and Cell Density in Rats' Hippocampus. [Journal Article]
- Basic Clin Neurosci 2013; 4(1):57-63.
MDMA or ecstasy is a derivative of amphetamines used mostly by young people worldwide. Although the acute effects of this drug are known, the effect of chronic administration is not well studied. Therefor the aim of this study was to determine the effects of repeated (long term) administration of MDMA on rats' memory and their hippocampal cell density.Young adult male Wistar rats 200 ± 20 g served as subjects. The rats were randomly distributed into three MDMA treated groups (3×2.5 mg/kg, 3×5 mg/kg, 3×10 mg/kg) and one control-saline group. All animals received MDMA intraperitoneally (3h apart; a challenge) 7th day of every week for consecutive 4 weeks. Animals were trained before and were tested after injections for their memory status using the standards passive avoidance method. Finally, 24hr after the memory test, rats were sacrificed and after tissue operations, the hippocampal astrocytes and neurons were counted.Results showed that the number of neurons in all experimental groups was lower than the control-saline group. The most decreased number of neurons was shown in 5 mg/kg MDMA group compared to control-saline in all the regions of hippocampus. Also we found that repeated administration of MDMA reduced the number of hippocampal astrocytes.It is concluded that repeated administration of MDMA can reduce density of neurons and astrocytes and this decrease is not dose dependence.
- Corresponding Influences of Top-Down Control on Task Switching and Long-Term Memory. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) 2014 Oct 22.:1-60.
Abstract Three experiments investigated the impact of cognitive control on current performance and later memory in task switching. Participants first switched between object and word classification tasks, performed on picture-word stimuli that each appeared only once, then were tested for their recognition memory of these items. Each experiment replicated the recent finding that task switching results in reduced selectivity in later memory for task-relevant over task-irrelevant items. Top-down control was manipulated through varying the time available for advance task preparation (Experiment 1), the freedom of choice over which task to perform (Experiment 2), and the availability of reward incentives (Experiment 3). For each manipulation, more effective top-down control during task switching was associated with increased selectivity in memory for task-relevant information. These findings shed new light on the role of cognitive control in long-term memory encoding, in particular supporting an interactive model in which long-term memory reflects the enduring traces of perceptual and cognitive processes that operate under the selective influence of top-down control.