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remote memory [keywords]
- Developing Neuroimaging Phenotypes of the Default Mode Network in PTSD: Integrating the Resting State, Working Memory, and Structural Connectivity. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Vis Exp 2014; (89)
Complementary structural and functional neuroimaging techniques used to examine the Default Mode Network (DMN) could potentially improve assessments of psychiatric illness severity and provide added validity to the clinical diagnostic process. Recent neuroimaging research suggests that DMN processes may be disrupted in a number of stress-related psychiatric illnesses, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although specific DMN functions remain under investigation, it is generally thought to be involved in introspection and self-processing. In healthy individuals it exhibits greatest activity during periods of rest, with less activity, observed as deactivation, during cognitive tasks, e.g., working memory. This network consists of the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, lateral parietal cortices and medial temporal regions. Multiple functional and structural imaging approaches have been developed to study the DMN. These have unprecedented potential to further the understanding of the function and dysfunction of this network. Functional approaches, such as the evaluation of resting state connectivity and task-induced deactivation, have excellent potential to identify targeted neurocognitive and neuroaffective (functional) diagnostic markers and may indicate illness severity and prognosis with increased accuracy or specificity. Structural approaches, such as evaluation of morphometry and connectivity, may provide unique markers of etiology and long-term outcomes. Combined, functional and structural methods provide strong multimodal, complementary and synergistic approaches to develop valid DMN-based imaging phenotypes in stress-related psychiatric conditions. This protocol aims to integrate these methods to investigate DMN structure and function in PTSD, relating findings to illness severity and relevant clinical factors.
- Genetic deletion of MT1/MT2 melatonin receptors enhances murine cognitive and motor performance. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuroscience 2014 Jul 18.
Melatonin, an indoleamine hormone secreted into circulation at night primarily by the brain's pineal gland, has been shown to have a wide variety of actions on the development and physiology of neurons in the central nervous system. Acting via two G-protein coupled membrane receptors (MT1 and MT2), melatonin modulates neurogenesis, synaptic functions, neuronal cytoskeleton and gene expression. In the present studies, we sought to characterize the behavior and neuronal biology of transgenic mice lacking both of these melatonin receptors as a way to understand the hormone's receptor versus non-receptor mediated actions in CNS-dependent activities, such as learning and memory, anxiety, general motor performance and circadian rhythmicity. Assessment of these behaviors was complemented by molecular analyses of gene expression in the brain. Our results demonstrate mild behavioral hyperactivity and a lengthened circadian period of free-running motor activity in melatonin receptor-deficient mice as compared to receptor-intact control mice beginning at an early age. Significant improvement in cognitive performance was found using the Barnes Maze and the Y-maze. No behavioral changes in anxiety levels were found. Electrophysiological measures in hippocampal slices revealed a clear enhancement of long-term potentiation in mice lacking melatonin receptors with no significant differences in paired-pulse facilitation. Quantitative analysis of brain protein expression levels of phosphoCREB and phosphoERK1/2 and key markers of synaptic activity (synapsin, glutamate receptor 1, spinophilin, and glutamic acid decarboxylase 1) revealed significant differences between the double-knockout and wild-type animals, consistent with the behavioral findings. Thus, genetic deletion of melatonin receptors produces mice with enhanced cognitive and motor performance, supporting the view that these receptors play an important role in neurobehavioral development.
- Long-term depression at distinct glutamatergic synapses in the basal ganglia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rev Neurosci 2014 Jul 19.
Abstract Long-term adaptations of synaptic transmission are believed to be the cellular basis of information storage in the brain. In particular, long-term depression of excitatory neurotransmission has been under intense investigation since convergent lines of evidence support a crucial role for this process in learning and memory. Within the basal ganglia, a network of subcortical nuclei forming a key part of the extrapyramidal motor system, plasticity at excitatory synapses is essential to the regulation of motor, cognitive, and reward functions. The striatum, the main gateway of the basal ganglia, receives convergent excitatory inputs from cortical areas and transmits information to the network output structures and is a major site of activity-dependent plasticity. Indeed, long-term depression at cortico-striatal synapses modulates the transfer of information to basal ganglia output structures and affects voluntary movement execution. Cortico-striatal plasticity is thus considered as a cellular substrate for adaptive motor control. Downstream in this network, the subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra nuclei also receive glutamatergic innervation from the cortex and the subthalamic nucleus, respectively. Although these connections have been less investigated, recent studies have started to unravel the molecular mechanisms that contribute to adjustments in the strength of cortico-subthalamic and subthalamo-nigral transmissions, revealing that adaptations at these synapses governing the output of the network could also contribute to motor planning and execution. Here, we review our current understanding of long-term depression mechanisms at basal ganglia glutamatergic synapses and emphasize the common and unique plastic features observed at successive levels of the network in healthy and pathological conditions.
- Long-Term Electrophysiological and Behavioral Analysis on the Improvement of Visual Working Memory Load, Training Gains, and Transfer Benefits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Behav Brain Sci 2014 May 1; 4(5):234-246.
Recent evidence demonstrates that with training, one can enhance visual working memory (VWM) capacity and attention over time in the near transfer tasks. Not only do these studies reveal the characteristics of VWM load and the influences of training, they may also provide insights into developing effective rehabilitation for patients with VWM deficiencies. However, few studies have investigated VWM over extended periods of time and evaluated transfer benefits on non-trained tasks. Here, we combined behavioral and electroencephalographical approaches to investigate VWM load, training gains, and transfer benefits. Our results reveal that VWM capacity is directly correlated to the difference of event-related potential waveforms. In particular, the "magic number 4" can be observed through the contralateral delay amplitude and the average capacity is 3.25-item over 15 participants. Furthermore, our findings indicate that VWM capacity can be improved through training; and after training exercises, participants from the training group are able to dramatically improve their performance. Likewise, the training effects on non-trained tasks can also be observed at the 12th week after training. Therefore, we conclude that participants can benefit from training gains, and augmented VWM capacity sustained over long periods of time on specific variety of tasks.
- Retrograde interference of object-in-context long-term memory: role of dorsal hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hippocampus 2014 Jul 8.
Retrograde interference (RI) is a type of amnesia in which a new learning experience can impair the expression of a previous one. It has been studied in several types of memories for over a century. Here, we aimed to study in the long-term memory (LTM) formation of an object-in-context task, defined as the recognition of a familiar object in a context different to that in which it was previously encountered. We trained rats with two sample trials, each taking place in a different context in association with different objects. Test sessions were performed 24 h later, to evaluate LTM for both object-context pairs using separate groups of trained rats. Furthermore, given the involvement of hippocampus (Hp) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in several recognition memories, we also analyzed the participation of these structures in the LTM formation of this task by the local infusion of muscimol. Our results show that object-in-context LTM formation is sensitive to RI by a different either familiar or novel object-context pair trial, experienced 1h later. This interference occurs in a restricted temporal window and works on the LTM consolidation phase, leaving intact short-term memory expression. The second sample trial did not affect the object recognition part of the memory. Besides, muscimol treatment before the second sample trial blocks its object-in-context LTM and restores the first sample trial memory. We hypothesized that LTM-RI amnesia is probably caused by resources or cellular machinery competition in these brain regions when they are engaged in memory formation of the traces. In sum, when two different object-in-context memory traces are being processed, the second trace interferes with the consolidation of the first one requiring mPFC and CA1 dorsal Hp activation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Repeated stimulation of dopamine D1-like receptor and hyperactivation of mTOR signaling lead to generalized seizures, altered dentate gyrus plasticity and memory deficits. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hippocampus 2014 Jul 5.
The acute activation of the dopamine D1-like receptors (D1R) is involved in a plethora of functions ranging from increased locomotor activity to the facilitation of consolidation, storage and retrieval of memories. Although much less characterized, epileptiform activities, usually triggered by disruption of the glutamate and GABA balance, have also been reported to involve the dopaminergic transmission. By using a combination of biochemical, immunohistochemical, electrophysiological and behavioral approaches we have investigated the consequences of repeated stimulation of D1R using the selective D1R-like agonist SKF81297. Here, we report that repeated systemic administration of SKF81297 induces kindled seizures in mice. These seizure episodes parallel the hyperactivation of the mTOR signaling in the hippocampus, leading to disrupted long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus (DG) and altered recognition memories. The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin delays the development of SKF81297-induced kindled seizures, and rescues LTP in the DG and object recognition. Our results show that repeated stimulation of D1R is sufficient to induce generalized seizures leading to the overactivation of mTOR signaling, disrupted hippocampal plasticity and impaired long-term recognition memories. This work highlights the interest of mTOR inhibitors as therapeutic strategies to reverse plasticity and cognitive deficits. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Dietary-induced obesity disrupts trace fear conditioning and decreases hippocampal reelin expression. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Behav Immun 2014 Jul 17.
Both obesity and over-consumption of palatable high fat / high sugar "cafeteria" diets in rats has been shown to induce cognitive deficits in executive function, attention and spatial memory. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet that supplemented standard lab chow with a range of palatable foods eaten by people for 8 weeks, or regular lab chow. Memory was assessed using a trace fear conditioning procedure, whereby a conditioned stimulus (CS) is presented for 10 s and then 30 s after its termination a foot shock (US) is delivered. We assessed freezing to the CS (flashing light) in a neutral context, and freezing in the context associated with footshock. A dissociation was observed between levels of freezing in the context and to the CS associated with footshock. Cafeteria diet fed rats froze less than control chow fed rats in the context associated with footshock (P<0.01), indicating that encoding of a hippocampus-dependent context representation was impaired in these rats. Conversely, cafeteria diet fed rats froze more (P<0.05) to the CS than chow fed rats, suggesting that when hippocampal function was compromised the cue was the best predictor of footshock, as contextual information was not encoded. Dorsal hippocampal mRNA expression of inflammatory and neuroplasticity markers was analysed at the end of the experiment, 10 weeks of diet. Of these, mRNA expression of reelin, which is known to be important in long term potentiation and neuronal plasticity, was significantly reduced in cafeteria diet fed rats (P=0.003). This implicates reductions in hippocampal plasticity in the contextual fear memory deficits seen in the cafeteria diet fed rats.
- Dynamics of Nascent and Active Zone Ultrastructure as Synapses Enlarge During Ltp in Mature Hippocampus. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Comp Neurol 2014 Jul 10.
Nascent zones and active zones are adjacent synaptic regions that share a postsynaptic density, but nascent zones lack the presynaptic vesicles found at active zones. Here dendritic spine synapses were reconstructed through serial section electron microscopy (3DEM) and EM tomography to investigate nascent zone dynamics during long-term potentiation (LTP) in mature rat hippocampus. LTP was induced with theta-burst stimulation and comparisons were made to control stimulation in the same hippocampal slices at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 2 hours post-induction and to perfusion-fixed hippocampus in vivo. Nascent zones were present at the edges of ~35% of synapses in perfusion-fixed hippocampus and as many as ~50% of synapses in some hippocampal slice conditions. By 5 minutes, small dense core vesicles known to transport active zone proteins moved into more presynaptic boutons. By 30 minutes, nascent zone area decreased without significant change in synapse area, suggesting that presynaptic vesicles were recruited to pre-existing nascent zones. By 2 hours, both nascent and active zones were enlarged. Immunogold labeling revealed that glutamate receptors can be found in nascent zones; however, average distances from nascent zones to docked presynaptic vesicles ranged from 170±5 nm in perfusion-fixed hippocampus to 251±4 nm at enlarged synapses by 2 hours during LTP. Prior stochastic modeling suggests that falloff in glutamate concentration reduces the probability of glutamate receptor activation from 0.4 at the center of release to 0.1 just 200 nm away. Thus, conversion of nascent zones to functional active zones likely requires the recruitment of presynaptic vesicles during LTP. J. Comp. Neurol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Activity-Dependent Structural Plasticity of Perisynaptic Astrocytic Domains Promotes Excitatory Synapse Stability. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Biol 2014 Jul 15.
Excitatory synapses in the CNS are highly dynamic structures that can show activity-dependent remodeling and stabilization in response to learning and memory. Synapses are enveloped with intricate processes of astrocytes known as perisynaptic astrocytic processes (PAPs). PAPs are motile structures displaying rapid actin-dependent movements and are characterized by Ca(2+) elevations in response to neuronal activity. Despite a debated implication in synaptic plasticity, the role of both Ca(2+) events in astrocytes and PAP morphological dynamics remain unclear.In the hippocampus, we found that PAPs show extensive structural plasticity that is regulated by synaptic activity through astrocytic metabotropic glutamate receptors and intracellular calcium signaling. Synaptic activation that induces long-term potentiation caused a transient PAP motility increase leading to an enhanced astrocytic coverage of the synapse. Selective activation of calcium signals in individual PAPs using exogenous metabotropic receptor expression and two-photon uncaging reproduced these effects and enhanced spine stability. In vivo imaging in the somatosensory cortex of adult mice revealed that increased neuronal activity through whisker stimulation similarly elevates PAP movement. This in vivo PAP motility correlated with spine coverage and was predictive of spine stability.This study identifies a novel bidirectional interaction between synapses and astrocytes, in which synaptic activity and synaptic potentiation regulate PAP structural plasticity, which in turn determines the fate of the synapse. This mechanism may represent an important contribution of astrocytes to learning and memory processes.
- Immune memory response induced in vitro by recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen challenge 13-18 years after primary vaccination. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Med Virol 2014 Jul 5.
The question of whether booster doses are required to maintain long-term protection against hepatitis B virus (HBV) after primary vaccination remains to be determined. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the immune memory responses to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) challenge in vaccinated individuals through an in vitro-specific stimulation assay. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (4 × 10(6) cells/ml) were stimulated with 50 ng/ml of recombinant HBsAg. In vitro anamnestic antibody responses, as shown by detection of high avidity antibody in culture supernatants, were found 13-18 years after primary vaccination and were not correlated with serum antibodies (r = -0.177; P = 0.377). In addition, the findings from this study indicate that immune memory against hepatitis B was well preserved in 40.0% and 60.0% of vaccinees with anti-HBs levels less than 10 IU/L or lacking serum antibodies altogether, respectively. In conclusion, the data suggest the presence of immunological memory in vaccinated individuals, including those who showed anti-HBs <10 IU/L or undetectable antibody. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.