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remote memory [keywords]
- Nitric oxide-dependent LTD but not endocannabinoid-LTP is crucial for visual recognition memory. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Physiol 2013 May 13.
Synaptic plasticity in perirhinal cortex is essential for recognition memory. Nitric oxide (NO) and endocannabinoids (eCBs), which are produced in the postsynaptic cell and act on the presynaptic terminal, are implicated in mechanisms of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) in other brain regions. In this study we examine these two retrograde signalling cascades in perirhinal cortex synaptic plasticity and in visual recognition memory in the rat. We show that inhibition of NO-dependent signalling prevented both carbachol- and activity (5Hz)- dependent LTD but not activity (100 Hz theta burst)-dependent LTP in the rat perirhinal cortex in vitro. In contrast, inhibition of the eCB-dependent signalling prevented LTP but not the two forms of LTD in vitro. Local administration into perirhinal cortex of the NOS inhibitor NPA (2 μM), disrupted acquisition of long-term visual recognition memory. In contrast, AM251 (10 μM), a CB1 antagonist, did not impair visual recognition memory. The results of this study demonstrate dissociation between putative retrograde signalling mechanisms in LTD and LTP in perirhinal cortex. Thus LTP relies on cannabinoid but not NO signalling whilst LTD relies on NO- but not eCB-dependent signalling. Critically, these results also establish for the first time that NO-, but not eCB-dependent signalling is important in perirhinal cortex-dependent visual recognition memory.
- Prolonged Running, not Fluoxetine Treatment, Increases Neurogenesis, but does not Alter Neuropathology, in the 3xTg Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. [Journal Article]
- Curr Top Behav Neurosci 2013.:313-40.
Reductions in adult neurogenesis have been documented in the original 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), notably occurring at the same age when spatial memory deficits and amyloid plaque pathology appeared. As this suggested reduced neurogenesis was associated with behavioral deficits, we tested whether activity and pharmacological stimulation could prevent memory deficits and modify neurogenesis and/or neuropathology in the 3xTg model backcrossed to the C57Bl/6 strain. We chronically administered the antidepressant fluoxetine to one group of mice, allowed access to a running wheel in another, and combined both treatments in a third cohort. All treatments lasted for 11 months. The female 3xTg mice failed to exhibit any deficits in spatial learning and memory as measured in the Morris water maze, indicating that when backcrossed to the C57Bl/6 strain, the 3xTg mice lost the behavioral phenotype that was present in the original 3xTg mouse maintained on a hybrid background. Despite this, the backcrossed 3xTg mice expressed prominent intraneuronal amyloid beta (Aβ) levels in the cortex and amygdala, with lower levels in the CA1 area of the hippocampus. In the combined cohort, fluoxetine treatment interfered with exercise and reduced the total distance run. The extent of Aβ neuropathology, the tau accumulations, or BDNF levels, were not altered by prolonged exercise. Thus, neuropathology was present but not paralleled by spatial memory deficits in the backcrossed 3xTg mouse model of AD. Prolonged exercise for 11 months did improve the long-term survival of newborn neurons generated during middle-age, whereas fluoxetine had no effect. We further review and discuss the relevant literature in this respect.
- Neurotrophins play differential roles in short and long-term recognition memory. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurobiol Learn Mem 2013 May 10.
The neurotrophin family of proteins are believed to mediate various forms of synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Here we have assessed the roles of these proteins in object recognition memory in the rat, using icv infusions of function-blocking antibodies or the tyrosine kinase antagonist, tyrphostin AG879, to block Trk receptors. We report that tyrphostin AG879 impairs both short-term and long-term recognition memory, indicating a requirement for Trk receptor activation in both processes. The effect of inhibition of each of the neurotrophins with activity-blocking neutralising antibodies was also tested. Treatment with anti-BDNF, anti-NGF or anti-NT4 had no effect on short-term memory, but blocked long-term recognition memory. Treatment with anti-NT3 had no effect on either process. We also assessed changes in expression of neurotrophins and their respective receptors in the hippocampus, dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex over a 24hr period following training in the object recognition task. We observed time-dependent changes in expression of the Trk receptors and their ligands in the dentate gyrus and perirhinal cortex. The data are consistent with a pivotal role for neurotrophic factors in the expression of recognition memory.
- Corticotropin-releasing factor infusion into nucleus incertus suppresses medial prefrontal cortical activity and hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical long-term potentiation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Neurosci 2013 May 14.
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the rat has been implicated in a variety of cognitive processes, including working memory and expression of fear memory. We investigated the inputs from a brain stem nucleus, the nucleus incertus (NI), to the prelimbic area of the mPFC. This nucleus strongly expresses corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 (CRF1 ) receptors and responds to stress. A retrograde tracer was used to verify connections from the NI to the mPFC. Retrogradely labelled cells in the NI expressed CRF receptors. Electrophysiological manipulation of the NI revealed that stimulation of the NI inhibited spontaneous neuronal firing in the mPFC. Similarly, CRF infusion into the NI, in order to mimic a stressful condition, inhibited neuronal firing and burst firing in the mPFC. The effect of concurrent high-frequency stimulation of the NI on plasticity in the hippocampo-prelimbic medial prefrontal cortical (HP-mPFC) pathway was studied. It was found that electrical stimulation of the NI impaired long-term potentiation in the HP-mPFC pathway. Furthermore, CRF infusion into the NI produced similar results. These findings might account for some of the extra-pituitary functions of CRF and indicate that the NI may play a role in stress-driven modulation of working memory and possibly other cognitive processes subserved by the mPFC.
- Investigations into the involvement of NMDA mechanisms in recognition memory. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropharmacology 2013 May 9.
This review will focus on evidence showing that NMDA receptor neurotransmission is critical for synaptic plasticity processes within brain regions known to be necessary for the formation of object recognition memories. The aim will be to provide evidence concerning NMDA mechanisms related to recognition memory processes and show that recognition memory for objects, places or associations between objects and places depends on NMDA neurotransmission within the perirhinal cortex, temporal association cortex medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Administration of the NMDA antagonist AP5, selectively into each of these brain regions has revealed that the extent of the involvement NMDA receptors appears dependent on the type of information required to solve the recognition memory task; thus NMDA receptors in the perirhinal cortex are crucial for the encoding of long-term recognition memory for objects, and object-in-place associations, but not for short-term recognition memory or for retrieval. In contrast the hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex are required for both long-term and short-term recognition memory for places or associations between objects and places, or for recognition memory tasks that have a temporal component. Such studies have therefore confirmed that the multiple brain regions make distinct contributions to recognition memory but in addition that more than one synaptic plasticity process must be involved.
- Shaping synaptic plasticity: the role of activity-mediated epigenetic regulation on gene transcription. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Dev Neurosci 2013 May 9.
Learning and memory are basic functions of the brain that allowed human evolution. It is well accepted that during learning and memory formation the dynamic establishment of new active synaptic connections is crucial. Persistent synaptic activation leads to series of molecular events that include increased release of neurotransmitters, increased expression of receptors on the postsynaptic neuron, thus creating a positive feedback that results in the activation of distinct signaling pathways that temporally and permanently alter specific patterns of gene expression. However, the epigenetic changes that allow the establishment of long term genetic programs that control learning and memory are not completely understood. Less is known regarding the signaling events triggered by synaptic activity that regulate these epigenetic marks. Here we review the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling activity-dependent gene transcription leading synaptic plasticity and memory formation. We describe how Ca(2+) entry through N-methyl-D-aspartate-type glutamate neurotransmitter receptors result in the activation of specific signaling pathways leading to changes in gene expression, giving special emphasis to the recent data pointing out different epigenetic mechanisms (histone acetylation, methylation and phosphorylation as well as DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation) underlying learning and memory.
- Low-frequency (1Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) reverses Aβ1-42-mediated memory deficit in rats. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Exp Gerontol 2013 May 8.
Accumulating evidence shows the disruption of hippocampal neurotrophins secretion leads to memory deficit in Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal models. Invasive injection of exogenous neurotrophins into hippocampus reverses spatial memory deficit, but its clinical application is limited by traumatic brain injury caused by injection procedure. Notably, recent studies have demonstrated noninvasive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) increases endogenous neurotrophins contents in brain of normal rats. Whether low-frequency rTMS can reverse Aβ1-42-mediated decrease of hippocampal neurotrophins contents and spatial memory impairment is still unclear. Here, we reported that severe deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) and spatial memory were observed in an Aβ1-42-induced toxicity rat model. Furthermore, neurotrophins (NGF and BDNF) and NMDA-receptor levels were decreased after Aβ injection. However, low-frequency rTMS markedly reversed the decrease of neurotrophins contents. And the rTMS-induced increment of neurotrophins up-regulated hippocampal NMDA-receptor expression. Moreover, low-frequency rTMS rescued deficits in LTP and spatial memory of rats with Aβ-injection. These results indicate that low-frequency rTMS noninvasively and effectively increases hippocampal neurotrophins and NMDA-receptor contents in Aβ1-42-induced toxicity model rats, which helps to enhance hippocampal LTP and reverses Aβ1-42-mediated memory deficit.
- Prefrontal Cortical Dysfunction After Overexpression of Histone Deacetylase 1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biol Psychiatry 2013 May 7.
BACKGROUND:Postmortem brain studies have shown that HDAC1-a lysine deacetylase with broad activity against histones and nonhistone proteins-is frequently expressed at increased levels in prefrontal cortex (PFC) of subjects diagnosed with schizophrenia and related disease. However, it remains unclear whether upregulated expression of Hdac1 in the PFC could affect cognition and behavior.
METHODS:Using adeno-associated virus, an Hdac1 transgene was expressed in young adult mouse PFC, followed by behavioral assays for working and long-term memory, repetitive activity, and response to novelty. Prefrontal cortex transcriptomes were profiled by microarray. Antipsychotic drug effects were explored in mice treated for 21 days with haloperidol or clozapine.
RESULTS:Hdac1 overexpression in PFC neurons and astrocytes resulted in robust impairments in working memory, increased repetitive behaviors, and abnormal locomotor response profiles in novel environments. Long-term memory remained intact. Over 300 transcripts showed subtle but significant changes in Hdac1-overexpressing PFC. Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II)-related transcripts, including HLA-DQA1/H2-Aa, HLA-DQB1/H2-Ab1, and HLA-DRB1/H2-Eb1, located in the chromosome 6p21.3-22.1 schizophrenia and bipolar disorder risk locus, were among the subset of genes with a more robust (>1.5-fold) downregulation in expression. Hdac1 levels declined during the course of normal PFC development. Antipsychotic drug treatment, including the atypical clozapine, did not affect Hdac1 levels in PFC but induced expression of multiple MHC II transcripts.
CONCLUSIONS:Excessive HDAC1 activity, due to developmental defects or other factors, is associated with behavioral alterations and dysregulated expression of MHC II and other gene transcripts in the PFC.
- [The genetic screening of a dominant zebrafish mutant in long-term memory]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi 2013 Jan; 29(1):72-6.
To screen the learning and memory mutant from N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenic zebrafish F1, and to get the new model animal to study the mechanism of learning and memory.Zebrafish mutant was screened by inhibitory avoidance behavioral test and identified by the expression of gene c-fos with qRT-PCR.We isolated a zebrafish mutant related to learning and memory, fgt. In this fgt zebrafish mutant long-term memory was much lower than that in wild-type when tested at 24 h after training. The 24 h long-term memory in about half of fgt mutant F2 (13/30) were significantly lower than those in wild-type, and the others relatively normal. Compared with the expression in wild-type fishes, the expression of immediate-early genes (IEGs) c-fos in half of fgt mutant F2 (13/30) after exploring in a novel environment increaseed distinctly from the basal control levels statistically, and the others relatively normal, which were in accordance with the behavioral results.The zebrafish mutant fgt is a dominant mutant with defect in long-term memory.
- Long-Term Stimulation with Electroacupuncture at DU20 and ST36 Rescues Hippocampal Neuron through Attenuating Cerebral Blood Flow in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. [Journal Article]
- Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2013.:482947.
This study was designed to investigate the effect of long-term electroacupuncture at Baihui (DU20) and Zusanli (ST36) on cerebral microvessels and neurons in CA1 region of hippocampus in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 45 male Wistar rats and 45 SHR were randomly grouped, with or without electroacupuncture (EA) at DU20 and ST36, once every other day for a period of 8 weeks. The mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured once every 2 weeks. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the number of open microvessels in hippocampal CA1 region were detected by Laser Doppler and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Nissl staining and Western blotting were performed, respectively, to determine hippocampus morphology and proteins that were implicated in the concerning signaling pathways. The results showed that the MAP in SHR increased linearly over the observation period and was significantly reduced following electroacupuncture as compared with sham control SHR rats, while no difference was observed in Wistar rats between EA and sham control. The CBF, learning and memory capacity, and capillary rarefaction of SHR were improved by EA. The upregulation of angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), endothelin receptor (ETAR), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) in SHR rats was attenuated by electroacupuncture, suggesting an implication of AT1R, ETAR, and ET-1 pathway in the effect of EA.