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risk management [keywords]
- A Partnered Approach to Opioid Management, Guideline Concordant Care and the Stepped Care Model of Pain Management. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Gen Intern Med 2014 Oct 30.
Pain is the most common presenting problem in primary care. Opioid therapy (OT) for chronic pain has increased dramatically over the past decade, as have related negative outcomes. Despite the development and dissemination of policy and clinical practice guidelines for pain management and OT, adoption has been variable. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has established a Stepped Care Model of Pain Management (SCM-PM) as an evidence-based framework and single standard of pain care to promote guideline-concordant care, but to date its adoption and related outcomes have not been systematically examined.Our aim was to examine changes in care for Veterans receiving long-term OT for management of chronic pain over a four-year study period.As part of a comprehensive implementation evaluation of performance improvements, the current evaluation reports performance improvement outcomes related to pain management and OT over a four-year period.We studied Veterans receiving long-term (90+ consecutive days) OT through primary care.We engaged an interdisciplinary clinical-research team to develop and implement a multifaceted performance improvement approach that included interactive educational strategies and other organizational initiatives.We measured the proportion of patients receiving long-term OT; use of opioid risk mitigation strategies; referrals to pain-related specialty services; and use of non-opioid analgesics.The proportion of patients receiving high-dose opioids decreased over four years (27.7 % to 24.7 %). The use of opioid risk mitigation strategies increased significantly. Referrals to physical therapy and chiropractic care and prescriptions for topical analgesics increased significantly, while referrals to the pain medicine specialty clinic decreased.We demonstrate improvements in the management of veterans receiving OT that are consistent with the SCM-PM and published practice guidelines. We highlight how partnerships among funders, researchers, clinicians, and administrators contributed to the project's design and implementation, and to the dissemination strategy and future directions for improving opioid management and pain care.
- Deconstructing breast cancer heterogeneity: clinical implications for women with Basal-like tumors. [Journal Article]
- Oncol Nurs Forum 2014 Nov 1; 41(6):639-46.
To compare and contrast the molecular and environmental factors contributing to basal-like breast cancer and highlight the clinical implications for women with this phenotype.CINAHL® and PubMed databases, journals, and citation indices were searched using the key word basal-like in combination with breast cancer, epigenetic, treatment, subtype, risk factor, and BRCA1 to synthesize the literature on the multiple underpinnings of basal-like breast cancer.Research findings related to the molecular foundation of basal-like breast cancer were integrated with knowledge of nongenetic contributing risk factors. Approved therapies and those under development were summarized with the goal of improving understanding for research and practice.Of the five subtypes of breast cancer, the basal-like subtype has the shortest survival and poorest prognosis. The development of gene expression assays with epigenetic studies has enabled reliable identification of the basal-like subtype and has shed light on novel therapeutic possibilities. Clinical trials for basal-like breast cancer are underway, and the potential for individualized treatments for women with this subtype show promise.The main difficulties with basal-like breast cancer are its aggressive course, treatment refractory nature, and complex biology, all of which pose real challenges for clinical management and patient education. Oncology nurses play a pivotal role in providing holistic care and patient support. Therefore, nurses must understand the complexity of the clinical presentation and the underlying biology of this cancer subtype.
- Wishard Volunteer Advocates Program: An Intervention for At-Risk, Incapacitated, Unbefriended Adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Am Geriatr Soc 2014 Oct 30.
Unbefriended, incapacitated individuals who lack surrogates to make medical decisions present a complex problem to the healthcare providers who treat them. Adults without surrogates are among the most vulnerable in the community and are often alone and estranged from family, neglected and abused, and at risk of receiving inappropriate medical treatment. This article describes the program model and outcomes for the first 2 years of the Wishard Volunteer Advocates Program (WVAP), a guardianship program using trained, supervised volunteers as surrogates for unbefriended, incapacitated individuals. Of the 50 individuals enrolled during the study period, 20 were female, and 39 were Caucasian and 11 African American. Their average age was 67. Nineteen were insured with Medicare as primary and Medicaid as supplementary insurance. Ninety-eight percent had four or more comorbid conditions at the time of the index hospitalization. Before program referral, many lived alone in unsafe conditions. Adult Protective Services was involved in almost half of the cases at the time of the index hospitalization. Approximately half of the participants required some type of property management. Healthcare usage data demonstrated that most were not receiving medical care before WVAP enrollment; the data indicated a decrease in emergency department visits and hospitalization after WVAP enrollment. The WVAP completed Medicaid applications for 12 participants, resulting in $297,481.62 in reimbursement for the index hospitalization and a payer source for subsequent hospitalization and long-term care. The volunteer advocate model provides an efficient and quality mechanism for providing unbefriended individuals with surrogates.
- Effects of home-based training with telemonitoring guidance in low to moderate risk patients entering cardiac rehabilitation: short-term results of the FIT@Home study. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Prev Cardiol 2014 Nov; 21(2 Suppl):26-31.
Home-based exercise training in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has the potential to improve CR uptake, decrease costs and increase self-management skills. The FIT@Home study evaluates home-based CR with telemonitoring guidance using coaching interventions including strategies for behavioural changes with the aim to maintain adherence to a healthy lifestyle and to improve long-term effects. In this interim analysis we provide short-term results on exercise capacity, quality of life and training adherence of the first 50 patients included in the FIT@Home study.The study design was a randomised controlled trial.Low to moderate risk CR patients were randomised to a 12-week home-based training (HT) programme or a 12-week centre-based training (CT) programme. In both groups, training was performed at 70-85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) for 45-60 min, 2-3 times per week. The HT group received three supervised training sessions, before commencing training with a heart rate monitor in their home environment. These patients received individual coaching by telephone weekly, based on training data uploaded on the Internet. The CT programme was performed under the direct supervision of a physical therapist. Exercise capacity and health-related quality of life were assessed at baseline and at 12 weeks.CT (n = 25) and HT (n = 25) both showed a significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (peak VO2) (10% and 14% respectively) and quality of life after 12 weeks of training, without significant between-group differences. The average training intensity of the HT group was 73.3 ± 3.5% of HRmax. Training adherence was similar between groups.This analysis shows that HT with telemonitoring guidance has similar short-term effects on exercise capacity and quality of life as CT in CR patients.
- Suicide risk management during clinical telepractice. [Journal Article]
- Int J Psychiatry Med 2014; 48(1):19-31.
The effective assessment and management of suicidal patients is an essential component of telehealth-based care. With this article, we describe how we have implemented procedures for the ongoing assessment and management of suicide risk in a clinical trial that compares in-office treatment to home-based treatment delivered via web-cam to U.S. military service members and veterans with depression. We describe our safety protocol and how it was adapted from current recommended best practices, published guidelines, and local requirements for managing patient safety during home-based telepractice. We conclude with discussion of other key safety issues associated with telepractice. The topics discussed are relevant to all mental health practitioners who are interested in clinical telepractice services.
- Management of hypertension in children and adolescents. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Clin Belg 2014 Oct 29.:2295333714Y0000000092.
Hypertension has been recognized as an important health issue in the pediatric population over the past years. This emphasizes the need for an organized and effective plan for diagnosis and management. This review provides information to guide physicians through a structured approach to (1) screen children for hypertension during routine visits; (2) use normative blood pressure tables for diagnosis and classification; (3) perform a clinical evaluation to identify the presence of risk factors, comorbidities and/or target organ damage; and (4) initiate an individualized plan of care that includes follow-up blood pressure measurement, therapeutic lifestyle changes and - if - necessary pharmacological therapies.
- Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Conserv Biol 2014 Oct 29.
Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities.
- Protein-Functionalized PLGA Nanoparticles of Lamotrigine for Neuropathic Pain Management. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- AAPS PharmSciTech 2014 Oct 30.
Lamotrigine (LTG), a sodium and calcium channel blocker, has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of neuropathic pain in multiple, randomized, controlled trials. However, its potential clinical applications in neuropathic pain are limited due to the risk of dose-dependent severe rashes associated with high dose and prompt dose escalation. Further, the poor pharmacokinetic profile due to non-selective distribution to organs other than brain reduces the efficacy of dosage regimen. Therefore, the aim of present investigation is to develop surface-engineered LTG nanoparticles (NPs) using transferrin and lactoferrin as ligand to deliver higher amount of drug to brain and improve the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic profile of drug with prolonged duration of action and reduced accumulation in non-target organs. The LTG NPs were prepared by nanoprecipitation and optimized by factorial design for high entrapment and optimized particle size. The optimized NPs were surface functionalized by conjugating with the lactoferrin (Lf) and transferrin (Tf) as ligands. The developed NPs were characterized for different physicochemical parameters and stability. The in vivo biodistribution showed preferential targeting to brain and reduced accumulation in non-target organs over a prolonged duration of time. Finally, partial sciatic nerve injury model was used to demonstrate the increased pharmacodynamic response as antinociceptive effect. Both biodistribution and pharmacodynamic study in mice confirmed that the approach used for LTG can help to increase clinical applications of LTG due to brain targeting and reduced side effects.
- Surgical approaches for cervical spine facet dislocations in adults. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Oct 30.:CD008129.
The choice of surgical approach for the management of subaxial cervical spine facet dislocations is a controversial subject amongst spine surgeons. Reasons for this include differences in the technical familiarity and experience of surgeons with the different surgical approaches, and variable interpretation of image studies regarding the existence of a traumatic intervertebral disc herniation and of the neurological status of the patient. Moreover, since the approaches are dissimilar, important variations are likely in neurological, radiographical and clinical outcomes.To compare the effects (benefits and harms) of the different surgical approaches used for treating adults with acute cervical spine facet dislocation.We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (9 May 2014), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2014 Issue 4), MEDLINE (1946 to April Week 5 2014), MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations (8 May 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2014 Week 18), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (9 May 2014), trial registries, conference proceedings and reference lists of articles to May 2014.We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared surgical approaches for the management of adults with acute cervical spine facet dislocations with and without spinal cord injury.Two review authors independently selected studies, assessed risk of bias and extracted data.We included one randomised and one quasi-randomised controlled trial involving a total of 94 participants and reporting results for a maximum of 84 participants. One trial included patients with spinal cord injuries and the other included patients without spinal cord injuries. Both trials compared anterior versus posterior surgical approaches. Both trials were at high risk of bias, including selection bias (one trial), performance bias (both trials) and attrition bias (one trial). Data were pooled for one outcome only: non-union. Reflecting also the imprecision of the results, the evidence was deemed to be of very low quality for all outcomes; which means that our level of uncertainty about the estimates is high.Neither trial found differences between the two approaches in neurological recovery or status, as shown in one study by small clinically insignificant differences in NASS (Northern American Spine Society) neurological scores (0 to 100: optimal score) at one year of follow-up: anterior mean score: 85.23 versus posterior mean score: 83.86; mean difference (MD) 1.37 favouring anterior approach, 95% confidence interval (CI) -9.76 to 12.50; 33 participants; 1 study). The same trial found no relevant between-approach differences at one year in patient-reported quality of life measured using the 36-item Short Form Survey physical (MD -0.08, 95% CI -7.26 to 7.10) and mental component scores (MD 2.88, 95% CI -3.32 to 9.08). Neither trial found evidence of significant differences in long-term pain, or non-union (2/38 versus 2/46; risk ratio (RR) 1.18, 95% CI 0.04 to 34.91). One trial found better sagittal and more 'normal' alignment after the anterior approach (MD -10.31 degrees favouring anterior approach, 95% CI -14.95 degrees to -5.67 degrees), while the other trial reported no significant differences in cervical alignment. There was insufficient evidence to indicate between-group differences in medical adverse events, rates of instrumentation failure and infection. One trial found that the several participants had voice and swallowing disorders after anterior approach surgery (11/20) versus none (0/22) in the posterior approach group: RR 25.19, 95% CI 1.58 to 401.58); all had recovered by three months.Very low quality evidence from two trials indicated little difference in long-term neurological status, pain or patient-reported quality of life between anterior and posterior surgical approaches to the management of individuals with subaxial cervical spine facet dislocations. Sagittal alignment may be better achieved with the anterior approach. There was insufficient evidence available to indicate between-group differences in medical adverse events, rates of instrumentation failure and infection. The disorders of the voice and swallowing that occurred exclusively in the anterior approach group all resolved by three months. We are very uncertain about this evidence and thus we cannot say whether one approach is better than the other. There was no evidence available for other approaches. Further higher quality multicentre randomised trials are warranted.
- [Complex febrile crises: should we change the way we act?]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rev Neurol 2014 Nov 16; 59(10):449-58.