Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
risk management [keywords]
- Delirium superimposed on dementia and mild cognitive impairment. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Postgrad Med 2014 Oct; 126(6):129-137.
Dementia is an illness that progressively affects cognition, emotion, and functional status. It can be complicated by delirium, an acute disturbance of consciousness and cognition that develops over a short course with fluctuating symptoms. Patients with dementia who experience delirium tend to have slower resolution of symptoms, more adverse events, and poorer outcomes. There are significant health care expenditures associated with delirium. Many health care providers fail to recognize and diagnose delirium. The confusion assessment method is a suggested tool for diagnosing delirium. Delirium is multifactorial, occurring in an individual who has a predisposing factor (dementia is the number 1 risk factor) and is exposed to further precipitating risk factors that are often preventable. The main focus of treatment and management of delirium should be on prevention, which can be achieved through assessing patients for predisposing and precipitating factors. If a patient does develop delirium, a reassessment of precipitating factors is the first step in treatment, and then nonpharmacologic or pharmacologic treatment can be considered. The use of antipsychotics or melatonin to treat delirium in dementia is considered off-label.
- Safety and efficacy of dulaglutide, a once weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist, for the management of type 2 diabetes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Postgrad Med 2014 Oct; 126(6):60-72.
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasingly common endocrine disorder that is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and tissue compartment abnormalities, including macrovascular and microvascular complications. More than 90% of patients with T2D will be diagnosed and treated in the primary care setting. One of the relatively recent additions to the increasing array of approved antidiabetic medications is the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist class. Mechanisms of action for glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists include: 1) stimulation of insulin secretion through β-cells, though only when glucose levels are elevated (hence, minimizing risk for hypoglycemia); 2) blunting of glucagon secretion; 3) increased satiety; and 4) decreased rate of release of gastric contents into the small intestine, thereby reducing glycemic load. Recent T2D treatment guidelines encourage individualization of therapy. Many patients still do not achieve optimal glycemic control. Therefore, other treatment options are important. Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed and MEDSCAPE to retrieve abstracts and articles pertinent to topics discussed in this review. Original research articles, reviews, and clinical trial manuscripts were identified based on relevance. Only English language articles were considered. Results In 3 phase 3 registration trials in patients with T2D, once-weekly dulaglutide demonstrated superior efficacy at the primary endpoint to metformin as monotherapy, to sitagliptin as add-on to metformin, and to exenatide twice daily as add-on to metformin and pioglitazone. The safety profile of dulaglutide in these trials is similar to currently available glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, characterized predominantly by gastrointestinal symptoms (ie, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea). Based on these results, once-weekly dulaglutide should be a relevant additional treatment option for the management of T2D.
- Health promoting Behaviors Among Adolescents: A Cross-sectional Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nurs Midwifery Stud 2014 Apr; 3(1):e14560.
Health maintenance and promotion are the fundamental prerequisites to community development. The best time for establishing healthy lifestyle habits is during adolescence.Due to importance of health promotion behaviors in adolescents, this study was conducted to investigate health-promoting behaviors and its associated factors among high school students in Rasht, Iran.A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 424 students during the first semester of the year 2012. We employed the multistage sampling design to recruit from private and public high schools in Rasht, Iran. The data collection instrument was a self-report questionnaire consisting of two parts. The first part of instrument was consisted of demographic questionnaire and the second part was adolescent health promotion scale (AHPS) questionnaire. AHPS questionnaire was consisted of six dimensions (nutrition, social support, health responsibility, life appreciation, physical activity, and stress management) to measure health promoting lifestyles. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 16 software employing ANOVA (analysis of variance) test, t-test, Mann-Whitney, and the Kruskal-Wallis.The score of total Adolescent Health Promotion Scale were 3.58 ± 0.52 (possible range was 1-5). The highest score was in life appreciation dimension (3.99 ± 0.068) and the lowest score was in health responsibility dimension. Moreover, Significant associations were found between the adolescent health promotion Scale with age (P < 0.001), gender (P < 0.003), school grade (P < 0.011), father's educational level (P < 0.045), mother's educational level (P < 0.021), and mother's occupation (P < 0.008).Female and older students are at higher risk of developing unhealthy lifestyle. Consequently, healthcare providers, health instructors, schoolteachers, and families must pay more attention to these students. Moreover, as most of lifelong healthy and unhealthy lifestyle habits are established during adolescence, developing effective health promotion and disease prevention strategies for adolescents seems crucial.
- Frequency and Predictors of Courses Repetition, Probation, and Delayed Graduation in Kashan Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nurs Midwifery Stud 2013 Dec; 2(4):89-96.
Course failing and delayed graduation are important concerns in educational systems. The reasons of these educational failures need to be clarified.This study was designed to determine the academic failure rate and its predictors in Nursing and Midwifery Students in Kashan University of Medical Sciences.In this cross-sectional study, the records of all the students graduated in Nursing and Midwifery faculty during 18 years (1986 - 2003) were evaluated (1174 graduates). The demographic variables and the educational situation were recorded. The frequency of course repetition, probation, and delayed graduation were determined and the data were analyzed using the chi-square and logistic regression tests.The frequency of course repetition, probation, and delayed graduation was reported to be 19.25%, 3.9% and 19.85%, respectively. Gaining Low grade in high school, transferring from other universities, having special quota, and transferring temporarily to other universities were mentioned as the risk factors of academic failure. The major had a significant relationship with academic failure. Day time students had more course failure and night time students stayed longer in the university.The individual characteristics, educational background and admission criteria had showed relation with academic failure. Vulnerable students should be identified and educational supports should be provided for these students.
- Effect of Self - Care Education on Quality of Life in Patients With Primary Hypertension: Comparing Lecture and Educational Package. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nurs Midwifery Stud 2013 Dec; 2(4):71-76.
Hypertension is a dangerous risk factor for public health. It profoundly affects the patients' quality of life. However, there is lack of agreement on the best method for self-care management in patients with hypertension.This study was conducted to compare the effect of lecture and educational pamphlets on quality of life (QOL) in patients with primary hypertension.A quasi-experimental study was performed on 90 patients with chronic primary hypertension referred to two outpatient clinics in Kashan city. Patients were randomly divided into three groups including lecture group, educational package group, and control group. The participants' quality of life was measured using the SF-36 questionnaire at the beginning of the study, and two months later. Data was analyzed using ANOVA and Chi-Square tests.No significant differences were observed between the three groups for demographics characteristics and QOL before the intervention except for marital status. Mean scores of QOL dimensions of the intervention groups were increased at the end of the study, except for the dimension of bodily pain. Tukey post-Hoc test showed that except for general health, the two intervention groups were not significantly different in other dimensions, and significant differences were observed between the control group and the two intervention groups (P < 0.05). At start and the end of the study, the mean differences in the general health dimension in three groups were 2.25 ± 0.1, 0.07 ± 0.01, and -1.70 ± 0.01 respectively. There were significant differences among groups (P = 0.04).Lecture and educational package can both improve some dimensions of the QOL in patients with hypertension. However, as pamphlets are cheap and easy to use, this method may be used as an effective method for self-care education in health care settings in Iran, where the system is faced with nursing shortage.
- Transient post-operative atrial fibrillation predicts short and long term adverse events following CABG. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cardiovasc Diagn Ther 2014 Oct; 4(5):365-372.
To assess the relationship between the development of transient post-operative atrial fibrillation (TPOAF) following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery and risk of long-term mortality.Atrial fibrillation (AF) following CABG is common and associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the perioperative period. However the impact of TPOAF and its management on long-term morbidity and mortality in patients undergoing first time, isolated CABG surgery remains unclear.The Cleveland Clinic Cardiovascular Information Registry was used to identify 5,205 consecutive patients who underwent CABG between January 1993 and December 2005. Patients with TPOAF (n=1,490) were compared to those without post-operative AF (n=3,645) for the endpoints of death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke at 1 year.Overall rates of 1-year mortality, MI and stroke were 3.7%, 0.8%, and 2.6%, respectively. Patients with TPOAF had an increased risk of death at 1 year as compared to patients without POAF (6.4% vs. 2.7%; P<0.001), but there was not an increased risk of stroke or MI. Multivariate analysis identified TPOAF as an independent predictor of death at 1 year (HR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.42-2.53; P<0.001). After propensity matching, patients who developed TPOAF experienced a significantly increased risk of death compared with those without TPOAF (HR 1.96, 95% CI, 1.34-2.86; P<0.001).In patients undergoing first time, isolated CABG, the presence of TPOAF identifies a subgroup of patients at increased risk for all-cause mortality. Future prospective studies to determine potential beneficial interventions in this large population are warranted.
- Collaborative interaction points in post-discharge stroke care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Integr Care 2014 10.:e032.
Lack of appropriate electronic tools for supporting patient involvement and collaboration with care professionals is a problem in health care.Care and rehabilitation processes of post-discharge stroke patients were analysed using the concept of interaction points where patients, next-of-kin and care professionals interact and exchange information. Thirteen interviews with care professionals and five non-participatory observations were performed. Data were analysed using content analysis and modelling of interaction points in the patient journey.Patient participation and interaction patterns vary; patients requiring home care have a passive role and next-of-kin or nurses become advocates by coordinating care on behalf of the patient, whereas patients who are able to visit primary care coordinate their own care by initiating interactions. Important categories of participation include the following: participation in care planning, in monitoring risk factors and in rehabilitation planning.Designing a supportive electronic tool requires understanding the interactions and patients' activity levels at each interaction point. A tool for patients with higher activity level should support them to coordinate their own care, whereas for a less-active patient group, the tool could focus on supporting next-of-kin and care professionals in motivating, guiding and including passive patients in their care and rehabilitation processes.
- Bronchiolitis: Recommendations for diagnosis, monitoring and management of children one to 24 months of age. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Paediatr Child Health 2014 Nov; 19(9):485-498.
Bronchiolitis is the most common reason for admission to hospital in the first year of life. There is tremendous variation in the clinical management of this condition across Canada and around the world, including significant use of unnecessary tests and ineffective therapies. This statement pertains to generally healthy children ≤2 years of age with bronchiolitis. The diagnosis of bronchiolitis is based primarily on the history of illness and physical examination findings. Laboratory investigations are generally unhelpful. Bronchiolitis is a self-limiting disease, usually managed with supportive care at home. Groups at high risk for severe disease are described and guidelines for admission to hospital are presented. Evidence for the efficacy of various therapies is discussed and recommendations are made for management. Monitoring requirements and discharge readiness from hospital are also discussed.
- Addition of antileukotriene agents to inhaled corticosteroids in children with persistent asthma. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Paediatr Child Health 2014 Nov; 19(9):473-474.
For the current issue of the Journal, we asked Drs Jimmy Chong and Bhupendrasinh Chauhan to comment on and put into context the Cochrane Review on the efficacy and safety of adding antileukotriene agents (LTRAs) to low-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in children with persistent asthma (1).In the treatment of children with mild persistent asthma, low-dose ICS are recommended as the preferred monotherapy (referred to as step 2 of therapy). In children with inadequate asthma control on low doses of ICS (step 2), asthma management guidelines recommend adding an LTRA to existing ICS as one of three therapeutic options to intensify therapy (step 3).Search strategy: Trials were identified from the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials, which is derived from systematic searches of bibliographical databases, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED and CINAHL, and a manual search of respiratory journals and meeting abstracts, as well as the web-site www.clinicaltrials.gov. The search was conducted until January 2013. Selection criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that involved children and adolescents one to 18 years of age, with asthma, who remained symptomatic despite the use of a stable maintenance dose of ICS, and in whom LTRAs were added to ICS and compared with the same, an increased or a tapering dose of ICS for at least four weeks were considered for inclusion.Sandard methods outlined by The Cochrane Collaboration were used.Five paediatric (parallel group or cross-over) trials met the inclusion criteria. Two (40%) trials were considered to be at a low risk for bias. Four published trials, representing 559 children (≥6 years of age) and adolescents with mild-to-moderate asthma, contributed data to the review. No trial enrolled preschool-age children. All trials used montelukast as the LTRA, administered for between four and 16 weeks. Three trials evaluated the combination of LTRAs and ICS compared with the same dose of ICS alone (step 3 versus step 2). No statistically significant group difference was observed in the only trial reporting participants with exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroids over four weeks (n=268 participants; RR 0.80 [95% CI 0.34 to 1.91]). There was also no statistically significant difference in percent change in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) in this trial, with a mean difference (MD) of 1.3 (95% CI -0.09 to 2.69); however, a significant group difference was observed in the morning and evening peak expiratory flow rates: n=218 participants; MD 9.70 L/min (95% CI 1.27 L/min to 18.13 L/min) and MD 10.70 L/min (95% CI 2.41 L/min to 18.99 L/min), respectively. One trial compared the combination of LTRAs and ICS with a higher dose of ICS (step 3 versus step 3). No significant group difference was observed in this trial for participants with exacerbations requiring rescue oral corticosteroids over a 16-week period (n=182 participants; RR 0.82 [95% CI 0.54 to 1.25]), nor was there any significant difference in exacerbations requiring hospitalization. There was no statistically significant group difference in withdrawals overall or because of any cause with either protocol. No trial explored the impact of adding LTRAs as a means to taper the dose of ICS.The addition of LTRAs to ICS is not associated with a statistically significant reduction in the need for rescue oral corticosteroids or hospital admission compared with the same or an increased dose of ICS in children and adolescents with mild to moderate asthma. Although LTRAs have been licensed for use in children for >10 years, the paucity of paediatric trials, the absence of data regarding preschool-age children and the variability in the reporting of relevant clinical outcomes considerably limit firm conclusions. At present, there is no firm evidence to support the efficacy and safety of LTRAs as add-on therapy to ICS as a step 3 option in the therapeutic arsenal for children with uncontrolled asthma symptoms on low-dose ICS. The full text of the Cochrane Review is available in The Cochrane Library (1).
- Engineering practice variation through provider agreement: a cluster-randomized feasibility trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ther Clin Risk Manag 2014.:905-912.
Minimal-risk randomized trials that can be embedded in practice could facilitate learning health-care systems. A cluster-randomized design was proposed to compare treatment strategies by assigning clusters (eg, providers) to "favor" a particular drug, with providers retaining autonomy for specific patients. Patient informed consent might be waived, broadening inclusion. However, it is not known if providers will adhere to the assignment or whether institutional review boards will waive consent. We evaluated the feasibility of this trial design.Agreeable providers were randomized to "favor" either hydrochlorothiazide or chlorthalidone when starting patients on thiazide-type therapy for hypertension. The assignment applied when the provider had already decided to start a thiazide, and providers could deviate from the strategy as needed. Prescriptions were aggregated to produce a provider strategy-adherence rate.All four institutional review boards waived documentation of patient consent. Providers (n=18) followed their assigned strategy for most of their new thiazide prescriptions (n=138 patients). In the "favor hydrochlorothiazide" group, there was 99% adherence to that strategy. In the "favor chlorthalidone" group, chlorthalidone comprised 77% of new thiazide starts, up from 1% in the pre-study period. When the assigned strategy was followed, dosing in the recommended range was 48% for hydrochlorothiazide (25-50 mg/day) and 100% for chlorthalidone (12.5-25.0 mg/day). Providers were motivated to participate by a desire to contribute to a comparative effectiveness study. A study promotional mug, provider information letter, and interactions with the site investigator were identified as most helpful in reminding providers of their study drug strategy.Providers prescribed according to an assigned drug-choice strategy most of the time for the purpose of a comparative effectiveness study. This simple design could facilitate research participation and behavior change in non-research clinicians. Waiver of patient consent can broaden the representation of patients, providers, and settings.