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risk management [keywords]
- Lipid Screening in Children and Adolescents in Community Practice: 2007 to 2010. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 2014 Aug 26.
Integrated guidelines on cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children issued in 2011 newly recommended universal screening for dyslipidemia in children at 9 to 11 years and 17 to 21 years.We determined the frequency and results of lipid testing in 301 080 children and adolescents aged 3 to 19 enrolled in 3 large US health systems in 2007 to 2010 before the 2011 guidelines were issued. Overall, 9.8% of the study population was tested for lipids. The proportion tested varied by body mass index percentile (5.9% of normal weight, 10.8% of overweight, and 26.9% of obese children) and age (8.9% of 9- to 11-year olds and 24.3% of 17- to 19-year olds). In normal weight individuals, 2.8% of 9- to 11-year olds and 22.0% of 17- to 19-year olds were tested. In multivariable models, age and body mass index category remained strongly associated with lipid testing. Sex, race, ethnicity, and blood pressure were weakly associated with testing. Abnormal lipid levels were found in 8.6% for total cholesterol, 22.5% for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 12.0% for non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, 8.0% for low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and 21% for triglycerides (age, 10-19 years). There was a strong and graded association of abnormal lipid levels with body mass index, particularly for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides (2- to 6-fold higher odds ratio in obese when compared with that in normal weight children).Lipid screening was uncommon in 9- to 11-year olds and was performed in a minority of 17- to 19-year olds during 2007 to 2010. These data serve as a benchmark for assessing change in practice patterns after the new recommendations for pediatric lipid screening and management.
- Behavioral Health Leadership: New Directions in Occupational Mental Health. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Psychiatry Rep 2014 Oct; 16(10):484.
The impact of stress on mental health in high-risk occupations may be mitigated by organizational factors such as leadership. Studies have documented the impact of general leadership skills on employee performance and mental health. Other researchers have begun examining specific leadership domains that address relevant organizational outcomes, such as safety climate leadership. One emerging approach focuses on domain-specific leadership behaviors that may moderate the impact of combat deployment on mental health. In a recent study, US soldiers deployed to Afghanistan rated leaders on behaviors promoting management of combat operational stress. When soldiers rated their leaders high on these behaviors, soldiers also reported better mental health and feeling more comfortable with the idea of seeking mental health treatment. These associations held even after controlling for overall leadership ratings. Operational stress leader behaviors also moderated the relationship between combat exposure and soldier health. Domain-specific leadership offers an important step in identifying measures to moderate the impact of high-risk occupations on employee health.
- Vaccinating the inflammatory bowel disease patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014 Aug 27.:1-12.
Current therapeutic options for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) include several agents that can alter their immune response to infections. Effective vaccines exist and offer protection against a number of infectious diseases. However, recent data has shown that IBD patients are inadequately vaccinated and, as a result, at risk to develop certain preventable infections. Furthermore, gastroenterologists' knowledge regarding the appropriate immunizations to administer to their IBD patients is suboptimal. This review article focuses on the current immunization schedule for the IBD patient and stresses the important role of the gastroenterologist as an active participant in the management of vaccination in their IBD patients.
- Clinical Course and Images of Four Familial Cases of Allan-Herndon-Dudley Syndrome With a Novel Monocarboxylate Transporter 8 Gene Mutation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Neurol 2014 Sep; 51(3):414-416.
Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, an X-linked condition characterized by severe intellectual disability, dysarthria, athetoid movements, muscle hypoplasia, and spastic paraplegia, is associated with defects in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8). The long-term prognosis of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome remains uncertain.We describe the clinical features and course of four adults in a family with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome with athetoid type cerebral palsy.We identified an MCT8 gene mutation in this family. Two of the four affected family members died at 32 and 24 years of age.Individuals with Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome are at increased risk for recurrent infection, such as aspiration pneumonia. These individuals require careful management with consideration for this increased risk of recurrent infection.
- Towards an effective management of chronic lymphedema. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Dermatol 2014 September - October; 32(5):685-691.
Lymph conduit perturbation causes lymph stasis and the local accumulation of interstitial fluid. Lymphedema, a chronic and debilitating disorder, remains incurable despite the advances in the description of its pathomechanism and the improvement of conservative and nonsurgical treatments. The gold standard of lymphedema treatment is multicomponent decongestive physiotherapy. Manual lymph drainage, compression bandaging, skin care, and exercises constitute the therapeutic regimen that could be adjusted with intermittent pneumatic compression. Prophylaxis could give a major benefit to risk group patients; however, the assessment of preventive approaches postulates further clinical trials. Surgery represents an emerging stakeholder in lymphedema care, although, the partnership with adjunctive nonsurgical therapy is still alive. Liposuction proved to be one of the most promising technique with the clearance of the lymph stasis-related adipose tissue. Regeneration of lymphatic tunnels with lymphovenous anastomoses or the transplantation of lymph vessels or small veins is based on long-term experience. The success of lymph node transplantation is still under evaluation, but this novel technique has produced notable improvements.
- Where now in the management of renal artery stenosis? Implications of the ASTRAL and CORAL trials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2014 Aug 23.
The neutral findings of Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Artery Lesions and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Renal Artery Lesions trials have shown that unselected revascularization does not improve outcomes in atherosclerotic renovascular disease (ARVD). This review highlights recent translational, clinical and epidemiological studies and suggests directions for future research.Imaging studies show that the degree of renal artery stenosis is not the most important determinant of outcome and response to therapies in ARVD. Porcine models have established a better understanding of the microvascular and inflammatory changes that occur in ARVD. Biomarkers of inflammation and cardiovascular dysfunction may be informative but do not yet help assess prognosis or response to treatment. Stem cell therapies show promise in animal models but have yet to translate into clinical practice. Analysis of patient subgroups with high-risk presentations of ARVD has provided new insights into treatment response and may guide future studies.It is time to reframe thinking and research in ARVD. We need better ways to identify patients likely to benefit from revascularization and to improve response to treatment in these individuals. Many preclinical studies show promise, but these are often small scale and difficult to replicate. Future work should focus on establishing an international disease registry as a foundation for collaborative research.
- Contemporary Use of Initial Active Surveillance Among Men in Michigan with Low-risk Prostate Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Urol 2014 Aug 23.
Active surveillance (AS) has been proposed as an effective strategy to reduce overtreatment among men with lower risk prostate cancers. However, historical rates of initial surveillance are low (4-20%), and little is known about its application among community-based urology practices.To describe contemporary utilization of AS among a population-based sample of men with low-risk prostate cancer.We performed a prospective cohort study of men with low-risk prostate cancer managed by urologists participating in the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC).The principal outcome was receipt of AS as initial management for low-risk prostate cancer including the frequency of follow-up prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, prostate biopsy, and local therapy. We examined variation in the use of surveillance according to patient characteristics and across MUSIC practices. Finally, we used claims data to validate treatment classification in the MUSIC registry.We identified 682 low-risk patients from 17 MUSIC practices. Overall, 49% of men underwent initial AS. Use of initial surveillance varied widely across practices (27-80%; p=0.005), even after accounting for differences in patient characteristics. Among men undergoing initial surveillance with at least 12 mo of follow-up, PSA testing was common (85%), whereas repeat biopsy was performed in only one-third of patients. There was excellent agreement between treatment assignments in the MUSIC registry and claims data (κ=0.93). Limitations include unknown treatment for 8% of men with low-risk cancer.Half of men in Michigan with low-risk prostate cancer receive initial AS. Because this proportion is much higher than reported previously, our findings suggest growing acceptance of this strategy for reducing overtreatment.We examined the use of initial active surveillance for the management of men with low-risk prostate cancer across the state of Michigan. We found that initial surveillance is used much more commonly than previously reported, but the likelihood of a patient being placed on surveillance depends strongly on where he is treated.
- Nurse-led management of contraceptive services. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nurs Stand 2014 Jul 1; 28(43):45-49.
This article discusses the role of the practice nurse (PN) in the provision of health assessment for contraceptive choices. PNs who have an extended role as an independent nurse prescriber must demonstrate the principles of safe prescribing practice, with appropriate and informed assessment of the patient's needs and risk within the limited time of a general practice appointment. With continued professional development, PNs are well placed to provide comprehensive, independent nurse-led contraceptive services.
- Management of proteinuria in the transplanted patient. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pediatr Nephrol 2014 Aug 27.
Proteinuria is a relatively frequent complication in children after renal transplantation (40-80 %). It is usually mild and non-nephrotic in nature and predominantly tubular in origin. The major causes of post-transplant proteinuria are recurrence of primary glomerulonephritis [mostly focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS)], rejection (acute and chronic), mTOR inhibitors or hypertension. Proteinuria is a risk factor for graft loss and patient death in adults, and even a mild proteinuria (0.1-0.2 g/day) is associated with impaired graft and patient survival. In children, proteinuria seems to be associated with graft but not patient survival. Proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio) should be assessed regularly in all children. In children with prior chronic kidney disease due to idiopathic FSGS, proteinuria should be assessed daily during the first month after transplantation to enable early diagnosis of recurrence. The cause of proteinuria should be identified, and graft biopsy should be considered in children with unexplained proteinuria, especially with new onset proteinuria or deterioration of previously mild proteinuria. Treatment must be primarily targeted at the cause of proteinuria, and in normotensive children symptomatic antiproteinuric therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor antagonists should also be initiated. Other antihypertensive drugs should be used to achieve target blood pressure of <75th percentile. Target proteinuria should be <20 mg/mmol creatinine.
- Epstein-Barr virus lymphoproliferative disease after hematopoietic stem cell transplant. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Curr Opin Hematol 2014 Aug 23.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation can cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Delays in reconstitution of EBV-specific T lymphocyte activity can lead to life-threatening EBV lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-PTLD). This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of pathophysiology, risk factors, diagnosis, and management of EBV viremia and PTLD.During the past decade, early detection strategies, such as serial measurement of EBV-DNA load, have helped identify high-risk patients and diagnose early lymphoproliferation. The most significant advances have come in the form of innovative treatment options, including manipulation of the balance between outgrowing EBV-infected B cells and the EBV cytotoxic T lymphocyte response, and targeting infected B cells with monoclonal antibodies, chemotherapy, unmanipulated donor lymphocytes, and donor or more recently third-party EBV cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Defining criteria for preemptive therapy remains a challenge.EBV reactivation is a significant complication after stem cell transplant. Continued improvements in risk stratification and treatment options are required to improve the morbidity and mortality caused by EBV-associated diseases. Current approaches use rituximab to deplete B cells or adoptive transfer of EBV cytotoxic T lymphocyte to reconstitute immunity. The availability of rapid EBV-specific T cell products offers the possibility of improved outcomes.