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risk management [keywords]
- Farmers' knowledge, practices and injuries associated with pesticide exposure in rural farming villages in Tanzania. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Public Health 2014 Apr 23; 14(1):389.
Pesticides in Tanzania are extensively used for pest control in agriculture. Their usage and unsafe handling practices may potentially result in high farmer exposures and adverse health effects.The aim of this study was to describe farmers' pesticide exposure profile, knowledge about pesticide hazards, experience of previous poisoning, hazardous practices that may lead to Acute Pesticide Poisoning (APP) and the extent to which APP is reported.The study involved 121 head- of-household respondents from Arumeru district in Arusha region. Data collection involved administration of a standardised questionnaire to farmers and documentation of storage practices. Unsafe pesticide handling practices were assessed through observation of pesticide storage, conditions of personal protective equipment (PPE) and through self-reports of pesticide disposal and equipment calibration.Past lifetime pesticide poisoning was reported by 93% of farmers. The agents reported as responsible for poisoning were Organophosphates (42%) and WHO Class II agents (77.6%).Storage of pesticides in the home was reported by 79% of farmers. Respondents with higher education levels were significantly less likely to store pesticides in their home (PRR High/Low = 0.3; 95%CI = 0.1-0.7) and more likely to practice calibration of spray equipment (PRR High/Low = 1.2; 95%CI = 1.03-1.4). However, knowledge of routes of exposure was not associated with safety practices particularly for disposal, equipment wash area, storage and use of PPE . The majority of farmers experiencing APP in the past (79%) did not attend hospital and of the 23 farmers who did so in the preceding year, records could be traced for only 22% of these cases.The study found a high potential for pesticide exposure in the selected community in rural Tanzania, a high frequency of self-reported APP and poor recording in hospital records. Farmers' knowledge levels appeared to be unrelated to their risk. Rather than simply focusing on knowledge-based strategies, comprehensive interventions are needed to reduce both exposure and health risks, including training, improvements in labeling, measures to reduce cost barriers to the adoption of safe behaviours, , promotion of control measures other than PPE and support for Integrated Pest Management (IPM).
- Asthma: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases. [Journal Article]
- Ann Am Thorac Soc 2014 Apr.:S139-45.
Asthma is a common disease with enormous public health costs, and its primary prevention is an ambitious and important goal. Understanding of how host and environmental factors interact to cause asthma is incomplete, but persistent questions about mechanisms should not stop clinical research efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of childhood asthma. Achieving the goal of primary prevention of asthma will involve integrated and parallel sets of research activities in which mechanism-oriented studies of asthma inception proceed alongside clinical intervention studies to test biologically plausible prevention ideas. For example, continued research is needed, particularly in young children, to uncover biomarkers that identify asthma risk and provide potential targets of intervention, and to improve understanding of the role of microbial factors in asthma risk and disease initiation. In terms of clinical trials that could be initiated now or in the near future, we recommend three interventions for testing: (1) preventing asthma through prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus infections of the airway; (2) immune modulation, using prebiotics, probiotics, and bacterial lysates; and (3) prevention of allergen sensitization and allergic inflammation, using anti-IgE. These interventions should be tested while other, more universal prevention measures that may promote lung health are also investigated. These potential universal lung health measures include prevention of preterm delivery; reduced exposure of the fetus and young infant to environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke; prevention of maternal and child obesity; and management of psychosocial stress.
- Driving simulators for occupational therapy screening, assessment, and intervention. [Journal Article]
- Occup Ther Health Care 2014 Apr; 28(2):154-62.
ABSTRACTSimulation technology provides safe, objective, and repeatable performance measures pertaining to operational (e.g., avoiding a collision) or tactical (e.g., lane maintenance) driver behaviors. Many occupational therapy researchers and others are using driving simulators to test a variety of applications across diverse populations. A growing body of literature provides support for associations between simulated driving and actual on-road driving. One limitation of simulator technology is the occurrence of simulator sickness, but management strategies exist to curtail or mitigate its onset. Based on the literature review and a consensus process, five consensus statements are presented to support the use of driving simulation technology among occupational therapy practitioners. The evidence suggests that by using driving simulators occupational therapy practitioners may detect underlying impairments in driving performance, identify driving errors in at-risk drivers; differentiate between driving performance of impaired and healthy controls groups; show driving errors with absolute and relative validity compared to on-road studies; and mitigate the onset of simulator sickness. Much progress has been made among occupational therapy researchers and practitioners in the use of driving simulation technology; however, empirical support is needed to further justify the use of driving simulators in clinical practice settings as a valid, reliable, clinical useful, and cost effective tool for driving assessment and intervention.
- Cardiovascular disease in human immunodeficiency virus. [Journal Article]
- Intern Med J 2014 Apr; 44(4):315-24.
With widespread access to high-quality medical care as in Australia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is now considered a chronic, treatable condition, with a good life expectancy. The use of combined highly active antiretroviral therapy has enabled effective suppression of the virus, but has also been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. Over representation of traditional cardiac risk factors, such as hyperlipidaemia and diabetes, as well as an increased incidence of ischaemic and non-ischaemic heart disease is now considered a major concern of treatment with antiretroviral therapy. Therefore, a contemporary management strategy for patients with HIV must include active prevention and treatment of cardiovascular risk. This review will outline the complex interplay between HIV infection, antiretroviral drug regimens and accelerated cardiovascular disease, with a particular focus on screening, prevention and treatment options in a contemporary Australian HIV population.
- [The place of JAK2 inhibitors in the treatment of myelofibrosis. An amendment to the recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of Ph negative myeloproliferations of the Czech group for Ph- myeloproliferative disorders (CZEMP)]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vnitr Lek 2014 Feb; 60(2):158-63.
Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) belongs to Ph- myeloproliferative diseases. The only curative treatment is hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Conservative treatment options comprise supportive care, especially administration of red blood cell and platelet transfusions, and medication. Hydroxyurea, interferon α, anagrelide, corticosteroids, androgens, or inhibitors of angiogenesis (thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide) may be used for treatment of PMF, depending on the clinical stage and disease symptoms present. Also splenectomy or radiotherapy of enlarged spleen have palliative potential. JAK2 kinase inhibitors represent a novel class of drugs with a very dynamic development. Ruxolitinib, an oral selective inhibitor of JAK1 and JAK2 kinases, has shown high efficacy in patients with high-risk PMF (or with myelofibrosis following polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia) to ameliorate disease symptoms and to reduce splenomegaly in randomized trials COMFORT-I and COMFORT-II. Long-term monitoring of the enrolled patients demonstated prolongation of overall survival. The drug is well-tolerated, the most common side effects of treatment with ruxolitinib being deepening of thrombocytopenia and temporary worsening of anemia. The current review deals with the place of JAK2 inhibitors (and the only drug already approved for clinical use - ruxolitinib) in the management of PMF, as an addendum to the Summary of recommendations for the diagnosis and therapy of BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferations of the Czech Hematological Societys CZEMP. Key words: JAK2 inhibitors - ruxolitinib - Ph negative myeloproliferative diseases - myeloproliferative diseases/ myeloproliferative neoplasia - primary myelofibrosis - treatment recommendations.
- Functional polymorphisms in NPAS2 gene are associated with overall survival in TACE-treated hepatocellular carcinoma patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cancer Sci 2014 Apr 23.
The functional abnormality of circadian regulation genes is involved in the development and progression of HCC. However, the association between functional SNPs in circadian gene NPAS2 and the overall survival of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients treated with transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) has never been investigated. Six functional SNPs in NPAS2 gene were genotyped using the Sequenom iPLEX genotyping system in a cohort of 448 unresectable Chinese HCC patients treated with TACE. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier curve were used for the prognosis analysis. We found that two SNPs rs1053096 and rs2305160 in the NPAS2 gene exhibited significant associations with overall death risk in HCC patients in the recessive model (HR = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.13-1.94; P = 0.004) and in dominant model (HR =1.63; 95% CI, 1.29-2.07; P < 0.001). Moreover, we observed a cumulative effect of these two SNPs on HCC overall survival, indicating a significant trend of increasing death risk with increasing number of unfavorable genotypes (P for trend < 0.001). Compared with the patients without any unfavorable genotypes, the HRs for patients with 1 and 2 unfavorable genotypes were 1.41 (95% CI, 1.10-1.82; P = 0.007) and 2.09 (95% CI, 1.46-2.97, P < 0.001), respectively. The haplotype and diplotype analyses further characterized the association between NPAS2 genotype and survival of HCC patients. Our results for the first time suggest that NPAS2 gene polymorphisms may serve as an independent prognostic marker for HCC patients treated with TACE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- [Association of leptin with obesity and hypertension in an ethnic Kyrgyz group]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ter Arkh 2014; 86(1):49-53.
To study an association of the level of leptin, obesity, and hypertension in a group of ethnic Kyrgyz.Three hundred and twenty-two Kyrgyz people (145 men and 177 women) who were aged above 30 years and resided in the Kyrgyz Republic were examined. They underwent physical examination involving the collection of complaints and medical history data, objective examination, and anthropometric (height, weight, waist and hip circumference (WC and HC), body mass index (BMI)) and blood pressure (BP) measurements. The persons filled out the Finnish Diabetes Risk Assessment Form including data on vegetable consumption (daily or every other day) and exercise (more or less than 30 min per day). Fasting plasma glucose and serum leptin levels were determined.All the study participants were allocated to 4 groups according the quartile of leptin levels: < 2.2, 2.2-4.2, 4.3-6.34, and > 6.34 ng/ml for men and < 8.05, 8.05-13.4; 13.5-19.09, and > 19.09 ng/ml for women. The persons in the highest leptin quartile were found to have higher BMI, WC, systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP), and blood glucose levels than those in the lowest quartile. Elevated leptin levels were associated with the higher risk of hypertension. Leptin levels correlated with BMI (r = 0.719; p < 0.001 for men and r = 0.74; p < 0.001 for women) and WC (r = 0.684; p < 0.001 for men; and r = 0.649; p < 0.001 for women). There was also a correlation of leptin levels with SBP (r = 0.355; p < 0.001 and r = 0.277; p < 0.001) and DBP (r = 0.426; p < 0.001 and r = 0.228; p < 0.01) in men and women, respectively.Leptin levels were associated with obesity and hypertension in the group of ethnic Kyrgyz people.
- Early stage management of ovarian endometrioma to prevent infertility. [Journal Article]
- Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2013; 5(4):309-14.
There are now convincing data showing that cystectomy of the endometrioma is not only no cure of infertility, but may harm follicle reserve. The question arises why is cystectomy for an endometrioma, in contrast with other -benign cysts, a risk for follicle reserve and how can ovarian damage be prevented. Surgical specimens of ovaries with endometrioma in situ show in the majority of cases manifestly a combined -extra-ovarian and intra-ovarian pathology with the cortex invaginated to form a pseudocyst. The extra-ovarian pathology includes endometrial lining of the cortex, bleeding and adhesions with surrounding tissues. The intra-ovarian pathology is characterized by microscopic stromal implants, fibrosis, smooth muscle metaplasia and -arteriosclerosis, all affecting follicle reserve in the endometrioma bed. Clinically, ovarioscopy allows differential diagnosis (e.g. luteal cyst) and evaluation of the degree of fibrosis and darkening of the cortical wall. Transvaginal colour Doppler sonography can demonstrate the presence and extent of devascularisation in the endometrioma bed. Given this reality, surgery should be based on evaluation of the pathology of the endometrioma bed, but not on the mere size of the chocolate cyst. The main clinical problem is indeed the delayed diagnosis and consequently advanced irreversible cortical damage. Therefore, the sooner endometriomas are diagnosed, the better, because it increases the chances that vascularisation of the endometrioma bed is preserved. Finally, ablation, but not excision is the treatment of choice. The diagnosis of endometriosis is traditionally based on laparoscopy, but in a sexually active adolescent transvaginal endoscopy can be proposed.
- Pelvic Girdle Pain during or after Pregnancy: a review of recent evidence and a clinical care path proposal. [REVIEW]
- Facts Views Vis Obgyn 2013; 5(1):33-43.
Pelvic girdle pain (PGP) is a common condition during or after pregnancy with pain and disability as most important symptoms. These symptoms have a wide range of clinical presentation. Most doctors perceive pregnancy related pelvic girdle pain (PPGP) as 'physiologic' or 'expected during pregnancy', where no treatment is needed. As such women with PPGP mostly experience little recognition. However, many scientific literature describes PPGP as being severe with considerable levels of pain and disability and socio-economic consequences in about 20% of the cases.We aimed to (1) inform the gynecologist/obstetrician about the etiology, diagnosis, risk factors, and treatment options of PPGP and (2) to make a proposition for an adequate clinical care path.A systematic search of electronic databases and a check of reference lists for recent researches about the diagnosis, etiology, risk factors and treatment of PPGP.Adequate treatment is based on classification in subgroups according to the different etiologic factors. The various diagnostic tests can help to make a differentiation in the several pelvic girdle pain syndromes and possibly reveal the underlying biomechanical problem. This classification can guide appropriate multidimensional and multidisciplinary management. A proposal for a clinical care path starts with recognition of gynecologist and midwife for this disorder. Both care takers can make a preliminary diagnosis of PPGP and should refer to a physiatrist, who can make a definite diagnosis. Together with a physiotherapist, the latter can determine an individual tailored exercise program based on the influencing bio-psycho-social factors.
- Surgical interventions for the early management of Bell's palsy. [Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Review]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013.:CD007468.
Bell's palsy is an acute paralysis of one side of the face of unknown aetiology. Bell's palsy should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of all other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management option. This is an update of a review first published in 2011.To assess the effects of surgery in the management of Bell's palsy.On 29 October 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012). We also handsearched selected conference abstracts for the original version of the review.We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any surgical intervention for Bell's palsy. We compared surgical interventions to no treatment, sham treatment, other surgical treatments or medical treatment.Two review authors independently assessed whether trials identified from the searches were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data.Two trials with a total of 69 participants met the inclusion criteria. The first study considered the treatment of 403 people but only included 44 participants in the surgical trial, who were randomised into surgical and non-surgical groups. However, the report did not provide information on the method of randomisation. The second study randomly allocated 25 participants into surgical or control groups using statistical charts. There was no attempt in either study to conceal allocation. Neither participants nor outcome assessors were blind to the interventions, in either study. The first study lost seven participants to follow-up and there were no losses to follow-up in the second study.Surgeons in both studies decompressed the nerves of all the surgical group participants using a retroauricular approach. The primary outcome was recovery of facial palsy at 12 months. The first study showed that the operated group and the non-operated group (who received oral prednisolone) had comparable facial nerve recovery at nine months. This study did not statistically compare the groups but the scores and size of the groups suggested that statistically significant differences are unlikely. The second study reported no statistically significant differences between the operated and control (no treatment) groups. One operated participant in the first study had 20 dB sensorineural hearing loss and persistent vertigo. We identified no new studies when we updated the searches in October 2012.There is only very low quality evidence from randomised controlled trials and this is insufficient to decide whether surgical intervention is beneficial or harmful in the management of Bell's palsy.Further research into the role of surgical intervention is unlikely to be performed because spontaneous recovery occurs in most cases.