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risk management [keywords]
- Pulmonary hypertension and its management in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anaesthesia 2014 Sep 29.
Pulmonary hypertension is a complex disorder of the pulmonary vasculature that leads to increased peri-operative morbidity and mortality. Non-cardiac surgery constitutes a significant risk in patients with pulmonary hypertension. The management of right ventricular failure is inherently challenging and fraught with life-threatening consequences. A thorough understanding of the pathophysiology, the severity of the disease and its treatment modalities is required to deliver optimal peri-operative care. This review provides an evidence-based overview of the definition, classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary hypertension and focuses on the peri-operative management and treatment of pulmonary hypertensive crises in a non-cardiac setting.
- Work-up and management of lone atrial fibrillation: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association Survey. [Journal Article]
- Europace 2014 Oct; 16(10):1521-3.
The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to explore the work-up and management of lone atrial fibrillation (AF) among the European centres. Thirty-two European centres, all members of the EHRA electrophysiology (EP) research network, responded to this survey and completed the list of questions. The prevalence of lone AF has been reported to be ≤10% by 19 (60%) of the participating centres. The presence of isolated left atrial enlargement and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction represent heart disease according to 50 and 84% of the centres, respectively, and exclude the diagnosis of lone AF. Fifty-nine per cent of responders do not routinely consider genetic testing in lone AF patients. The initial therapeutic approach in symptomatic paroxysmal lone AF is antiarrhythmic drug therapy as reported by 31 (97%) of the centres. Pulmonary vein isolation only is the first ablation strategy for patients with symptomatic persistent lone AF at 27 (84%) of the responding centres. Assessment for sleep apnoea, obesity, and intensive sports activity in lone AF is performed at 27 (84%) centres. In conclusion, this EP Wire survey confirms that the term 'lone AF' is still used in daily practice. The work-up typically includes screening for known risk factors but not genetic testing. The preferred management of paroxysmal lone AF is rhythm control with antiarrhythmic drugs, whereas pulmonary vein isolation is the first ablation strategy for the majority of patients with symptomatic persistent lone AF.
- [Implementation of the influenza vaccination recommendation in nursing homes in Germany : Results of a survey as part of the national influenza immunization campaign.] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz 2014 Sep 30.
Residents and staff of nursing homes are important target groups for influenza vaccination in Germany. The aim of this study was to gain the first insights into whether nursing homes organize activities with respect to vaccination against influenza and whether there is a demand for further information. In the context of the national influenza immunization campaign-which is jointly carried out by the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) and the Federal Centre for Health Education (BZgA) on an annual basis-influenza information kits were sent to the management of 10,700 nursing homes in September 2013. Along with the information material, the institutions also received a questionnaire to which they were able to respond via mail, fax, or online. Data from 988 homes were included in the analysis. The majority of institutions informed both residents (88.9 %) and nursing staff (81.2 %) about influenza vaccination. However, only 64.7 % of nursing homes carried out specific immunization activities for their residents and only half (49.3 %) offered a flu shot to their staff. When asked why the institutions do not provide influenza-specific information and vaccination to their staff, the majority had the opinion that this is the responsibility of each individual's general practitioner. Overall, only 4.9 % of nursing homes assessed influenza vaccination coverage among their staff annually. A third of all surveyed institutions (33.6 %) expressed a demand for additional influenza vaccine-related information. In conclusion, improved health education is needed to raise awareness about the importance of influenza vaccination among residents and employees of nursing homes in Germany so as to prevent influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in this risk group.
- Shared risk factors for multiple livestock diseases: A case study of bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Res Vet Sci 2014 Sep 16.
Livestock diseases can result in reduced farm productivity. The bacterial diseases tuberculosis (TB) and brucellosis may share some transmission characteristics which, if managed in common, would result in more cost-effective management. Here, we identify risk factors shared between these diseases using a case-control approach and information theoretic modelling. One-hundred cattle farmers in Atlantic Spain were interviewed about farm characteristics and management practices. The risk factor shared between both diseases was intra- and inter-herd contact between cattle. Disease-specific risk factors were the presence of wildlife for TB, and cattle movement between farms for brucellosis. An integrated approach to disease management needs to consider cattle movement and farm biosecurity, reinforced by an education campaign to increase farmer awareness. This would be likely to bring benefits in reducing both diseases and improve the efficiency of any interventions.
- [Why is it necessary to review the December 15th 2003 circular relative to the transfusion act?] [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Transfus Clin Biol 2014 Sep 26.
Blood transfusion is currently a delegated medical act in patient care services. Following severe adverse events, hemovigilance now disposes of a dense regulation. Data collection and analysis in the national hemovigilance "e-FIT" database allow detection of errors or malfunctions in the transfusion act. Blood transfusion safety depends on the strict respect of processes from the prescription of blood products and required patient immuno-hematology exams to the administration of blood products and follow-up of the patient. In the circular relative to the transfusion act, many steps of the transfusion process, less explicit, can be interpreted differently by health care professionals and thus lead to errors or severe adverse events. Standardization of procedures for the transfusion act and its surveillance would increase their safety and avoid potential risks for the patient.
- Systematic review: Histological remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Is 'complete' remission the new treatment paradigm? An IOIBD initiative. [REVIEW]
- J Crohns Colitis 2014 Sep 26.
Advances in the medical management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have altered treatment targets. Endoscopic mucosal healing is associated with better outcomes in IBD, though less is known about the significance of achieving histological remission. Our aim was to perform a systematic review to investigate whether histological or 'complete' remission constitutes a further therapeutic target in IBD.A bibliographic search was performed on the 1st of October 2013 and subsequently on the 1st of March 2014 of online databases (OVID SP MEDLINE, OVID EMBASE, National Pubmed Central Medline, Cochrane Library, ISI, conference abstracts), using MeSH terms and key words: ("inflammatory bowel diseases" OR "crohn disease" OR "ulcerative colitis" OR "colitis") AND ("mucosal healing" OR "histological healing" OR "pathological healing" OR "histological scoring" OR "pathological scoring").The search returned 2951 articles. 120 articles were cited in the final analysis. There is no validated definition of histological remission in IBD. There are 22 different histological scoring systems for IBD, none of which are fully validated. Microscopic inflammation persists in 16-100% of cases of endoscopically quiescent disease. There is evidence that histological remission may predict risk of complications in ulcerative colitis beyond endoscopic mucosal healing, though data are scarce in Crohn's disease.Histological remission in IBD represents a target distinct from endoscopic mucosal healing, not yet routinely sought in clinical trials or practice. There remains a need for a standardized and validated histological scoring system and to confirm the prognostic value of histological remission as a treatment target in IBD.
- Pulmonary endarterectomy for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension-A single-center experience in Taiwan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Formos Med Assoc 2014 Sep 26.
Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is a potentially curative surgical procedure for patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study is to review our institutional experience with this operation.We conducted a retrospective review of PEA performed at our institution between January 2005 and December 2013. The measured outcomes were inhospital complications, improvement in cardiac function and exercise capacity, and actuarial survival after PEA.Ten consecutive patients (7 women, 3 men) underwent PEA with a mean age of 59.9 ± 12.9 years. The preoperative New York Heart Association functional class (NYHA FC) for these patients was either Class III (n = 6) or Class IV (n = 4). The period from symptom onset to diagnosis was 34.3 ± 37.9 months, and that from diagnosis to operation was 31.4 ± 46.8 months. After PEA, the duration of intensive care unit stay and hospital stay prior to discharge were 9.7 ± 5.7 days and 18.7 ± 7.4 days, respectively. Postoperative complications included reperfusion lung edema (n = 3) and pneumonia (n = 1), and all recovered with medical therapy. After a mean follow-up of 48.4 ± 35.1 months, all patients showed marked improvements in their clinical status and were still alive without evidence of disease recurrence.With proper patient selection, the cooperation of a multidisciplinary team, and meticulous postoperative management, PEA can be conducted safely with relatively low risk at a center with limited experience with the procedure.
- Prevalence of persistent pain in the u.s. Adult population: new data from the 2010 national health interview survey. [Journal Article]
- J Pain 2014 Oct; 15(10):979-84.
Published adult prevalence estimates of chronic pain in the United States vary significantly. A more consistent pain measure is needed to assess unmet need for pain management in the general population. In this study, secondary analyses of the 2010 Quality of Life Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey are used to calculate the point prevalence of "persistent pain," which we defined as constant or frequent pain persisting for at least 3 months. Rates of persistent pain are also calculated by risk group, chronic condition, and disability status. Findings show that about 19.0% of adults in the United States report persistent pain. Rates of persistent pain are higher among women, adults aged 60 to 69, adults who rate their health as fair or poor, adults who are overweight or obese, and those who were hospitalized 1 or more times in the preceding year. Most adults who report conditions such as arthritis, carpal tunnel syndrome, or back or joint pain do not describe their pain as "persistent." Of the estimated 39.4 million adults who report persistent pain, 67.2% say their pain is "constantly present," and 50.5% say their pain is sometimes "unbearable and excruciating."Persistent pain, defined as self-reported pain "every day" or "most days" in the preceding 3 months, is a useful way to characterize health-related quality of life in the general population, and policy makers should consider including this core measure in ongoing health surveys like the National Health Interview Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, the authors conclude.
- MicroRNA-10a-5p and microRNA-34c-5p in laryngeal epithelial premalignant lesions: differential expression and clinicopathological correlation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2014 Sep 30.
This study was to analyze the dys-regulation of microRNA-10a-5p and microRNA-34c-5p and their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics of laryngeal epithelial premalignant lesions (LEPL). Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the expression of microRNA-10a-5p and microRNA-34c-5p in 94 cases of LEPL and 47 controls. Retrospective follow-up data of all patients were collected and the correlation between the dys-regulation of microRNA-10a-5p/microRNA-34c-5p and clinicopathological characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Expression of microRNA-10a-5p was down-regulated in LEPL, showing statistical difference between low-risk lesion group and high-risk lesion group, while microRNA-34c-5p expression was up-regulated gradually in LEPL groups and dropped suddenly in squamous cell carcinoma group. In addition, the differential expression of microRNA-10a-5p is profiled with either LEPL grade or gender, showing a linear correlation; and microRNA-34c-5p expression is correlated with alcohol consumption in LEPL patients (P < 0.05). The dys-regulation of microRNA-10a-5p and microRNA-34c-5p in LEPL and their correlations with clinicopathological characteristics might provide important theoretical and experimental basis for LEPL classfication and the two microRNAs can serve as more valuable markers in diagnosis and clinical management of LEPL.
- Quantification of the effect of chemotherapy and steroids on risk of Pneumocystis jiroveci among hospitalized patients with adult T-cell leukaemia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Br J Haematol 2014 Sep 30.
This study aimed to quantify the risks of Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) among adult T-cell leukaemia (ATL) patients without prophylaxis. We used hospital administrative data collected nationwide in Japan over 4 years. The research design was a retrospective cohort study. Subjects were 4369 patients diagnosed with ATL aged 18 years or older. The subjects were categorized into four treatment groups: no agent, chemotherapy, chemotherapy + steroids and steroids. We described the risks of PCP among ATL patients without prophylaxis. Risks of PCP were 3·2% for the no agent group, 9·7% for the chemotherapy group, 10·0% for the chemotherapy + steroids group and 16·6% for the steroids group. Logistic regression analyses showed that the chemotherapy, chemotherapy + steroids and steroids groups had significantly higher risk of PCP than did the no agent group [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3·30 (1·55-7·02), P = 0·002 for the chemotherapy group; AOR 3·35 (2·18-5·17), P < 0·001 for the chemotherapy + steroids group; AOR 6·12 (3·99-9·38), P < 0·001 for the steroids group]. In conclusion, the chemotherapy, chemotherapy + steroids and steroids groups had significantly higher risks of PCP. Prophylaxis for PCP among ATL patients being treated with chemotherapy, chemotherapy + steroids and steroids is highly recommended.