Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
risk management [keywords]
- Perceived Risk Following Melanoma Genetic Testing: A 2-Year Prospective Study Distinguishing Subjective Estimates from Recall. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Genet Couns 2013 Dec 10.
A major goal of predictive genetic testing is to alert people to their risk before illness onset; however, little is known about how risk perceptions change following genetic testing and whether information is recalled accurately over time. In the United States, a CDKN2A/p16 mutation confers 76 % lifetime risk of melanoma. Following genetic counseling and test reporting, subjective risk estimates and recall of counselor-provided risk estimates were assessed 5 times over the next 2 years among 60 adult members of 2 extended CDKN2A/p16 kindreds. No sustained changes from baseline in risk perceptions were reported. Unaffected carriers (n = 15) consistently reported significantly lower subjective risk estimates (46 %) than they were actually given (76 %, p < 0.001) or recalled having been given (60 %, p < 0.001). Noncarriers' (n = 27) risk estimates decreased following results disclosure, but rebounded, with both subjective and recalled estimates subsequently exceeding what they were told by the counselor (both ps < 0.001). Affected carriers' (n = 18) risk estimates for developing a new melanoma corresponded well to counselor-provided information (p = 0.362). For all 3 patient groups, results were consistent across multiple risk measures and remained similar when demographic, phenotypic, and baseline behavioral contributors to melanoma risk were statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with other studies of risk perception, but additional studies of more diverse populations are needed to understand the reasons behind both the persistence of initial risk estimates and their divergence from information provided by the counselor during genetic counseling. Additionally, determining whether holding subjective risk perceptions that differ from counselor-provided information ultimately affects adherence to management recommendations will help guide the presentation of risk information in genetic counseling practice.
- Genetics of sudden cardiac death caused by ventricular arrhythmias. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Nat Rev Cardiol 2013 Dec 10.
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) resulting from ventricular tachyarrhythmia is a major contributor to mortality. Clinical management of SCD, currently based on clinical markers of SCD risk, can be improved by integrating genetic information. The identification of multiple disease-causing gene variants has already improved patient management and increased our understanding of the rare Mendelian diseases associated with SCD risk in the young, but marked variability in disease severity suggests that additional genetic modifiers exist. Next-generation DNA sequencing could be crucial to the discovery of SCD-associated genes, but large data sets can be difficult to interpret. SCD usually occurs in patients with an average age of 65 years who have complex cardiac disease stemming from multiple, common, acquired disorders. Heritable factors are largely unknown, but are likely to have a role in determining the risk of SCD in these patients. Numerous genetic loci have been identified that affect electrocardiogram indices, which are regarded as intermediate phenotypes for tachyarrhythmia. These loci could help to identify new molecules and pathways affecting cardiac electrical function. These loci are often located in intergenic regions, so our evolving understanding of the noncoding regulatory regions of the genome are likely to aid in the identification of novel genes that are important for cardiac electrical function and possibly SCD.
- Are there differences in quality of life, symptomatology and functional capacity among different obesity classes in women with fibromyalgia? The al-Ándalus project. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rheumatol Int 2013 Dec 10.
Obesity may influence fibromyalgia severity. The present study aimed to examine fibromyalgia (FM) symptomatology, quality of life (QoL), and functional capacity across obesity class categories. A total sample of 208 obese FM patients and 108 obese control women were included in the study. The sample was further categorized following the international criteria for obesity classes: obesity I (BMI 30.0-34.99 kg/m(2)), obesity II (BMI 35.0-39.99 kg/m(2)), and obesity III (BMI ≥40.0 kg/m(2)). QoL was assessed by means of the Short-Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36) and FM symptomatology with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Standardized field-based fitness tests were used to assess cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, flexibility, agility, and balance. All the dimensions of QoL, as measured by SF-36, were worse in obese FM patients compared to the obese control group (all p < 0.001). Obese FM patients also scored worse in the entire functional capacity tests studied (all p < 0.001). Except for the higher FIQ-depression across obesity status categories (p < 0.05), no differences between obesity status groups were found in QoL and FM impact. However, upper-body muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness were worse across obesity class categories and pairwise comparisons showed differences mainly between obesity I and II (p < 0.05, and p < 0.01, respectively). The absence of clear differences in QoL and FM symptomatology among obesity classes suggests that just avoiding any obese status may be a useful advice for a better management of the disease. Nevertheless, upper-body muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness, which are important health indicators highly related to the mortality risk, were worse across obesity categories.
- Physical Therapy Modalities and Rehabilitation Techniques in the Management of Neuropathic Pain. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2013 Dec 6.
Neuropathic pain is an important problem because of its complex natural history, unclear etiology, and poor response to standard physical therapy agents. It causes severe disability unrelated to its etiology. The primary goals of the management of neuropathic pain are to detect the underlying cause, to define the differential diagnosis and eliminate risk factors, and to reduce the pain. The physician should also know the functional and psychologic conditions of the patient. Therefore, a multimodal management plan in neuropathic pain is essential. This review aimed to reflect a diverse point of view about various physical therapy modalities and rehabilitation techniques. Physical therapy modalities and rehabilitation techniques are important options and must be considered when pharmacotherapy alone is not sufficient. In addition, psychosocial support and cognitive behavioral therapy could also be taken into consideration. It has been suggested that the importance of pain rehabilitation techniques will increase in time and these will take a larger part in the management of neuropathic pain. However, it is now early to comment on these methods because of the lack of adequate publications.
- Surgical revision after percutaneous mitral valve repair by edge-to-edge device: when the strategy fails in the highest risk surgical population. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2013 Dec 8.
Percutaneous edge-to-edge devices for non-surgical repair of mitral valve regurgitation are under clinical evaluation in high-risk patients deemed not suitable for conventional surgery. To address guidelines for initial therapy decision, we here report on 13 cases of surgery after failed percutaneous edge-to-edge mitral valve repair or attempted repair, and discuss methodology and prognostic factors for operative outcome in this high-risk situation.Thirteen patients referred to our cardiothoracic unit after failed percutaneous mitral valve repair or attempted repair using the edge-to-edge technique, were treated surgically for mitral valve failure between June 2010 and December 2012. Pathology of mitral valve before and after interventional mitral valve repair (especially prevalent mode of failure) was evaluated and classified for each individual patient by echocardiography and intraoperative direct visualization. Number of implanted edge-to-edge devices were identified. Preoperative risk scores were matched with intraoperative observations and histopathological findings of valve tissue. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were analysed with respect to mitral valve and patient-related data.Three of 10 patients were referred with severe mitral valve regurgitation/stenosis after initially successful percutaneous edge-to-edge therapy or attempted therapy. In 3 patients, ≥ 2 edge-to-edge devices were implanted leading to very tight edge-to-edge leaflet connection and fibrosis. All patients underwent successful surgical mitral valve replacement and concomitant complete cardiac surgery (CABG, aortic or tricuspid valve surgery, ASD closure and pulmonary vein isolation for atrial fibrillation). The likelihood of repair was reduced with respect to multiple edge-to-edge technology. One device could not be harvested surgically because of embolization. One patient died on the second postoperative day due to sepsis with multiple organ failure. The remaining 12 patients were discharged with excellent valve prosthesis function and followed up to 2 years post-surgery. The current long-term survival rate is 77%.Our series demonstrate that highest risk patients can survive mitral valve surgery after failed multiple edge-to-edge interventional mitral valve repair. As long-term results of the MitraClip therapy are pending, we recommend close meshed follow-up of patients treated with the MitraClip device, especially within the first year of the index procedure as delays in salvage management, interventional or surgical, when the index procedure fails may increase morbidity and mortality.
- Falls prevention in hospitals and mental health units: an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Age Ageing 2013 Dec 8.
Background: inpatient falls are a major patient safety issue causing distress, injury and death. Systematic review suggests multifactorial assessment and intervention can reduce falls by 20-30%, but large-scale studies of implementation are few. This paper describes an extended evaluation of the FallSafe quality improvement project, which presented key components of multifactorial assessment and intervention as a care bundle.Methods: data on delivery of falls prevention processes were collected at baseline and for 18 months from nine FallSafe units and nine control units. Data on falls were collected from local risk management systems for 24 months, and data on under-reporting through staff surveys.Results: in FallSafe units, delivery of seven care bundle components significantly improved; most improvements were sustained after active project support was withdrawn. Twelve-month moving average of reported fall rates showed a consistent downward trend in FallSafe units but not controls. Significant reductions in reported fall rate were found in FallSafe units (adjusted rate ratio (ARR) 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-0.84 P < 0.001) in the 12 months following full implementation but not in control units (ARR 0.91, 95% CI 0.81-1.03 P = 0.13). No significant changes in injurious fall rate were found in FallSafe units (ARR 0.86, 95% CI 0.71-1.03 P = 0.11), or controls (ARR 0.88, 95% CI 0.72-1.08 P = 0.13). In FallSafe units, staff certain falls had been reported increased from 60 to 77%.Conclusion: introducing evidence-based care bundles of multifactorial assessment and intervention using a quality improvement approach resulted in improved delivery of multifactorial assessment and intervention and significant reductions in fall rates, but not in injurious fall rates.
- GOLD 2011 disease severity classification in COPDGene: a prospective cohort study. [Journal Article]
- Lancet Respir Med 2013 Mar; 1(1):43-50.
The 2011 GOLD (Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease [COPD]) consensus report uses symptoms, exacerbation history, and forced expiratory volume (FEV1)% to categorise patients according to disease severity and guide treatment. We aimed to assess both the influence of symptom instrument choice on patient category assignment and prospective exacerbation risk by category.Patients were recruited from 21 centres in the USA, as part of the COPDGene study. Eligible patients were aged 45-80 years, had smoked for 10 pack-years or more, and had an FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) <0·7. Categories were defined with the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) dyspnoea scale (score 0-1 vs ≥2) and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ; ≥25 vs <25 as a surrogate for the COPD Assessment Test [CAT] ≥10 vs <10) in addition to COPD exacerbations in the previous year (<2 vs ≥ 2), and lung function (FEV1% predicted ≥50 vs <50). Statistical comparisons were done with k-sample permutation tests. This study cohort is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00608764.4484 patients with COPD were included in this analysis. Category assignment using the mMRC scale versus SGRQ were similar but not identical. On the basis of the mMRC scale, 1507 (33·6%) patients were assigned to category A, 919 (20·5%) to category B, 355 (7·9%) to category C, and 1703 (38·0%) to category D; on the basis of the SGRQ, 1317 (29·4%) patients were assigned to category A, 1109 (24·7%) to category B, 221 (4·9%) to category C, and 1837 (41·0%) to category D (κ coefficient for agreement, 0·77). Significant heterogeneity in prospective exacerbation rates (exacerbations/person-years) were seen, especially in the D subcategories, depending on the risk factor that determined category assignment (lung function only [0·89, 95% CI 0·78-1·00]), previous exacerbation history only [1·34, 1·0-1·6], or both [1·86, 1·6-2·1; p<0·0001]).The GOLD classification emphasises the importance of symptoms and exacerbation risk when assessing COPD severity. The choice of symptom measure influences category assignment. The relative number of patients with low symptoms and high risk for exacerbations (category C) is low. Differences in exacerbation rates for patients in the highest risk category D were seen depending on whether risk was based on lung function, exacerbation history, or both.National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, and the COPD Foundation through contributions from AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis, and Sepracor.
- Vigorous intensity exercise for glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. [Journal Article]
- Can J Diabetes 2013 Dec; 37(6):427-32.
Regular physical activity has substantial health benefits in persons with type 1 diabetes, including reduced risk of complications and cardiovascular mortality as well as improved self-rated quality of life. Despite these benefits, individuals with type 1 diabetes are often less active than their peers without diabetes. When factors such as time constraints, work pressure and environmental conditions are often cited as barriers to physical activity in the general population, 2 additional major factors may also explain the low rates of physical activity in young people with type 1 diabetes: (1) fear of hypoglycemia both during and after (particularly overnight) exercise and (2) a lack of empiric evidence for the efficacy of physical activity for achieving optimal glycemic control. A number of acute exercise trials recently showed that the inclusion of vigorous intensity physical activity in conventional moderate intensity (i.e. walking and light cycling) exercise sessions may overcome these barriers. No studies have tested the efficacy of high-intensity physical activity on glycemic control (A1C) or post-exercise hypoglycemia in a randomized controlled trial. This article summarizes the literature related to the role of physical activity for the management of blood glucose levels in individuals with type 1 diabetes and provides a rationale for the need of a randomized controlled trial examining the effects of vigorous-intensity physical activity on blood glucose control.
- Cardiac Surgery in Indigenous Australians - How Wide is 'The Gap'? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Heart Lung Circ 2013 Sep 17.
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in the Indigenous Australian population. Limited research exists in regards to cardiac surgery in the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (ATSI) population. We aimed to investigate risk profiles, surgical pathologies, surgical management and short term outcomes in a contemporary group of patients.Variables were assessed for 557 consecutive patients who underwent surgery at our institution between August 2008 and March 2010.19.2% (107/557) of patients were of Indigenous origin. ATSI patients were significantly younger at time of surgery (mean age 54.1±13.23 vs. 63.1±12.46; p=<0.001) with higher rates of preventable risk factors. Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) was the dominant valvular pathology observed in the Indigenous population. Significantly higher rates of left ventricular impairment and more diffuse coronary artery disease were observed in ATSI patients. A non-significant trend towards higher 30-day mortality was observed in the Indigenous population (5.6% vs. 3.1%; p=0.244).Cardiac surgery is generally required at a younger age in the Indigenous population with patients often presenting with more advanced disease. Despite often more advanced disease, surgical outcomes do not differ significantly from non-Indigenous patients. Continued focus on preventative strategies for coronary artery disease and RHD in the Indigenous population is required.
- Developing a questionnaire for measuring safety climate in the workplace in serbia. [Journal Article]
- Int J Occup Saf Ergon 2013; 19(4):631-45.
This study was conducted because a real method for measuring safety climate had never been developed and assessed in Serbian industry. The aim of this paper was to start the process of developing a safety climate questionnaire that could be used in Serbia. As a starting point a 21-item questionnaire was adopted after an extensive literature review. The questionnaire was distributed at several Serbian factories; 1098 workers responded. After a statistical analysis of the data obtained with the questionnaire and a critical comparison with the available reference results, a final questionnaire with 21 questions, divided into 7 groups, was developed. The 7 groups of questions (factors) were safety awareness and competence, safety communication, organizational environment, management support, risk judgment and management reaction, safety precautions and accident prevention, and safety training.