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significant bacteriuria [keywords]
- Assessment of antimicrobial prophylaxis to prevent perioperative infection in patients undergoing prostate brachytherapy: multicenter cohort study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Infect Chemother 2013 May 4.
To propose an appropriate prophylactic antimicrobial therapy for patients undergoing brachytherapy, we evaluated the relationships between various antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) protocols and the incidence of postimplant infections in a multicenter cohort study conducted in Japan. The records of 826 patients with localized prostate cancer who underwent a transperineal (125)I brachytherapy procedure between January 2009 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Perioperative infections, including surgical site and remote infections, were recorded up to postoperative day 30. A total of 6 (0.73 %) patients had a perioperative infection following seed implantation, of whom all received AMP for 1 or more days. None of the patients who received a single-dose protocol of AMP using fluoroquinolone p.o. or penicillin with a beta-lactamase inhibitor i.v. developed a perioperative infection. Statistical analysis showed that a single-dose protocol was more significantly related to a lower risk of perioperative infection as compared to the other AMP protocols examined (p = 0.045). Furthermore, our results indicated that bacteriuria and preoperative hair removal were risk factors of perioperative infection with statistical significance (p = 0.007, p = 0.004). Analysis of patient clinical parameters, including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, diabetes mellitus, prostate volume, numbers of implanted seeds and needle punctures, operation time, and indwelling duration time of the Foley catheter, did not reveal significant differences in terms of perioperative infection. Our results indicated that a single-dose AMP protocol is sufficient to prevent perioperative infections following seed implantation. On the other hand, AMP is only one of several measures to prevent perioperative infectious complications. It is necessary to know that the patient must have no bacteriuria and that preoperative hair removal should be avoided.
- Molecular characterization and drug resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from urine from long-term care facility residents in Cracow, Poland. [Journal Article]
- Med Sci Monit 2013.:317-26.
Background The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and extended-spectrum â-lactamases (ESBL) pathogens isolated from asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs), and the relationship between the phylogeny, antimicrobial resistance, and virulence among isolates in residents of 3 long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Krakow, Poland. Material and Methods This was point prevalence study and prospective infection control in a group of 217 people. Urine samples were examined with standard microbiological methods and screened for the presence of blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM. E. coli isolates were screened for 6 common virulence factors (VFs) and classified according to the rapid phylogenetic grouping technique. Results Among all the strains tested, 14 isolates (13.9%) expressed ESBL activity. A significant proportion of isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin (32.7%, n=33). Resistance to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was identified among 45 isolates (44.5%). Independent risk factors for the presence of an ESBL-producing strain were: UTI, urinary and/or fecal incontinence, bedridden, and low values of the Barthel and Katz Indexes. Gene sequencing identified 8 blaCTX-M-15, 1 blaCTX-M-3, 9 blaTEM-1, and 1 blaSHV-12. Among E. coli, no relationship between number of VF genes and phylogeny was found. The most prevalent virulence factor was fimH (82.1%). Conclusions The findings of this study emphasize the need for further research on the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDRO) and ESBL in LTCF, including transmission patterns, rates of infection, and factors associated with infections. It may be necessary to extend the requirements and precautions to MDRO and ESBL-producers.
- A Real-Time PCR-Based Semi-Quantitative Breakpoint to Aid in Molecular Identification of Urinary Tract Infections. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(4):e61439.
This study presents a novel approach to aid in diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTIs). A real-time PCR assay was used to screen for culture-positive urinary specimens and to identify the causative uropathogen. Semi-quantitative breakpoints were used to screen for significant bacteriuria (presence of ≥10(5) CFU/ml of uropathogens) or low-level bacteriuria (containing between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/ml of uropathogens). The 16S rDNA-based assay could identify the most prevalent uropathogens using probes for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus species, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species and Streptococcus species. 330 urinary specimens were analysed and results were compared with conventional urine culture. Using a PCR Ct value of 25 as semi-quantitative breakpoint for significant bacteriuria resulted in a sensitivity and specificity of 97% and 80%, respectively. In 78% of the samples with monomicrobial infections the assay contained probes to detect the bacteria present in the urine specimens and 99% of these uropathogens was correctly identified. Concluding, this proof-of-concept approach demonstrates that the assay can distinguish bacteriuria from no bacteriuria as well as detect the involved uropathogen within 4 hours after sampling, allowing adequate therapy decisions within the same day as well as drastically reduce consequent urine culturing.
- Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing cystoscopy: a randomized clinical trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- World J Urol 2013 Feb 15.
OBJECTIVE:To establish the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to cystoscopy in outpatients in decreasing the incidence of post-procedure urinary tract infection.
STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:A randomized clinical trial in patients (men and women) older than 18 who underwent cystoscopy for any non-urgent indication. The intervention was Levofloxacin 500 mg single dose, and the control was placebo 500 mg single dose made with similar characteristics. The primary outcome was urinary tract infection (UTI) measured 3-10 days after the procedure. It was performed as per protocol analysis.
RESULTS:Hundred and thirty-eight patients in each study arm completed the trial. The incidence of UTI in the intervention group was 0.7 % and in the placebo group was 3 % (p = 0.17), and no significant differences were found. The incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the intervention group was 5.8 % and in the control group was 14.5 % (p = 0.01).
CONCLUSIONS:No significant differences were found in the use of prophylactic antibiotic compared to placebo to reduce the incidence of UTI in patients who undergo cystoscopy as an outpatient procedure with sterile urine demonstrated by urine culture.
- Occurrence of bacteriuria in 18 catheterised cats with obstructive lower urinary tract disease: a pilot study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Feline Med Surg 2013 Feb 11.
The incidence of catheter-associated urinary tract infections in cats catheterised for an obstructive lower urinary tract disease (LUTD) has not previously been evaluated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency of significant bacteriuria in cats with obstructive LUTD managed for 48 h with a closed urine collection system. Eighteen male cats admitted for a non-infectious obstructive LUTD were evaluated. This was a prospective study. A standard protocol was used for aseptic catheter placement and maintenance. Three urine samples were collected from each animal through the catheter immediately after placement, 24 h after placement and just before removal. All samples underwent complete urinalysis, including bacterial culture. Catheter tips were tested by bacterial culture. Six cats (33.3%) developed significant bacteriuria during catheterisation. The causative bacteria were common feline uropathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus species) in five cases, and Streptococcus bovis in one. One cat developed a fungal infection. The presence of bacteria in urinary sediment was correlated strongly with positive urine culture results. The catheter tips from 10/18 cats (55.5%) were positive for culture. The positive predictive value of a positive culture from the urinary catheter tip was 87.5%. The specificity was 53.8%. The same infectious agents were cultured from both urine and catheter tip in six cases. In summary, one third of cats developed significant bacteriuria during catheterisation. Silent bacteriuria could not be clearly differentiated from true urinary tract infection. The presence of bacteria in the urinary sediment was strongly indicative of bacteriuria. The specificity of urinary catheter tip culture was low.
- Pregnancy outcomes in women with spinal cord lesions. [Journal Article]
- J Obstet Gynaecol Can 2013 Jan; 35(1):39-43.
Objective:Women with spinal cord lesions present special challenges during pregnancy. We studied their pregnancy outcomes with regard to medical, obstetrical, and social concerns.
Methods:We reviewed the records of pregnant women with spinal cord injury who attended our institution between 1999 and 2009.
Results:Thirty-two women with a total of 37 pregnancies were identified. Most were nulliparous (65%) with either thoracic or lumbar spinal cord lesions due to neural tube defects (69%), trauma (19%), tumours (9%), or iatrogenic injury (3%). Most had undergone orthopedic surgery (63%) or neurosurgery (53%). The most common medical conditions were neurogenic bladder (53%), anemia (16%), autonomic hyperreflexia (9%), and elevated BMI > 30 (6%). Recurrent urinary tract infection occurred in 32%. Antibiotic suppression against bacteriuria was used in 35%. Antenatal hospitalization occurred in 46%, most often because of threatened preterm labour (19%). There were 33 live births and two stillbirths (6%). Preterm birth < 37 weeks occurred in 24%. Vaginal birth occurred in 33%.
Conclusion:Pregnant women with spinal cord lesions generally have successful pregnancy outcomes. However, their pregnancies are at significant risk for preterm birth, infection, and Caesarean section. Coordinated multidisciplinary care is recommended for optimal management of these pregnancies.
- Comparative evaluation of Vitek 2 identification and susceptibility testing of urinary tract pathogens directly and isolated from chromogenic media. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2013 Jan 12.
We evaluated the use of urine specimens for direct identification and antibiotic testing of urinary tract pathogens using the Vitek system. A total of 343 urine specimens from patients with suspected UTI were selected by pyuria and screened by Gram staining to detect bacteriuria. Of those, 132 were analysed after Gram staining, showing a high number of micro-organisms of a single morphological type. Direct susceptibility testing and identification were performed by using the Vitek system. Results were compared using the standard inoculation method based on the incubation of solid media. After sub-culture, 107 specimens grew a significant count of a single species and were used for the comparative analysis. The direct method correctly identified 88 isolates (82.3 %). When compared according to antibiotic susceptibility testing, the error rate was 2.4 % overall with 0.2 % very major, 0.4 % major and 1.8 % minor errors. 84.7 % of the Gram-negative bacilli had a complete susceptibility report in ≤8 h. This method offers the advantage of prompt processing and earlier reporting of complete results for positive urine specimens.
- Mortality after urinary tract infections in patients with advanced cirrhosis - Relevance of acute kidney injury and comorbidities. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Liver Int 2013 Feb; 33(2):220-30.
Bacterial infections increase mortality four-fold in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. However, specific mortality associated with urinary tract infections (UTI) in cirrhosis is not known.Retrospective single-centre analysis of all hospitalized patients with cirrhosis and ascites who underwent first paracentesis between 2006 and 2011 to determine 90-day mortality associated with UTI defined as pyuria with significant bacteriuria using Cox proportional hazard models.A total of 108 patients with at least one episode of UTI and 291 with exclusion of UTI were identified. Bacterial infections other than UTI were diagnosed in 136 (34%) of patients at the time of urine analysis. Female gender, Child-Pugh stage C, higher grade of ascites and systemic inflammatory response syndrome were associated with UTI. After adjustment for liver function and co-morbidity, the hazard ratios (HR) of death within 90 days after urine analysis were 2.08 (95% CI 1.28-3.38) in patients with UTI, 2.93 (1.90-4.52) in patients with other bacterial infections and 3.39 (2.03-5.65) in patients with UTI and concomitant infection. Independent predictors of death after UTI were renal dysfunction at presentation (HR 2.52; 95% CI 2.52), subsequent acute kidney injury within 48 h after diagnosis (4.57; 2.54-8.24), concomitant bacterial infection (1.77; 1.04-3.00) and malignant comorbidity (1.85; 1.03-3.30). The combination of these factors was more accurate in predicting 90-day mortality than the MELD score or C-reactive protein.The presence of UTI indicates an increased risk of 90-day mortality in patients with advanced cirrhosis. Renal dysfunction and comorbidities are predictors of death in these patients.
- The Isolation and the Biofilm Formation of Uropathogens in the Patients with Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs). [Journal Article]
- J Clin Diagn Res 2012 Nov; 6(9):1478-82.
Urinary tract infections are the most commonly acquired bacterial infections and they account for an estimated 25-40% of the nosocomial infections. The microbial biofilms pose a public health problem for the persons who require indwelling medical devices, as the microorganisms in the biofilms are difficult to treat with antimicrobial agents.The present study included the isolation and the biofilm formation of the uropathogens in patients with catheter associated urinary tract infections.This prospective analysis which was carried out over a period of two months, included 50 urine samples from catheterized patients with symptoms of UTI. Following their isolation and identification, all the isolates were subjected to the biofilm detection by the tube adherence method and the Congo Red agar method.E.coli was found to be the most frequently isolated uropathogen 35(70%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 8(16%), Pseudomona aeruginosa 2(4%), Acinetobacter spp 1(2%), coagulase negative Staphylococci 3(6%) and Enterococci spp 1(2%). In the current study, 30 (60%) strains were positive in vitro for the biofilm production.To conclude, there was significant bacteriuria in all the symptomatic catheterized patients and E.coli was the most frequent isolate. Diabetes (44%) was the most common factor which was associated with the UTIs in the catheterized patients.
- Risk factors for bacteriuria with carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae and its impact on mortality: a case-control study. [Journal Article]
- Infection 2013 Apr; 41(2):503-9.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the mortality of and risk factors for bacteriuria due to carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKp) versus carbapenem-susceptible K. pneumoniae (CSKp) producing extended spectrum β lactamase (ESBL).This was a retrospective case-control study in which 135 case-patients with bacteriuria due to CRKp were compared with 127 control patients with CSKp producing ESBL. In a first step, multivariate Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis models were used to determine the difference in mortality between the two groups and risk factors for mortality. In a second step, a univariate analysis was used to identify risk factors for CRKp colonization.There were no significant demographic or clinical differences between the groups. In-hospital mortality in the study and control groups was 29 and 25 %, respectively (non-significant difference). Multivariate analysis revealed that the most important risk factor for mortality in both groups was being bed ridden [hazard ratio 2.2, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23-3.93; P = 0.008]. Patients with CRKp bacteriuria had a longer hospitalization time with a mean ± standard deviation of 28 ± 33 days compared to 22 ± 28 days in the control group (P < 0.05). Several univariate risk factors for acquiring CRKp bacteriuria were identified: antibiotic use [odds ratio (OR) 1.93, 95 % CI 1.18-3.17, p = 0.008], especially colistin (OR 2.04, 95 % CI 1.04-4.02; P = 0.036), presence of a urinary catheter (OR 2.09, 95 % CI 1.2-3.63; P = 0.008), surgery (OR 3.94, 95 % CI 1.85-8.37; P = 0.0002), invasive procedures (OR 3.06, 95 % CI 1.61-5.8; P = 0.0004), and intensive care unit admission (OR 2.49, 95 % CI 1.18-5.37; P = 0.015).Bacteriuria caused by CRKp as compared that caused by CSKp was not found to be a risk factor for death.