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slipped dislocation [keywords]
- Subcapital correction osteotomy for malunited slipped capital femoral epiphysis. [Journal Article]
- J Pediatr Orthop 2013 Jun; 33(4):345-52.
: Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), causing posterior and inferior displacement and retroversion of the femoral head, is a well-recognized etiology for femoroacetabular impingement and can lead to premature arthritis in the young adult. The treatment of malunited SCFE remains controversial. Surgical dislocation and subcapital correction osteotomy (SCO) has been described as a powerful method to correct the proximal femoral deformity.: Between January 2003 and January 2010, 11 patients (12 hips) with closed femoral physes and symptomatic femoroacetabular impingement from malunited SCFE were treated with surgical dislocation and SCO. We performed a retrospective review of patient histories, physical examinations, operative findings, and preoperative and postoperative anteroposterior (AP) and groin-lateral (GLat) radiographs. Mean follow-up was 61 months.: There were 4 female and 7 male patients with an average age of 15 years at the time of SCO. On the AP radiograph, the mean inferior femoral head displacement (AP epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-26 to -6 degrees, P<0.001). On the GLat radiograph, the mean posterior femoral head displacement (lateral epiphyseal-neck angle) was significantly improved (-45 to -3 degrees, P<0.001). The mean α-angle was also significantly improved on both views (AP: 85 to 56 degrees, P<0.001; GLat: 85 to 46 degrees, P<0.001). Operative findings included 1 femoral osteochondral defect, 8 Outerbridge grade 3 to 4 acetabular cartilage lesions, and 10 labral lesions. Significant improvement of the mean Harris Hip Score was seen at latest follow-up (54 to 77, P=0.016). Complications occurred in 4 of the 12 cases with avascular necrosis in 2 patients, a worse postoperative Harris Hip Score in 1 patient, and failure of fixation treated successfully with revision open reduction internal fixation in 1 patient.: SCO as an adjunct to surgical dislocation and osteochondroplasty can be used to correct the deformity of the proximal femur associated with malunited SCFE. Normalization of proximal femoral anatomy may postpone progression to severe osteoarthritis and thus delay the need for arthroplasty in this young patient population. However, surgeons and patients should be aware that the risks of this procedure in this population are significant.: Level IV-therapeutic study.
- Surgical treatment of femoroacetabular impingement in patients with slipped capital femoral epiphysis: A review of current surgical techniques. [Journal Article]
- Bone Joint J 2013 Apr; 95(4):445-51.
Slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE) is relatively common in adolescents and results in a complex deformity of the hip that can lead to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). FAI may be symptomatic and lead to the premature development of osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip. Current techniques for managing the deformity include arthroscopic femoral neck osteochondroplasty, an arthroscopically assisted limited anterior approach to the hip, surgical dislocation, and proximal femoral osteotomy. Although not a routine procedure to treat FAI secondary to SCFE deformity, peri-acetabular osteotomy has been successfully used to treat FAI caused by acetabular over-coverage. These procedures should be considered for patients with symptoms due to a deformity of the hip secondary to SCFE.
- The treatment of severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis via the Ganz surgical dislocation and anatomical reduction: a prospective study. [Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- Bone Joint J 2013 Mar; 95-B(3):424-9.
We present our experience of the modified Dunn procedure in combination with a Ganz surgical dislocation of the hip to treat patients with severe slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The aim was to prospectively investigate whether this technique is safe and reproducible. We assessed the degree of reduction, functional outcome, rate of complications, radiological changes and range of movement in the hip. There were 28 patients with a mean follow-up of 38.6 months (24 to 84). The lateral slip angle was corrected by a mean of 50.9° (95% confidence interval 44.3 to 57.5). The mean modified Harris hip score at the final follow-up was 89.1 (sd 9.0) and the mean Non-Arthritic Hip score was 91.3 (sd 9.0). Two patients had proven pre-existing avascular necrosis and two developed the condition post-operatively. There were no cases of nonunion, implant failure, infection, deep-vein thrombosis or heterotopic ossification. The range of movement at final follow-up was nearly normal. This study adds to the evidence that the technique of surgical dislocation and anatomical reduction is safe and reliable in patients with SCFE.
- Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis: Relevant Pathophysiological Findings With Open Surgery. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013 Feb 9.
BACKGROUND:Traditionally arthrotomy has rarely been performed during surgery for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). As a result, most pathophysiological information about the articular surfaces was derived clinically and radiographically. Novel insights regarding deformity-induced damage and epiphyseal perfusion became available with surgical hip dislocation. QUESTIONS/
PURPOSES:We (1) determined the influence of chronicity of prodromal symptoms and severity of SCFE deformity on severity of cartilage damage. (2) In surgically confirmed disconnected epiphyses, we determined the influence of injury and time to surgery on epiphyseal perfusion; and (3) the frequency of new bone at the posterior neck potentially reducing perfusion during epimetaphyseal reduction.
METHODS:We reviewed 116 patients with 119 SCFE and available records treated between 1996 and 2011. Acetabular cartilage damage was graded as +/++/+++ in 109 of the 119 hips. Epiphyseal perfusion was determined with laser-Doppler flowmetry at capsulotomy and after reduction. Information about bone at the posterior neck was retrieved from operative reports.
RESULTS:Ninety-seven of 109 hips (89%) had documented cartilage damage; severity was not associated with higher slip angle or chronicity; disconnected epiphyses had less damage. Temporary or definitive cessation of perfusion in disconnected epiphyses increased with time to surgery; posterior bone resection improved the perfusion. In one necrosis, the retinaculum was ruptured; two were in the group with the longest time interval. Posterior bone formation is frequent in disconnected epiphyses, even without prodromal periods.
CONCLUSIONS:Addressing the cause of cartilage damage (cam impingement) should become an integral part of SCFE surgery. Early surgery for disconnected epiphyses appears to reduce the risk of necrosis. Slip reduction without resection of posterior bone apposition may jeopardize epiphyseal perfusion.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV, retrospective case series. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
- Closed Bone Graft Epiphysiodesis for Avascular Necrosis of the Capital Femoral Epiphysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Clin Orthop Relat Res 2013 Feb 7.
BACKGROUND:Avascular necrosis (AVN) of the capital femoral epiphysis (CFE) after an unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), femoral neck fracture or traumatic hip dislocation can result in severe morbidity. Treatment options for immature patients with AVN are limited, including a closed bone graft epiphysiodesis (CBGE). However, it is unclear whether this procedure prevents AVN progression. QUESTIONS/
PURPOSES:We investigated whether early MRI screening and CBGE prevented the development of advanced AVN changes in the CFE and the rates of complications with this approach.
METHODS:We prospectively followed all 13 patients (seven boys, six girls) with unstable SCFEs (six patients), femoral neck fractures (five patients), and traumatic hip dislocations (two patients) and evidence of early AVN treated between 1984 and 2012. Mean age at initial injury was 12 years (range, 10-16 years). Nine of the 13 patients had followup of at least 2 years or until conversion to THA (mean, 4.5 years; range, 0.8-8.5 years), including two with unstable SCFEs, the five with femoral neck fractures, and the two with traumatic hip dislocations. All patients had technetium scans and/or MRI within 1 to 2 months of their initial injury (before CBGE) and all had evidence of early (Ficat 0) AVN. Patients were followed clinically and radiographically for AVN progression.
RESULTS:Six of the nine hips did not develop typical clinical or radiographic evidence of AVN. These six patients have been followed 6.3 years (range, 4.3-9.1 years) from initial injury and 5.9 years (range, 3.8-8.5 years) from CBGE. The remaining three patients were diagnosed with AVN at periods ranging from 3 to 6 months after CBGE.
CONCLUSIONS:Early recognition and treatment of AVN with a CBGE may alter the natural history of this complication.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
- High-force simulated intubation fails to dislocate cricoarytenoid joint in ex vivo human larynges. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol 2012 Nov; 121(11):746-53.
We assessed the likelihood of arytenoid dislocation during intubation through the application of controlled force.Six cadaveric human larynges were mounted in an apparatus for simulating forcible collision with the arytenoid complexes. An endotracheal tube tip probe (ETTP) was used to push one arytenoid complex, and a non-slip probe (NSP) was tested on the other. Increasing pressure was applied until the probes either slipped or reached 5 kg of force. Dissection was then performed to assess the integrity of the cricoarytenoid ligament. The forces obtained by pushing an endotracheal tube against an electronic balance were measured to estimate the maximal possible intubating force.None of the ETTP or NSP trials disrupted the cricoarytenoid joint ligaments, and the joint never appeared to be dislocated. The mean maximal forces were 1.8 kg for the ETTP (after which, slippage consistently occurred) and 4.7 kg for the NSP. The mean maximal forces from an endotracheal tube pushed against a scale were 1.5 kg (without stylet) and 4.6 kg (with stylet).Arytenoid dislocation did not happen, and gross disruption of the joint capsule or ligament did not occur, even when the testing approximated the maximum force achievable under extreme conditions. Endotracheal tube insertion thus seems unlikely to cause arytenoid dislocation.
- Slipped capital femoral epiphysis: prevalence, pathogenesis, and natural history. [Journal Article, Review]
- Clin Orthop Relat Res 2012 Dec; 470(12):3432-8.
BACKGROUND:Obesity is a risk factor for developing slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). The long-term outcome after SCFE treatment depends on the severity of residual hip deformity and the occurrence of complications, mainly avascular necrosis (AVN). Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is associated with SCFE-related deformity and dysfunction in both short and long term. QUESTIONS/
PURPOSES:We examined obesity prevention, early diagnosis, reducing AVN and hip deformity as strategies to reduce SCFE prevalence, and the long-term outcomes after treatment.
METHODS:A search of the literature using the PubMed database for the key concepts SCFE and treatment, natural history, obesity, and prevalence identified 218, 15, 26, and 49 abstracts, respectively. WHERE ARE WE NOW?: A correlation between rising childhood obesity and increasing incidence of SCFE has been recently reported. Residual abnormal morphology of the proximal femur is currently believed to be the mechanical cause of FAI and early articular cartilage damage in SCFE. WHERE DO WE NEED TO GO?: Reducing the increasing prevalence rate of SCFE is important. Treatment of SCFE should aim to reduce AVN rates and residual deformities that lead to FAI to improve the long-term functional and clinical outcomes. HOW DO WE GET THERE?: Implementing public health policies to reduce childhood obesity should allow for SCFE prevalence to drop. Clinical trials will evaluate whether restoring the femoral head-neck offset to avoid FAI along with SCFE fixation allows for cartilage damage prevention and lower rates of osteoarthritis. The recently described surgical hip dislocation approach is a promising technique that allows anatomic reduction with potential lower AVN rates in the treatment of SCFE.
- Low revision rate after total hip arthroplasty in patients with pediatric hip diseases. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Acta Orthop 2012 Oct; 83(5):436-41.
The results of primary total hip arthroplasties (THAs) after pediatric hip diseases such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), or Perthes' disease have been reported to be inferior to the results after primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA).We compared the survival of primary THAs performed during the period 1995-2009 due to previous DDH, SCFE, Perthes' disease, or primary OA, using merged individual-based data from the Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish arthroplasty registers, called the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA). Cox multiple regression, with adjustment for age, sex, and type of fixation of the prosthesis was used to calculate the survival of the prostheses and the relative revision risks.370,630 primary THAs were reported to these national registers for 1995-2009. Of these, 14,403 THAs (3.9%) were operated due to pediatric hip diseases (3.1% for Denmark, 8.8% for Norway, and 1.9% for Sweden) and 288,435 THAs (77.8%) were operated due to OA. Unadjusted 10-year Kaplan-Meier survival of THAs after pediatric hip diseases (94.7% survival) was inferior to that after OA (96.6% survival). Consequently, an increased risk of revision for hips with a previous pediatric hip disease was seen (risk ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% CI: 1.3-1.5). However, after adjustment for differences in sex and age of the patients, and in fixation of the prostheses, no difference in survival was found (93.6% after pediatric hip diseases and 93.8% after OA) (RR 1.0, CI: 1.0-1.1). Nevertheless, during the first 6 postoperative months more revisions were reported for THAs secondary to pediatric hip diseases (RR 1.2, CI: 1.0-1.5), mainly due to there being more revisions for dislocations (RR 1.8, CI: 1.4-2.3). Comparison between the different diagnosis groups showed that the overall risk of revision after DDH was higher than after OA (RR 1.1, CI: 1.0-1.2), whereas the combined group Perthes' disease/SCFE did not have a significantly different risk of revision to that of OA (RR 0.9, CI: 0.7-1.0), but had a lower risk than after DDH (RR 0.8, CI: 0.7-1.0).After adjustment for differences in age, sex, and type of fixation of the prosthesis, no difference in risk of revision was found for primary THAs performed due to pediatric hip diseases and those performed due to primary OA.
- What is the best evidence for the treatment of slipped capital femoral epiphysis? [Journal Article, Review]
- J Pediatr Orthop 2012 Sep.:S158-65.
There are many different treatment methods for slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). It was the purpose of this study to review the results from the literature for different methods of SCFE treatment and on the basis of level of evidence determine the current best evidence treatment.A systematic review of the literature was undertaken. Treatment results were grouped into 2 categories. The first was all methods without surgical hip dislocation, and the second was all methods in which surgical dislocation was used.For stable SCFEs without surgical dislocation, the best recommended treatment (mostly level IV) recommends in situ single screw fixation over multiple pin fixation, epiphysiodesis, osteotomy, or spica cast. For the unstable SCFEs without surgical dislocation (all level IV), the best recommended treatment is urgent reduction with decompression and internal fixation. For both stable and unstable SCFEs, the short-term small series in the literature (all level IV) does not demonstrate an advantage or improvement in outcomes compared with in situ single screw fixation for stable SCFE and urgent reduction, decompression, and internal fixation in unstable SCFEs.A systematic review of the literature recommends on the basis of level of evidence that the best treatment for a stable SCFE is single screw in situ fixation and for unstable SCFEs urgent gentle reduction, decompression, and internal fixation.Level IV, systematic review of level IV studies.
- The Locking Compression Paediatric Hip Plate: technical guide and critical analysis. [Journal Article]
- Int Orthop 2012 Nov; 36(11):2299-306.
Osteotomies of the proximal femur and stable fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures are demanding operations. An LCP Paediatric Hip Plate was developed to make these operations safer and less demanding. The article focuses on the surgical technique and critically analyses the device.Between 2006 and 2008, 30 hips in 22 patients underwent surgery. Patients' demographics, perioperative details, postoperative outcome and complications were retrospectively collected and analysed.Patients' diagnoses included persistent congenital hip dysplasia (n = 4), neuropathic hip dysplasia (n = 9), idiopathic ante/retroversion (n = 8), femoral neck fracture (n = 3), Perthes' disease (n = 2), deformity after slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE), congenital femoral neck pseudarthrosis, deformity after pelvic tumour resection and malunion following proximal femoral fracture (one each). In 21 of 22 patients, the postoperative radiographs showed corrections as planned. Two cases had to be revised for screw loosening. Intraoperative handling using the plate was excellent in all cases.In our case series of 30 hip operations, the LCP Paediatric Hip Plate was shown to be safe and applicable in the clinical setting with excellent results and a low complication rate. We consider that the LCP Paediatric Hip Plate is a valuable device for correction of pathological conditions of the proximal femur and for fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures in children. Larger studies should be carried out to better quantify the risk of clinically relevant complications.