(sphincter muscle) articles in PubMed
- Prostaglandin D2 effects and DP1 /DP2 receptor distribution in guinea pig urinary bladder out-flow region. [Journal Article]
- J Cell Mol Med 2016 Sep 23JC
- The proximal urethra and urinary bladder trigone play important roles in continence. We have previously shown that PGD2 is released from guinea pig bladder urothelium/suburothelium and can inhibit de...
The proximal urethra and urinary bladder trigone play important roles in continence. We have previously shown that PGD2 is released from guinea pig bladder urothelium/suburothelium and can inhibit detrusor contractile responses. We presently wished to investigate PGD2 actions in guinea pig out-flow region and the distribution of DP1 /DP2 receptors. The effects of PGD2 on urothelium-intact trigone and proximal urethra contractility were studied in organ bath experiments. Expression of DP1 /DP2 receptor proteins was analysed by western blot. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify distribution of DP1 /DP2 receptors. PGD2 in a dose-dependent manner inhibited trigone contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) and inhibited spontaneous contractions of the proximal urethra. PGD2 was equally (trigone) or slightly less potent (urethra) compared with PGE2 . Expression of DP1 and DP2 receptors was found in male guinea pig bladder trigone, neck and proximal urethra. In the trigone and proximal urethra, DP1 receptors were found on the membrane of smooth muscle cells and weak immunoreactivty was observed in the urothelium. DP2 receptors were distributed more widespread, weakly and evenly in the urothelium and smooth muscles. Inhibitory effects by PGD2 on motor activity of guinea pig trigone and proximal urethra are consistent with finding DP1 and DP2 receptors located in the urothelium and smooth muscle cells of the trigone and proximal urethra, and PGD2 may therefore be a modulator of the bladder out-flow region, possibly having a function in regulation of micturition and a role in overactive bladder syndrome.
- Prospective follow-up study of artificial urinary sphincter placement preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle. [Journal Article]
- Neurourol Urodyn 2016 Sep 21NU
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that placement of AUS preserving the bulbospongiosus muscle is technically easy and efficient, reports excellent continence rates and lower urethral erosion rates, and could delay the onset of urethral atrophy compared to other surgical procedures used for sphincter placement.
- Transgenic Animal Model for Studying the Mechanism of Obesity-Associated Stress Urinary Incontinence. [Journal Article]
- BJU Int 2016 Sep 21BI
- CONCLUSIONS: Obesity impairs urethral sphincter function by IMCL deposition and leads to atrophy and distortion of urethral striated muscle. The ZF rats could be a consistent and reliable animal model to study obesity-associated stress urinary incontinence (OA-SUI). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Aging-associated changes in microRNA expression profile of internal anal sphincter smooth muscle: role of microRNA-133a. [Journal Article]
- Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2016 Sep 15; :ajpgi.00290.2016AJ
- A comprehensive -omic, computational, and physiological approach was employed to examine the (previously unexplored) role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of IAS smooth muscle contractile phenotyp...
A comprehensive -omic, computational, and physiological approach was employed to examine the (previously unexplored) role of microRNAs (miRNAs) as regulators of IAS smooth muscle contractile phenotype and basal tone. MicroRNA profiling, genome wide expression, validation and network analyses were employed to assess changes in mRNA and miRNA expression in IAS smooth muscles from young vs. aging rats. Multiple miRNAs, including rno-miR-1, rno-miR-340-5p, rno-miR-185, rno-miR-199a-3p, rno-miR-200c, rno-miR-200b, rno-miR-31, rno-miR-133a and rno-miR-206 were found to be up-regulated in aging IAS. qRT-PCR confirmed the up-regulated expression of these miRNAs and down regulation of multiple, predicted targets (Eln, Col3a1, Col1a1, Zeb2, Myocd, SRF, Smad1, Smad2, RhoA/ROCK2, Fn1, Sm22-v2, Klf4, and Acta2) involved in regulation of SM contractility. Subsequent studies demonstrated an aging-associated increase in the expression of miR-133a, corresponding decreases in RhoA, ROCK2, MYOCD, SRF and SM22α protein expression, RhoA-signaling, and a decrease in basal and agonist (U-46619 (thromboxane A2 analog))-induced increase in the IAS tone. Moreover, in vitro transfection of miR-133a caused a dose-dependent increase of IAS tone in strips, which was reversed by anti-miR-133a. Lastly, in vivo perianal injection of anti-miR-133a reversed the loss of IAS tone associated with age. This work establishes the important regulatory effect of miRNA-133a on basal and agonist-stimulated IAS tone. Moreover, reversal of age-associated loss of tone via anti-miR delivery strongly implicates miR dysregulation as a causal factor in the aging-associated decrease in IAS tone, and suggests miR-133a is feasible therapeutic target in aging-associated rectoanal incontinence.
- CONVERGENCE OF INHIBITORY NEURAL INPUTS REGULATE MOTOR ACTIVITY IN THE MURINE AND MONKEY STOMACH. [Journal Article]
- Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2016 Sep 15; :ajpgi.00062.2016AJ
- Inhibitory motor neurons regulate several gastric motility patterns including receptive relaxation, gastric peristaltic motor patterns and pyloric sphincter opening. Nitric oxide (NO) and purines hav...
Inhibitory motor neurons regulate several gastric motility patterns including receptive relaxation, gastric peristaltic motor patterns and pyloric sphincter opening. Nitric oxide (NO) and purines have been identified as likely candidates that mediate inhibitory neural responses. However, the contribution from each neurotransmitter has received little attention in the distal stomach. The aims of this study were to identify the roles played by NO and purines in inhibitory motor responses in the antrums of mice and monkeys. By using wildtype mice and mutants with genetically deleted neural nitric oxide synthase (Nos1(-/-)) and P2Y1 receptors (P2ry1(-/-)) we examined the roles of NO and purines in post-junctional inhibitory responses in the distal stomach and compared these responses to those in primate stomach. Activation of inhibitory motor nerves using electrical field stimulation (EFS) produced frequency-dependent inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) that produced muscle relaxations in both species. Stimulation of inhibitory nerves during slow waves terminated pacemaker events and associated contractions. In Nos1(-/-) mice IJPs and relaxations persisted whereas in P2ry1(-/-) mice IJPs were absent but relaxations persisted. In the gastric antrum of the non-human primate model Macaca fascicularis, similar NO and purine neural components contributed to inhibition of gastric motor activity. These data support a role of convergent inhibitory neural responses in the regulation of gastric motor activity across diverse species.
- Chronic anal fissure: morphometric analysis of the anal canal at 3.0 Tesla MR imaging. [Journal Article]
- Abdom Radiol (NY) 2016 Sep 13AR
- OBJECTıVE: To compare the morphometric data relating to the muscular structures of the anal canal, in patients with chronic anal fissure and in control group, examined at a 3.0 Tesla MR system.
OBJECTıVE: To compare the morphometric data relating to the muscular structures of the anal canal, in patients with chronic anal fissure and in control group, examined at a 3.0 Tesla MR system.
- Minimally invasive approach for the treatment of lumbar epidural arteriovenous fistulas with intradural venous reflux. [Journal Article]
- Neurochirurgie 2016 Sep 8N
- CONCLUSIONS: The minimally invasive surgical treatment of spinal AVFs with epidural venous reflux is safe and effective. This approach is a valuable alternative to endovascular therapy and the standard open microsurgical approach.
- Residual defects after repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries and pelvic floor muscle strength are related to anal incontinence symptoms. [Journal Article]
- Int Urogynecol J 2016 Sep 9IU
- CONCLUSIONS: The degree of AS tear measured intrapartum was the most important factor related to AI after primary repair of OASIS. PFM strength was associated with lower incontinence symptoms in the postpartum period.
- Cricopharyngeal function or dysfunction: what's the deal? [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016 Aug 31CO
- CONCLUSIONS: UES and cricopharyngeus function is complex and dynamic. It is affected by internal signals such as posture and constitution of refluxate, aging, and interventions particularly radiation and surgery. Clear understanding of the triggers and responses of the UES will enable clinicians to choose the correct therapy for their dysphagic patients.
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- Laryngeal Elevation Velocity and Aspiration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2016; 11(9):e0162257Plos
- CONCLUSIONS: Reduced laryngeal elevation velocity for laryngeal elevated to position where laryngeal vestibule is fully closed was an independent predictor of aspiration in patients with acute ischemic stroke. This may be related to a decreased contraction velocity of the muscles involved in hyolaryngeal elevation. Therapeutic methods aimed at improving laryngeal elevation velocity may decrease aspiration events and pneumonias after stroke.