- A Longitudinal Study of Adjustment Disorder After Trauma Exposure. [Journal Article]
- AJAm J Psychiatry 2016 Oct 24; :appiajp201616010071
- CONCLUSIONS: Recategorization of adjustment disorder into the trauma- and stressor-related disorders is supported by this study. However, further description of the phenomenology of the disorder is required.
- Targeting of calcitonin gene-related peptide action as a new strategy for migraine treatment. [Review]
- NNNeurol Neurochir Pol 2016 Nov - Dec; 50(6):463-467
- Migraine is a chronic, recurrent disorder, characterized by attacks of severe pain, affecting around 1% of adult population. Many studies suggest, that trigeminovascular system plays a key role in pa...
Migraine is a chronic, recurrent disorder, characterized by attacks of severe pain, affecting around 1% of adult population. Many studies suggest, that trigeminovascular system plays a key role in pathogenesis of migraine and other primary headaches. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is an endogenous substance, which is regarded a key mediator released from trigeminovascular system after stimulation of sensory nerve endings, responsible for dilatation of peripheral vessels and sensory transmission. CGRP is and extensively studied peptide as one of the most promising targets in migraine drug research. In the article we focus on the role of CGRP in the pathophysiology of migraine and present current data on CGRP antagonists and CGRP monoclonal antibodies.
- Intimacy, Substance Use, and Communication Needs During Cancer Therapy: A Report From the "Resilience in Adolescents and Young Adults" Study. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Adolesc Health 2016 Oct 18
- CONCLUSIONS: Intimacy and substance use among adolescents and young adults are common during cancer therapy. Clinical and research implications include the identification of optimal communication and patient-centered supports.
- The research domain criteria framework: The case for anterior cingulate cortex. [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2016 Sep 28; 71:418-443
- The United States National Institute of Mental Health has recently promoted the Research Domain Criteria framework, which emphasizes the study of neurocognitive constructs that cut across different d...
The United States National Institute of Mental Health has recently promoted the Research Domain Criteria framework, which emphasizes the study of neurocognitive constructs that cut across different disorders. These constructs are said to express dimensionally across the population, giving rise to psychopathologies only in the extreme cases where that expression is maladaptive. Inspired by the RDoC framework, we propose that recent insights into the function of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a brain area said to be responsible for selecting and motivating extended behaviors, may elucidate the etiology of a diverse array of mental disorders. We argue that ACC function contributes to individual differences in personality traits related to reward sensitivity and persistence, and propose that the maladaptive expression of these traits contributes to multiple mental and neurological disorders. Our discussion is organized around a computational framework that relates the reward processing and control functions of ACC, as revealed by two electrophysiological phenomena called the reward positivity and frontal midline theta oscillations, to a distributed neural system underlying cognitive control.
- Association of respondent psychiatric comorbidity with family history of comorbidity: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III. [Journal Article]
- CPCompr Psychiatry 2016 Aug 8; 71:49-56
- CONCLUSIONS: Further investigations of relationships among familial comorbidity, ACEs, and respondents' diagnoses may improve understanding of comorbidity.
- Integrating psychological and neurobiological considerations regarding the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders: An Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model. [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2016 Aug 30; 71:252-266
- Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical consider...
Within the last two decades, many studies have addressed the clinical phenomenon of Internet-use disorders, with a particular focus on Internet-gaming disorder. Based on previous theoretical considerations and empirical findings, we suggest an Interaction of Person-Affect-Cognition-Execution (I-PACE) model of specific Internet-use disorders. The I-PACE model is a theoretical framework for the processes underlying the development and maintenance of an addictive use of certain Internet applications or sites promoting gaming, gambling, pornography viewing, shopping, or communication. The model is composed as a process model. Specific Internet-use disorders are considered to be the consequence of interactions between predisposing factors, such as neurobiological and psychological constitutions, moderators, such as coping styles and Internet-related cognitive biases, and mediators, such as affective and cognitive responses to situational triggers in combination with reduced executive functioning. Conditioning processes may strengthen these associations within an addiction process. Although the hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of specific Internet-use disorders, summarized in the I-PACE model, must be further tested empirically, implications for treatment interventions are suggested.
- The genetics of alcohol dependence and alcohol-related liver disease. [Review]
- JHJ Hepatol 2016 Aug 27
- The susceptibility to developing alcohol dependence and significant alcohol-related liver injury is determined by a number of constitutional, environmental and genetic factors, although the nature an...
The susceptibility to developing alcohol dependence and significant alcohol-related liver injury is determined by a number of constitutional, environmental and genetic factors, although the nature and level of interplay between them remains unclear. The familiality and heritability of alcohol dependence is well-documented but, to date, no strong candidate genes conferring increased risk have emerged, although variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase have been shown to confer protection, predominantly in individuals of East Asian ancestry. Population contamination with confounders such as drug co-dependence and psychiatric and physical co-morbidity may explain the essentially negative genome-wide association studies in this disorder. The familiality and hereditability of alcohol-related cirrhosis is not as well-documented but three strong candidate genes PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and MBOAT7, have been identified. The mechanisms by which variants in these genes confer risk and the nature of the functional interplay between them remains to be determined but, when elucidated, will undoubtedly increase our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. The way in which this genetic information could potentially inform patient management has yet to be determined and tested.
- Attentional and motor impulsivity interactively predict 'food addiction' in obese individuals. [Journal Article]
- CPCompr Psychiatry 2016 Oct 5; 72:83-87
- CONCLUSIONS: Results support previous findings showing that non-planning impulsivity does not appear to play a role in eating-related self-regulation. Furthermore, this is the first study that shows interactive effects between different impulsivity facets when predicting 'food addiction' in obese individuals. Self-regulatory failure in eating-regulation (e.g., addiction-like overeating) may particularly emerge when both attentional and motor impulsivity levels are elevated.
- Health-related behaviours and mental health in Hong Kong employees. [Journal Article]
- OMOccup Med (Lond) 2016 Oct 5
- CONCLUSIONS: Physical and mental health of Hong Kong employees are concerning. Although employee assistance programmes are common among large companies, initiation of proactive engagement approaches, reaching out to those employees in need and unlikely to seek help for mental health issues, may be useful.
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- The temporal stability of the bifactor model of comorbidity: An examination of moderated continuity pathways. [Journal Article]
- CPCompr Psychiatry 2016 Sep 28; 72:74-82
- CONCLUSIONS: Results indicated that bifactor model factors show varying degrees of temporal stability, with lowest comorbidity continuity over time reflecting distress stability. Findings are discussed with regard to recent evidence that the general factor may, to some extent, represent the negative emotionality captured by internalizing/distress in correlated two- and three-factor solutions.