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substance related disorder [keywords]
- Self-Harm and Suicidal Behavior in Borderline Personality Disorder With and Without Bulimia nervosa. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Consult Clin Psychol 2014 Dec 15.
Objective: Few studies have investigated whether a diagnosis of Bulimia nervosa (BN) confers additional risk of life-threatening behaviors such as self-harm and suicidal behavior in borderline personality disorder (BPD). Method: Participants were 483 treatment-seeking women diagnosed with BPD according to the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis II Personality Disorders (SCID-II; First, Gibbon, Spitzer, Williams, & Benjamin, 1997; Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed.; APA, 1994) and admitted to the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals between 1996 and 2009. Of these, 57 (11.8%) women met DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for BN according to the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.; Sheehan et al., 1998) and they were compared with women with BPD and other Axis I disorders. Results: We found that comorbid BN is uniquely and significantly associated with increased risk of suicidal behavior among women being treated for BPD. Findings underscore the importance of routinely screening for BN among women seeking treatment for BPD, as co-occurring bulimia appears to be a significant marker for immediate life-threatening behaviors in this already high-risk population, which is a significant public health issue. A significantly greater proportion of women with BPD-BN reported suicidal ideation at intake (past 7 days), engaged in self-harm behavior during treatment, and attempted suicide during treatment. All bivariate associations remained significant in the logistic regression models after controlling for mood, anxiety, and substance-related disorders. Conclusion: The presence of a concurrent diagnosis of BN among women with BPD is significantly and uniquely associated with recent suicidal ideation, and self-harm behavior and suicide attempts during treatment after controlling for major classes of mental disorders. Co-occurring BN appears to represent a significant marker for immediate life-threatening behaviors in women seeking treatment for BPD. Extra vigilance and careful monitoring of suicidal behavior during treatment is important for these individuals, and routine screening for BN is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
- Factors Affecting Smoking Cessation Efforts of People with Severe Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dual Diagn 2014 Dec 9.:0.
Objective:People with severe mental illness are much more likely to smoke than are members of the general population. Smoking cessation interventions that combine counseling and medication have been shown to be moderately effective, but quit rates remain low and little is known about the experiences of people with severe mental illness in smoking cessation interventions. To address this gap in knowledge, we conducted a qualitative study to investigate factors that help or hinder the smoking cessation efforts of people with severe mental illness.
Methods:We recruited 16 people with severe mental illness who had participated in a clinical trial of two different smoking cessation interventions, one involving nicotine replacement therapy only and the other nicotine replacement therapy combined with motivational interviewing and a peer support group. We conducted open-ended, semi-structured interviews with participants, who ranged in age from 20 to 56 years old, were equally distributed by gender (8 men and 8 women), and were predominantly Caucasian (n = 13, 81%). Primary mental illness diagnoses included schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 6, 38%), depression (n = 5, 31%), bipolar disorder (n = 4, 25%), and anxiety disorder (n = 1, 6%). At entry into the clinical trial, participants smoked an average of 22.6 cigarettes per day (SD = 13.0).
Results:Results indicated that people with mental illness have a diverse range of experiences in the same smoking cessation intervention. Smoking cessation experiences were influenced by factors related to the intervention itself (such as presence of smoking cessation aids, group supports, and emphasis on individual choice and needs), as well as individual factors (such as mental health, physical health, and substance use), and social-environmental factors (such as difficult life events and social relationships).
Conclusions:An improved understanding of the smoking cessation experiences of people with severe mental illness can inform the delivery of future smoking cessation interventions for this population. The results of this study suggest the importance of smoking cessation interventions that offer a variety of treatment options, incorporating choice and flexibility, so as to be responsive to the evolving needs and preferences of individual clients.
- Dual Recovery Among People With Serious Mental Illnesses and Substance Problems: A Qualitative Analysis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Dual Diagn 2014 Oct 16.:1-9.
Objective:Individuals with serious mental illnesses are more likely to have substance-related problems than those without mental health problems. They also face more difficult recovery trajectories as they cope with dual disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about individuals' perspectives regarding their dual recovery experiences.
Methods:This qualitative analysis was conducted as part of an exploratory mixed-methods study of mental health recovery. Members of Kaiser Permanente Northwest (a group-model, not-for-profit, integrated health plan) who had serious mental illness diagnoses were interviewed four times over two years about factors affecting their mental health recovery. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded with inductively derived codes. Themes were identified by reviewing text coded "alcohol or other drugs."
Results:Participants (N = 177) had diagnosed schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (n = 75, 42%), bipolar I/II disorder (n = 84, 48%), or affective psychosis (n = 18, 10%). At baseline, 63% (n = 112) spontaneously described addressing substance use as part of their mental health recovery. When asked at follow-up, 97% (n = 171) provided codeable answers about substances and mental health. We identified differing pathways to recovery, including through formal treatment, self-help groups or peer support, "natural" recovery (without the help of others), and continued but controlled use of alcohol. We found three overarching themes in participants' experiences of recovering from serious mental illnesses and substance-related problems: Learning about the effects of alcohol and drugs provided motivation and a foundation for sobriety; achieving sobriety helped people to initiate their mental health recovery processes; and achieving and maintaining sobriety built self-efficacy, self-confidence, improved functioning and a sense of personal growth. Non-judgmental support from clinicians adopting chronic disease approaches also facilitated recovery.
Conclusions:Irrespective of how people achieved sobriety, quitting or severely limiting use of substances was important to initiating and continuing mental health recovery processes. Substance abuse treatment approaches that are flexible, reduce barriers to engagement, support learning about effects of substances on mental health and quality of life, and adopt a chronic disease model of addiction may increase engagement and success. Peer-based support like Alcoholics or Narcotics Anonymous can be helpful for people with serious mental illnesses, particularly when programs accept use of mental health medications.
- Reliability and Validity of the Severity of Dependence Scale in a Chinese Sample of Treatment-seeking Ketamine Users. [Journal Article]
- East Asian Arch Psychiatry 2014 Dec; 24(4):156-64.
OBJECTIVE.Despite growing popularity of ketamine misuse in Asia, there is a lack of a validated instrument to measure the severity of ketamine dependence. Psychometric properties of Chinese Severity of Dependence Scale for ketamine (C-SDS-K) were examined in a sample of treatment-seeking ketamine users in Hong Kong.
METHODS.A total of 80 treatment-seeking ketamine users were recruited from 3 treatment centres. The C-SDS-K was administered to assess their severity of dependence on ketamine in the previous month. The diagnosis of their ketamine misuse as per the DSM-IV criteria, and the count of dependence criteria fulfilled in the previous month were determined by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I).
RESULTS.The C-SDS-K showed high internal consistency (α = 0.74) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95). Total score of C-SDS-K correlated positively with frequency (rs = 0.73, p < 0.001) and dose (rs = 0.89, p < 0.001) of ketamine use per week in the previous month, duration of regular ketamine use (rs = 0.28, p = 0.01), and the count of DSM-IV ketamine dependence criteria met in the previous month (rs = 0.84, p < 0.001). All items loaded strongly on a single factor (factor loading ≥ 0.60) in principal component analysis.
CONCLUSION.The findings support SDS as a reliable and valid tool for measuring the severity of dependence in the treatment-seeking population of Chinese ketamine users.
- Future Research and Clinical Directions in the Field of Men's Mental Health: The Madrid Declaration. [Journal Article]
- Front Public Health 2014.:242.
- The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity and Cannabis Dependence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Contextual Behav Sci 2014 Oct 1; 3(4):273-278.
The relationship between cannabis use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received increased scientific scrutiny in recent years. Consistent with this research, studies provide evidence that many individuals with PTSD use cannabis to reduce negative affect and other unpleasant internal experiences associated with PTSD. However, no research to date has explored factors that may be associated with an increased likelihood of cannabis misuse among individuals with PTSD. Consequently, this study explored the moderating role of experiential avoidance (EA; defined as the tendency to engage in strategies to reduce unpleasant private experiences) in the PTSD-cannabis dependence relationship among a sample of 123 Criterion A trauma-exposed patients in residential substance abuse treatment. Moderation analyses indicated an interactive effect of PTSD symptom severity and EA on current cannabis dependence. Specifically, results revealed a conditional effect of PTSD symptom severity on cannabis dependence only when EA was average or higher, with higher levels of PTSD symptom severity associated with a greater risk of cannabis dependence. These findings are consistent with evidence that cannabis use may serve an avoidant function among some individuals with PTSD and suggest that acceptance-based behavioral approaches might be effective in targeting both cannabis use and PTSD-related impairment.
- Dependence on Prescription Benzodiazepines and Z-drugs Among Young to Middle-aged Patients in France. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Subst Use Misuse 2014 Dec 4.
Background:Benzodiazepines (BZD) and nonbenzodiazepines hypnotics (z-drugs) are recognized as one of the most widely prescribed medications in the world.
Objectives:The purpose of the study was to assess the BZD and z-drugs dependence in young to middle-aged outpatients who were taking BZD/z-drugs on a chronic basis, and to characterize their profile.
Methods:This is a forward-looking cross-sectional epidemiological study. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview within a network of partner pharmacies from the Nantes area, in France. All data were obtained exclusively through patients' declarations. 212 patients (19-64 years old) were included: they were considered dependent when they answered positively to at least three items of the DSM IV. A multivariate logistic regression and a principal component analysis (PCA) were carried out to determine their profile.
Results:Almost half of the patients met criteria for BZD/z-drugs dependence. The risk to develop BZD/z-drugs dependence is significantly associated with psychiatric history and with the quantity of BZD/z-drugs that is taken. A two factor concept of dependence could be identified according to the PCA: one axis with items of "tolerance" and "long term administration or higher doses", and a second axis with "concerned by treatment" and "somatic consequences". Conclusions/Importance: Among this BZD/z-drug dependent population, the two axes identified in the PCA represent two profiles of dependence: being in positive conditioning or suffering from negative consequences. Clinicians need to know them: these two clinical profiles may have an influence in terms of decision-making, especially to manage discontinuation.
- Bone mineral metabolism and bone mineral density in alcohol related and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. [Journal Article]
- Trop Gastroenterol 2014 Apr-Jun; 35(2):107-12.
There is limited information on the bone mineral metabolism in patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP).103 patients with CP (all males: mean age 38.6 ± 20.64 yrs) and 40 age matched control males (mean age: 36.7 ± 20.70 yrs) were prospectively studied. Serum levels of 25 (OH) Vitamin D3, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using adual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanner.Seventy two (70%) patients had alcohol related chronic pancreatitis (ACP), 30 (29.1%) patients had idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP) and one patient had post-traumatic chronic pancreatitis. Fifty nine (59.8%) patients had chronic calcific pancreatitis (CCP) and 39 (37.8%) patients were diabetic. Steatorrhea was noted in 21 (20.4%) patients. On comparison with controls, patients with chronic pancreatitis had significantly lower 25 (OH) Vitamin D3 levels (p = 0.01). On evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar spine, 46% patients were osteopenic and 12% patients were osteoporotic. On evaluation of BMD of femur, 30.1% patients were osteoporotic and 39.8% patients were osteopenic. No significant difference was found in the frequency of metabolic osteopathy between alcoholic and idiopathic groups (p = 0.108), calcific and non-calcific groups (p = 0.410), diabetic and non-diabetic groups (p = 0.126). smokers and non-smokers (p = 0.198), and patients with and without history of steatorrhea (p = 0.265) and indifferent severity groups ofupancreatitis (p = 0.910) CONCLUSIONS: Majority of patients with both ACP and ICP had low BMD and similar frequency of bone changes between various groups suggests that systemic inflammation may play an important role in its pathogenesis. Further detailed metabolic studies are necssary to define the pathogenic mechanism of metabolic osteopathy associated with chronic pancreatitis.
- Cryptogenic cirrhosis and NASH: entities in evolution and involution. [Editorial]
- Trop Gastroenterol 2014 Apr-Jun; 35(2):65-70.
Cryptogenic cirrhosis is a clinical entity which has the potential for better diagnosis of actual underlying maladies with future advancements in medicine. Current understanding of CC is rapidly undergoing transformation (Figures 1 & 2). In the light of available evidence of frequent disappearance of fat in NASH-associated cirrhosis, CC explants showing steatosis, allografts demonstrating the full blown recurrence of NASH in CC, and the association of CC with diabetes and obesity, suggests CC to be more proximately linked with NAS than believed until now (Figure 2). However, there are subsets of patients within CC that appear to emerge from other etiologies. With increasing clarity of NASH pathogenesis, a useful biomarker might soon be available. Advancements in diagnostics and our understanding of NASH are likely to elucidate NASH-associated cirrhosis as the predominant cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis.
- Substance abuse and batterer programmes in California, USA: factors associated with treatment outcomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Health Soc Care Community 2014 Dec 3.
The association between substance abuse and intimate partner violence is quite robust. A promising area to improve treatment for the dual problems of substance abuse and violence perpetration is the identification of client characteristics and organisational and programme factors as predictors of health outcomes. Therefore, we examined associations of client, organisational and programme factors with outcomes in community health settings. Directors of 241 substance use disorder programmes (SUDPs) and 235 batterer intervention programmes (BIPs) reported outcomes of programme completion and substance use and violence perpetration rates at discharge; data collection and processing were completed in 2012. SUDPs having more female, non-white, younger, uneducated, unemployed and lower income clients reported lower completion rates. In SUDPs, private, for-profit programmes reported higher completion rates than public or private, non-profit programmes. SUDPs with lower proportions of their budgets from government sources, and higher proportions from client fees, reported better outcomes. Larger SUDPs had poorer programme completion and higher substance use rates. Completion rates in SUDPs were higher when clients could obtain substance- and violence-related help at one location, and programmes integrated violence-prevention contracting into care. In BIPs, few client, organisational and programme factors were associated with outcomes, but the significant factors associated with programme completion were consistent with those for SUDPs. Publicly owned and larger programmes, and SUDPs lacking staff to integrate violence-related treatment, may be at risk of poorer client outcomes, but could learn from programmes that perform well to yield better outcomes.