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substance related disorder [keywords]
- Agitation in cognitive disorders: International Psychogeriatric Association provisional consensus clinical and research definition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Psychogeriatr 2014 Oct 14.:1-11.
ABSTRACT Background: Agitation is common across neuropsychiatric disorders and contributes to disability, institutionalization, and diminished quality of life for patients and their caregivers. There is no consensus definition of agitation and no widespread agreement on what elements should be included in the syndrome. The International Psychogeriatric Association formed an Agitation Definition Work Group (ADWG) to develop a provisional consensus definition of agitation in patients with cognitive disorders that can be applied in epidemiologic, non-interventional clinical, pharmacologic, non-pharmacologic interventional, and neurobiological studies. A consensus definition will facilitate communication and cross-study comparison and may have regulatory applications in drug development programs. Methods: The ADWG developed a transparent process using a combination of electronic, face-to-face, and survey-based strategies to develop a consensus based on agreement of a majority of participants. Nine-hundred twenty-eight respondents participated in the different phases of the process. Results: Agitation was defined broadly as: (1) occurring in patients with a cognitive impairment or dementia syndrome; (2) exhibiting behavior consistent with emotional distress; (3) manifesting excessive motor activity, verbal aggression, or physical aggression; and (4) evidencing behaviors that cause excess disability and are not solely attributable to another disorder (psychiatric, medical, or substance-related). A majority of the respondents rated all surveyed elements of the definition as "strongly agree" or "somewhat agree" (68-88% across elements). A majority of the respondents agreed that the definition is appropriate for clinical and research applications. Conclusions: A provisional consensus definition of agitation has been developed. This definition can be used to advance interventional and non-interventional research of agitation in patients with cognitive impairment.
- Bias due to sample selection in propensity score matching for a supportive housing program evaluation in new york city. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(10):e109112.
Little is known about influences of sample selection on estimation in propensity score matching. The purpose of the study was to assess potential selection bias using one-to-one greedy matching versus optimal full matching as part of an evaluation of supportive housing in New York City (NYC).Data came from administrative data for 2 groups of applicants who were eligible for an NYC supportive housing program in 2007-09, including chronically homeless adults with a substance use disorder and young adults aging out of foster care. We evaluated the 2 matching methods in their ability to balance covariates and represent the original population, and in how those methods affected outcomes related to Medicaid expenditures.In the population with a substance use disorder, only optimal full matching performed well in balancing covariates, whereas both methods created representative populations. In the young adult population, both methods balanced covariates effectively, but only optimal full matching created representative populations. In the young adult population, the impact of the program on Medicaid expenditures was attenuated when one-to-one greedy matching was used, compared with optimal full matching.Given covariate balancing with both methods, attenuated program impacts in the young adult population indicated that one-to-one greedy matching introduced selection bias.
- HCV treatment uptake in people who have injected drugs - observations in a large cohort that received addiction treatment 1970-1984. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Gastroenterol 2014 Oct 13.:1-8.
Abstract Objectives. The aim of this study was to document antiviral treatment uptake among former or current people who inject drugs (PWID) with chronic hepatitis C and to explore a possible association between treatment and mortality. Material and methods. This is a longitudinal cohort study of PWID admitted for drug abuse treatment 1970-1984. The 245 hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA-positive patients alive by the end of 1996 were followed 1997-2012 through linkage to several health registers. Treatment uptake was mainly documented by information on prescription of antiviral medication registered in the Norwegian Prescription Database from 2004. Cox regression, with a time-dependent covariate measuring end-of-treatment, was employed to evaluate mortality after treatment. Results. At the end of the follow-up, median time since HCV exposure was 36 years, and 19.2% (47/245) had been prescribed antiviral treatment for chronic HCV infection. No gender difference was observed. Among those alive at the end of the study period, 27.8% (44/158) had been treated. Relative hazard of death was 0.21 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.68), comparing periods for patients after versus before or without treatment. Mortality rate after treatment was 0.8 per 100 person years (95% CI 0.3-2.4) compared to 2.8 (95% CI 2.2-3.5) in untreated patients and before treatment. The most important causes of death among the untreated were drug-related. Conclusions. Among PWID infected with HCV, approximately one-fourth of those still alive at a median of 36 years after exposure had received HCV treatment. Treatment was associated with increased survival, probably mainly due to selection bias.
- Measuring symptoms and diagnosing mental disorders in the elderly community: the test-retest reliability of the CIDI65+ [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2014 Oct 13.
Prevalence findings for the elderly are artificially low, most likely due to insufficient consideration of age-related cognitive abilities in diagnostic interviews. Aims: (1) To describe the rationale for the development of an age-adapted Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI65+) for use in a European project (MentDis_ICF65+). (2) To examine its test-retest reliability. Methods: Based on substantive pilot work the CIDI standard questions were shortened, broken down into shorter subsets and combined with sensitization questions and dimensional measures. Test-retest was determined in N = 68 subjects aged 60-79 years via two independent examinations by clinical interviewers using kappa (sensitivity, specificity) for categorical and intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficients for dimensional measures. Results: Test-retest reliability was good for any mental disorder (κ = 0.63), major depression (κ = 0.55), anxiety (κ = 0.62, range = 0.30-0.78), substance (κ = 0.77, range = 0.71-0.82), obsessive-compulsive disorder (κ = 1.00) and most core symptoms/syndromes (κ range = 0.48-1.00). Agreement for some disorders (i.e. somatoform/pain) attenuated, partly due to time lapse effects. ICC for age of onset, recency, quantity, frequency and duration questions ranged between κ = 0.60-0.90. Dimensional agreement measures were not consistently higher. Conclusion: The age-adapted CIDI65+ is reliable for assessing most mental disorders, distress, impairment and time-related information in the elderly, prompting the need to examine validity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
- Amygdala NRG1-ErbB4 is Critical For the Modulation of Anxiety-Like Behaviors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuropsychopharmacology 2014 Oct 13.
Anxiety disorder is related to the pathophysiology of psychiatric diseases, including major depression, substance abuse and schizophrenia. The amygdala is important for manifestation and modulation of anxiety. However, relatively little is known regarding the mechanisms that control the amygdala inhibitory activity that is involved in anxiety. We found that almost all ErbB4 which is the only autonomous receptor of neuregulin 1 (NRG1) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was expressed in GABAergic neurons. Endogenous NRG1-ErbB4 signaling pathway in the BLA could modulate anxiety-like behaviors and GABA release, whereas it had no effect on glutamatergic transmission. The administration of NRG1 into the BLA of high anxiety mice alleviated their anxiety and enhanced GABAergic neurotransmission. Moreover, exogenous NRG1 also produced an anxiolytic effect in the stressed mice. Together, these observations indicated that NRG1-ErbB4 signaling is critical to maintaining GABAergic activity in the amygdala and thus to modulating anxiety-like behaviors. Because NRG1 and ErbB4 are susceptibility genes of schizophrenia, our findings might also help to explain the potential mechanism of emotional abnormality in schizophrenia.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 13 October 2014. doi:10.1038/npp.2014.274.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, other mental health problems, substance use, and driving: examination of a population-based, representative canadian sample. [Journal Article]
- Traffic Inj Prev 2014.:S1-9.
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships among self-reported screening measures of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), other psychiatric problems, and driving-related outcomes in a provincially representative sample of adults 18 years and older living in the province of Ontario, Canada.The study examined the results of the Centre for Addictions and Mental Health (CAMH) Ontario Monitor, an ongoing repeated cross-sectional telephone survey of Ontario adults over a 2-year period. Measures included ADHD measures (Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1.1 [ASRS-V1.1], previous ADHD diagnosis, ADHD medication use); psychiatric distress measures (General Health Questionnaire [GHQ12], use of pain, anxiety, and depression medication); antisocial behavior measure (The Antisocial Personality Disorder Scale from the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview [APD]); substance use and abuse measures (alcohol, cannabis, and cocaine), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), driving-related outcomes (driving after drinking, driving after cannabis use, street racing, collisions in past year), and sociodemographics (gender, age, vehicle-kilometers traveled).A total of 4,014 Ontario residents were sampled, of which 3,485 reported having a valid driver's license. Overall, 3.22% screened positive for ADHD symptoms on the ASRS-V1.1 screening tool. A greater percentage of those who screened positive were younger, reported previous ADHD diagnosis and medication use, distress, antisocial behavior, anti-anxiety and antidepressant medication use, substance use, and social problems compared to those who screened negative. However, there were no statistically significant differences between those who screened positive or negative for ADHD symptoms on self-reported driving after having 2 or more drinks in the previous hour; within an hour of using cannabis, marijuana, or hash; or in a street race or collision involvement as a driver in the past year. When a sequential regression was conducted to predict self-reported collisions, younger age and higher weekly kilometers driven showed higher odds of collision involvement, and the odds ratio for cannabis use ever approached statistical significance.This study is the first population-based study of a representative sample of adults 18 years and older living in Ontario, Canada. These results showed no relationship between the ADHD screen and collision when age, sex, and kilometers driven are controlled for. However, these analyses are based on self-report screeners and not psychiatric diagnoses and a limited sample of ADHD respondents. Thus, these results should be interpreted with caution.
- Verbal abuse, like physical and sexual abuse, in childhood is associated with an earlier onset and more difficult course of bipolar disorder. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bipolar Disord 2014 Oct 13.
Physical or sexual abuse in childhood is known to have an adverse effect on the course of bipolar disorder, but the impact of verbal abuse has not been well elucidated.We examined the occurrence and frequency (never to frequently) of each type of abuse in childhood in 634 US adult outpatients (average age 40 years). Patients gave informed consent and provided information about their age of onset and course of illness prior to study entry.Verbal abuse alone occurred in 24% of the patients. Similar to a history of physical or sexual abuse, a history of verbal abuse was related to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder and other poor prognosis characteristics, including anxiety and substance abuse comorbidity, rapid cycling, and a deteriorating illness course as reflected in ratings of increasing frequency or severity of mania and depression.A lasting adverse impact of the experience of verbal abuse in childhood is suggested by its relationship to an earlier age of onset of bipolar disorder, other poor prognosis factors, and a deteriorating course of illness. Verbal abuse is a common confound in comparison groups defined by a lack of physical or sexual abuse. Ameliorating the impact of verbal abuse on the unfolding course of bipolar disorder appears to be an important target of therapeutics and worthy of attempts at primary and secondary prophylaxis. Family-based treatments that focus on psychoeducation, enhancing intra-family communication, and coping skills may be particularly helpful.
- Internet addiction disorder and problematic use of Google Glass™ in patient treated at a residential substance abuse treatment program. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Addict Behav 2014 Sep 26.:58-60.
Internet addiction disorder (IAD) is characterized by the problematic use of online video games, computer use, and mobile handheld devices. While not officially a clinical diagnosis according to the most recent version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), individuals with IAD manifest severe emotional, social, and mental dysfunction in multiple areas of daily activities due to their problematic use of technology and the internet.We report a 31year-old man who exhibited problematic use of Google Glass™. The patient has a history of a mood disorder most consistent with a substance induced hypomania overlaying a depressive disorder, anxiety disorder with characteristics of social phobia and obsessive compulsive disorder, and severe alcohol and tobacco use disorders.During his residential treatment program at the Navy's Substance Abuse and Recovery Program (SARP) for alcohol use disorder, it was noted that the patient exhibited significant frustration and irritability related to not being able to use his Google Glass™. The patient exhibited a notable, nearly involuntary movement of the right hand up to his temple area and tapping it with his forefinger. He reported that if he had been prevented from wearing the device while at work, he would become extremely irritable and argumentative.Over the course of his 35-day residential treatment, the patient noted a reduction in irritability, reduction in motor movements to his temple to turn on the device, and improvements in his short-term memory and clarity of thought processes. He continued to intermittently experience dreams as if looking through the device. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of IAD involving problematic use of Google Glass™.
- Assessing psychological factors, social aspects and psychiatric co-morbidity associated with Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) in men - A systematic review. [REVIEW]
- J Psychosom Res 2014 Sep 30.
Chronic Prostatitis/Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CP/CPPS) is a chronic pain disease with high prevalence rates and substantial health care costs. An interdisciplinary classification system is commonly used (UPOINT) which includes psychosocial factors. Nevertheless, psychosocial influences on CP/CPPS only recently became a research focus. Therefore, we aimed to synthesize the existing data and to identify further research topics. Then, based on our results, diagnosis and treatment can be improved.In a systematic review conducted according to the PRISMA reporting guidelines we searched different databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO) using the broad search terms "chronic pelvic pain syndrome AND men". Two raters independently screened the literature and assessed the risk of bias.We included 69 original research articles which considered psychosocial variables. We found studies investigating different psychosocial factors (pain catastrophizing, stress, personality factors, social aspects), co-morbid psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety and trauma-related disorders, somatization disorder, substance abuse) and Quality of Life (QoL). In addition, there is a high risk of bias in most studies e.g. concerning the study design or the measures.There is evidence suggesting that psychological factors are important in understanding CP/CPPS. However, research concentrated on a few aspects while the others were not covered adequately. We found evidence of a higher number of psychosocial factors and psychiatric co-morbidities than is currently included in the UPOINT system. More high quality research is needed to understand the interplay of psychosocial factors in CP/CPPS. Furthermore, these factors should be incorporated into treatment approaches.
- PTSD-related alcohol expectancies and impulsivity interact to predict alcohol use severity in a substance dependent sample with PTSD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Addict Behav 2014 Sep 28.:41-45.
Problematic alcohol use is highly comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and prior work has demonstrated that individuals with PTSD may self-medicate with alcohol in an effort to reduce their symptoms. The combination of impulsivity and alcohol-related expectancies influences the development of problematic drinking patterns. When examining individuals diagnosed with PTSD, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies may be particularly relevant to the etiology of problematic drinking. To date, no studies have specifically examined PTSD-specific alcohol expectancies as they relate to alcohol use severity in a clinical sample.The current study examined the relationship between impulsivity, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, and severity of alcohol use in a sample of 63 individuals diagnosed with comorbid PTSD and substance use disorders who were receiving treatment in a residential substance use treatment program.Results indicated that PTSD-related alcohol expectancies moderated the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use severity. Specifically, at low to moderate levels of positive PTSD-related alcohol expectancies, impulsivity significantly predicted alcohol use severity, while impulsivity had no impact on the prediction of alcohol use severity when such expectancies were high. Additionally, the relationship between impulsivity, expectancies, and alcohol use severity was significant for positive, but not negative, PTSD-related alcohol expectancies.Overall, these results suggest that impulsivity and PTSD-related alcohol expectancies interact to predict alcohol use severity in a comorbid PTSD and substance dependent sample.