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substance related disorder [keywords]
- The Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA) as a Model Paradigm for the Management of Adolescents with Substance Use Disorders and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Subst Abus 2014 Jul 18.:0.
ABSTRACT Background: Integrated treatment for youth with substance use disorders (SUDs) and co-occurring psychiatric disorders is recommended; however, there are few studies that have evaluated integrated treatment approaches. Methods: This paper includes a brief review of cognitive-behavioral and family therapies since they have been demonstrated to be effective treatments for the disorders that commonly co-occur with substance use. It also describes how an integrated treatment paradigm has been implemented using one Empirically Supported Treatment, the Adolescent Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). Results: There is existing research which supports the use of several A-CRA procedures to treat substance use and commonly co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Conclusions: In the absence of further research, it is reasonable in the interim to train clinicians in treatments that incorporate components that have been found to be effective for both substance use and commonly co-occurring psychiatric disorders. These treatments can then be adapted as needed based on an individual youth's set of problems. Further research is needed to test treatments for various combinations of SUD and psychiatric disorders (i.e., depression, trauma-related problems, conduct disorder/behavior problems, and ADHD).
- Asynchronous telepsychiatry in maharashtra, India: study of feasibility and referral pattern. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Psychol Med 2014 Jul; 36(3):299-301.
There is a paucity of published telepsychiatry results in India.This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of asynchronous telepsychiatry and to study the referral patterns.This study was conducted in the telemedicine unit of a tertiary care center and design was retrospective analysis of 94 cases, which were diagnosed and treated by telepsychiatry.All 94 patients who were referred between January 2007 and August 2013 for telepsychiatry consultations were retrospectively analyzed to assess the referral pattern and feasibility.Comparisons between demographic parameters and psychiatric diagnosis was done using Chi-square test.In 89 out of 94 (95%) patients it was possible to make a definitive diagnosis and recommend appropriate treatment only on the basis of data received from the primary care physician by telepsychiatry. This indicates the feasibility of telepsychiatry. The most common problems for which referrals were made included schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood disorders and substance related disorders.This study demonstrates the feasibility of Asynchronous telepsychiatry. Additional Indian studies should be conducted to build the evidence base for the best use of asynchronous telepsychiatry.
- Co-morbidity in Bipolar Disorder: A Retrospective Study. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Psychol Med 2014 Jul; 36(3):270-5.
Bipolar disorder is a relatively common, long-term, and disabling psychiatric illness that is associated with high levels of functional impairment, morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of suicide. Psychiatric co-morbidity in bipolar disorder ranges from 57.3% to 74.3%, whereas medical co-morbidity varies from 2.7-70%. Indian scenario in this aspect is not clear.The objective was to ascertain the prevalence of physical and psychiatric co-morbidities in patients attending a tertiary care center over a period of 1 year and its relationship with socio-demographic and clinical variables. One hundred and twenty-five case record files were included in the review. OPCRIT software was used for re-establishing the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, which yielded 120 cases. A semi-structured pro-forma, specifically designed for the study, was used to collect the socio-demographic and clinical details.Co-morbid psychiatric disorders were found in 52 (43.3%) of the sample, whereas co-morbid physical illness was present in 77 (64.2%) patients. The most common psychiatric disorder associated was substance use disorder (27.5%), whereas co-morbid cardiovascular disorder was the most frequent physical diagnosis in the sample (20%).The prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders in bipolar patients was lower than that reported in western literature. It could be related to retrospective nature of study or reflect true lower prevalence rates. Also, certain disorders such as eating disorders were absent in our sample, and migraine diagnosis was very infrequent.
- [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Psychiatriki 2014 Apr-Jun; 25(2):139-50.
The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to normal intelligence adolescents with behavioral disorders. Risk factors that increase the chances of developing either simple or more complicated types of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation have been found to be based on individual, family and social levels. On the other hand, the individual characteristics of adolescents (intellectual level, attention capacity, understandable linguistic expression, overall progress until adolescence), the existence of a supportive family environment and the presence of social support and awareness through the creation of special counseling, education and medical services, are the most important protective factors which contribute to the prevention of several forms of psychopathology in adolescents with mental retardation. For the writing of the literature review, the following electronic databases were used: PubMed, Scopus, Psycinfo, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar. The key words used were: Intellectual Disability, Behavioral disorders, Adolescents, Mental Retardation, Learning disabilities, Developmental Disabilities, Disruptive behaviour disorders, Conduct disorder, Substance Abuse, Substance Misuse, Oppositional defiant disorder, Alcohol and illicit drug use, Smoking Use, Young people, Teenagers, Youths.
- A National Cohort Study of the Association Between the Polytrauma Clinical Triad and Suicide-Related Behavior Among US Veterans Who Served in Iraq and Afghanistan. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Public Health 2014 Jul 17.:e1-e8.
Objectives. We examined the association of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), traumatic brain injury, and chronic pain-the polytrauma clinical triad (PCT)-independently and with other conditions, with suicide-related behavior (SRB) risk among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF; Afghanistan) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans. Methods. We used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) administrative data to identify OEF and OIF veterans receiving VA care in fiscal years 2009-2011; we used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes to characterize 211 652 cohort members. Descriptive statistics were followed by multinomial logistic regression analyses predicting SRB. Results. Co-occurrence of PCT conditions was associated with significant increase in suicide ideation risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.5, 2.4) or attempt and ideation (OR = 2.6; 95% CI = 1.5, 4.6), but did not exceed increased risk with PTSD alone (ideation: OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 2.0, 2.6; attempt: OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 2.9; ideation and attempt: OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.2, 2.8). Ideation risk was significantly elevated when PTSD was comorbid with depression (OR = 4.2; 95% CI = 3.6, 4.8) or substance abuse (OR = 4.7; 95% CI = 3.9, 5.6). Conclusions. Although PCT was a moderate SRB predictor, interactions among PCT conditions, particularly PTSD, and depression or substance abuse had larger risk increases. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print July 17, 2014: e1-e8. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2014.301957).
- The Clinical Utility and Specificity of Parent Report of Executive Function among Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Int Neuropsychol Soc 2014 Jul 17.:1-13.
Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8-16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE-, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1-13).
- Cannabis consumption systemic adverse effects. [Journal Article]
- Int J High Risk Behav Addict 2014 Jun; 3(2):e18627.
- The neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist aprepitant in co-morbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: a human experimental study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2014 Jul 18.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcoholism are frequently comorbid, suggesting the possibility of overlapping neural substrates. The neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor for substance P (SP) has been implicated in both stress- and alcohol-related behaviors. The NK1 antagonist aprepitant, clinically available as a treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea, offers a tool to probe a potential role of the SP/NK1 system in comorbid PTSD and alcoholism.The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of aprepitant for treatment of comorbid PTSD and alcoholism.Fifty-three patients with PTSD and alcoholism were admitted for 4 weeks to an inpatient unit at the NIH Clinical Center and randomized to double-blind aprepitant (125 mg/day; based on PET studies reporting >90 % central receptor occupancy at this dose) or placebo. After reaching steady state, subjects were assessed for PTSD symptom severity, behavioral and neuroendocrine responses to stress and alcohol cues, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to stimuli with positive or negative emotional valence.Aprepitant treatment had no effect on PTSD symptoms or subjective or physiological responses to stress or alcohol cues. However, aprepitant robustly potentiated ventromedial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) fMRI responses to aversive visual stimuli.Despite the lack of effect on PTSD symptoms and responses to stress/alcohol cues, NK1 antagonism activated the ventral mPFC, an area considered hypoactive in PTSD, during exposure to aversive stimuli. Because this brain area is critically important for extinction of fear memories and in alcohol craving and relapse, our finding suggests that NK1 antagonism might be a useful pharmacological treatment to enhance extinction-based cue-exposure therapies.
- Identifying longitudinal trajectories of emotional distress symptoms 5 years after traumatic brain injury. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Brain Inj 2014 Jul 16.:1-9.
Abstract Primary objective: To evaluate longitudinal trajectories of emotional distress symptoms after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Research design: Longitudinal study. Methods and procedures: Patients with mild-to-severe TBI, 118 patients participated at 3 months, 109 attended at 1-year and 89 attended the 5-year follow-up. Emotional distress was measured with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Patients were also assessed for coping style, anxiety, depression, substance abuse and trauma severity. Main outcomes and results: Based on growth mixture modelling, four trajectories of emotional distress symptoms were identified: 73.5% of patients were characterized by a pattern of resilience, 6.8% by a pattern of delayed distress, 14.6% by recovery and 5.1% by chronic distress. Relative to the resilience trajectory, avoidant-coping style and psychiatric problems were related to recovery and chronic trajectories. The delayed trajectory was similar to the resilience trajectory, except for elevated depressive and anxiety symptoms at 1- and 5-years. Demographics and injury-related variables were not significantly associated with emotional distress trajectories. Conclusions: Resilience was the most common trajectory following TBI. Patients characterized by recovery and chronic trajectories required attention and long-term clinical monitoring of their symptoms. Future research would benefit from longitudinal studies to analyse emotional distress symptoms and the strength of resilience over time.
- Alcohol-related liver disease. [Journal Article]
- Nurs Stand 2014 Jul 16; 28(46):42-7.
Alcohol is one of the three leading causes of liver disease in the developed world. Patients with alcohol-related liver disease are often cared for in general wards and hospitals, rather than specialist centres. This may be a result of the number of patients being admitted or a lack of referral to specialist services by healthcare professionals. The financial cost of caring for patients with alcohol-related injuries is continuing to rise. This article explores the mechanisms of liver injury caused by alcohol; the risk factors associated with alcohol-related liver disease; assessment tools used to identify patients with alcohol use disorders; withdrawal from alcohol; chronic liver disease; and issues surrounding transplantation. The importance of the nursing role in assessing and monitoring patients undergoing withdrawal from alcohol, information giving and advice on the prevention of alcohol-related liver injury, and supporting patients with alcohol-related liver injury is highlighted.