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tight junction [keywords]
- rpS6 regulates blood-testis barrier dynamics via its effects on MMP-9 mediated by Akt signaling. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cell Sci 2014 Sep 12.
mTORC1 is an emerging regulator of blood-tissue barrier (BTB) utilizing rpS6 as the downstream signaling molecule. To explore the role of rpS6 in BTB function, a constitutively active rpS6 phosphomimetic mutant was constructed and overexpressed in Sertoli cells cultured in vitro that mimicked the BTB in vivo. Using this phosphomimetic mutant, p-rpS6 was shown to disrupt the IGF-1/insulin signaling, thereby abolishing the Akt phosphorylation which led to an induction of MMP-9. This increase in MMP-9 secretion perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier via a down-regulation of TJ-proteins at the BTB mediated by proteolysis. These findings were confirmed by the use of a specific MMP-9 inhibitor which blocked the rpS6 mutant-induced TJ-permeability barrier disruption. Additionally, the use of RNAi for Akt silencing was able to mimic the results rpS6 mutant overexpression in Sertoli cells, further confirming this p-rpS6-Akt-MMP-9 signaling pathway. In short, these data support a new concept on mTORC1-mediated BTB regulation, plausibly applicable to other blood-tissue barriers.
- ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Hum Mol Genet 2014 Sep 12.
In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC encoding tricellulin (DFNB49) and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells but have a normal endocochlear potential (EP). ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory hair cells.
- Ischemia preconditioning protects rat submandibular glands from ischemia/reperfusion injuries. [Journal Article]
- Eur J Oral Sci 2014 Oct; 122(5):324-31.
To investigate the effects of ischemia/reperfusion on rat submandibular glands without denervation and the possible protective effects of ischemia preconditioning on the glands that experienced ischemia/reperfusion, in-situ ischemia/reperfusion and ischemia preconditioning experimental models of submandibular glands of healthy male Wistar rats were conducted. For ischemia/reperfusion groups, the glands were subjected to 90 min of ischemia without denervation, followed by 1, 12, 24, or 72 h of reperfusion. Ischemia preconditioning was achieved by 3 min of ischemia following 3 min of reperfusion, performed three times before ischemia/reperfusion. Salivary secretion, histological changes, alterations of tight junctions, myeloperoxidase activity, cellular apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species levels were detected. In ischemia/reperfusion glands, rising acute-inflammation responses, reduced tight-junction width, and increased myeloperoxidase activity, reactive oxygen species levels, and apoptotic cell numbers were observed, along with secretory dysfunction, especially at 1 and 12 h post-reperfusion, which seemed to gradually return to normal by 72 h post-reperfusion. In contrast, ischemia preconditioning showed the potential to ameliorate the injury-stress responses caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Our study revealed that ischemia/reperfusion could cause a series of injury-stress responses and ultimately lead to hyposecretion, independently of the parasympathetic nerve supply, which might play an important role in the early-phase dysfunction of the transplanted glands. Ischemia preconditioning could protect the involved glands and improve ischemia/reperfusion-induced hyposecretion.
- Elongation factor-2 kinase regulates TG2/β1 integrin/Src/uPAR pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition mediating pancreatic cancer cells invasion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Cell Mol Med 2014 Sep 12.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the lethal cancers with extensive local tumour invasion, metastasis, early systemic dissemination and poorest prognosis. Thus, understanding the mechanisms regulating invasion/metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), is the key for developing effective therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K) is an atypical kinase that we found to be highly up-regulated in PaCa cells. However, its role in PaCa invasion/progression remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of eEF-2K in cellular invasion, and we found that down-regulation of eEF-2K, by siRNA or rottlerin, displays impairment of PaCa cells invasion/migration, with significant decreases in the expression of tissue transglutaminase (TG2), the multifunctional enzyme implicated in regulation of cell attachment, motility and survival. These events were associated with reductions in β1 integrin/uPAR/MMP-2 expressions as well as decrease in Src activity. Furthermore, inhibition of eEF-2K/TG2 axis suppresses the EMT, as demonstrated by the modulation of the zinc finger transcription factors, ZEB1/Snail, and the tight junction proteins, claudins. Importantly, while eEF-2K silencing recapitulates the rottlerin-induced inhibition of invasion and correlated events, eEF-2K overexpression, by lentivirus-based expression system, suppresses such rottlerin effects and potentiates PaCa cells invasion/migration capability. Collectively, our results show, for the first time, that eEF-2K is involved in regulation of the invasive phenotype of PaCa cells through promoting a new signalling pathway, which is mediated by TG2/β1 integrin/Src/uPAR/MMP-2, and the induction of EMT biomarkers which enhance cancer cell motility and metastatic potential. Thus, eEF-2K could represent a novel potential therapeutic target in pancreatic cancer.
- A proteomics study of hyperhomocysteinemia injury of the hippocampal neurons using iTRAQ. [Journal Article]
- Mol Med Rep 2014 Nov; 10(5):2511-6.
High levels of homocysteine, caused by abnormal methionine metabolism, can induce degeneration of mouse hippocampal neurons. iTRAQ™ technology has been widely used in the field of proteomics research and through employing this technology, the present study identified that hyperhomocysteinemia induced the downregulation of 52 proteins and upregulation of 44 proteins in the mouse hippocampus. Through gene ontology and pathway analysis, the upregulation of components of the cytoskeleton, actin, regulators of focal adhesion, calcium signaling pathways, tight junctions, ErbB and gonadotrophin‑releasing hormone signaling, leukocyte, transendothelial migration, propanoate and pyruvate metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies and benzoate degradation via CoA ligation pathway, was identified. It was additionally verified that tau protein was highly expressed in the hyperhomocysteinemic neurons. Further analysis revealed that tau network proteins played functional roles in homocysteine‑induced neuronal damage.
- IBD Candidate Genes and Intestinal Barrier Regulation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Inflamm Bowel Dis 2014 Oct; 20(10):1829-1849.
: Technological advances in the large scale analysis of human genetics have generated profound insights into possible genetic contributions to chronic diseases including the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. To date, 163 distinct genetic risk loci have been associated with either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, with a substantial degree of genetic overlap between these 2 conditions. Although many risk variants show a reproducible correlation with disease, individual gene associations only affect a subset of patients, and the functional contribution(s) of these risk variants to the onset of IBD is largely undetermined. Although studies in twins have demonstrated that the development of IBD is not mediated solely by genetic risk, it is nevertheless important to elucidate the functional consequences of risk variants for gene function in relevant cell types known to regulate key physiological processes that are compromised in IBD. This article will discuss IBD candidate genes that are known to be, or are suspected of being, involved in regulating the intestinal epithelial barrier and several of the physiological processes presided over by this dynamic and versatile layer of cells. This will include assembly and regulation of tight junctions, cell adhesion and polarity, mucus and glycoprotein regulation, bacterial sensing, membrane transport, epithelial differentiation, and restitution.
- Salmonella-infected crypt-derived intestinal organoid culture system for host-bacterial interactions. [Journal Article]
- Physiol Rep 2014 Sep 1; 2(9)
The in vitro analysis of bacterial-epithelial interactions in the intestine has been hampered by a lack of suitable intestinal epithelium culture systems. Here, we report a new experimental model using an organoid culture system to study pathophysiology of bacterial-epithelial interactions post Salmonella infection. Using crypt-derived mouse intestinal organoids, we were able to visualize the invasiveness of Salmonella and the morphologic changes of the organoids. Importantly, we reported bacteria-induced disruption of epithelial tight junctions in the infected organoids. In addition, we showed the inflammatory responses through activation of the NF-κB pathway in the organoids. Moreover, our western blot, PCR, and immunofluorescence data demonstrated that stem cell markers (Lgr5 and Bmi1) were significantly decreased by Salmonella infection (determined using GFP-labeled Lgr5 organoids). For the first time, we created a model system that recapitulated a number of observations from in vivo studies of the Salmonella-infected intestine, including bacterial invasion, altered tight junctions, inflammatory responses, and decreased stem cells. We have demonstrated that the Salmonella-infected organoid culture system is a new experimental model suitable for studying host-bacterial interactions.
- Silent Information Regulator 2 Homolog 1 Counters Cerebral Hypoperfusion Injury by Deacetylating Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Stroke 2014 Sep 11.
Silent information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT1) is a protein deacetylase that has been reported to suppress neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases in model organisms. We hypothesized that neurovascular protection is one of the diverse actions of SIRT1. This study was designed to determine whether SIRT1 protects against the consequences of cerebral hypoperfusion in vivo.Sirt1-overexpressing (Sirt1-Tg) mice driven by a prion promoter and their wild-type littermates were subjected to bilateral common carotid artery stenosis using external microcoils. Using Sirt1-Tg mice, we assessed the effect of SIRT1 on cerebral blood flow, cerebral angioarchitecture, histological and ultrastructural changes, and spatial working memory at several time points. We also evaluated the effects of preadministration of SIRT1 inhibitors or endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors on cerebral blood flow after bilateral common carotid artery stenosis in Sirt1-Tg mice. Levels of acetylated and nonacetylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase were measured semiquantitatively with immunoblotting.Cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral common carotid artery stenosis caused memory impairment and histological changes in wild-type littermates. However, these phenotypes were rescued in Sirt1-Tg mice, where cerebral blood flow was maintained even poststenosis. Electron microscopic analyses showed irregularities in the vascular endothelia, such as tight junction openings in wild-type mice, which were absent in Sirt1-Tg littermates. Brain endothelial nitric oxide synthase was acetylated after cerebral hypoperfusion in wild-type littermates but remained unacetylated in Sirt1-Tg mice. Moreover, treatment with SIRT1 inhibitors and endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitors abolished the vasculoprotective effects of SIRT1.Our results indicate that neurovascular endothelial SIRT1 potentiation upregulates the nitric oxide system and counters cerebral hypoperfusion injury. This novel cerebral blood flow-preserving mechanism offers potential molecular targets for future therapeutic intervention.
- [Stabilized thiomer PAA-Cys-6MNA]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Yao Xue Xue Bao 2014 Jun; 49(6):942-8.
The aimed of this study was to prepare stabilized thiomers to overcome the poor stability character of traditional thiomers. Poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-Cys) was synthesized by conjugating cysteine with poly(acrylic acid) and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine-6-mercaptonicotinic acid (PAA-Cys-6MNA, stabilized thiomers) was synthesized by grafting a protecting group 6-mercaptonicotinic acid (6MNA) with PAA-Cys. The free thiol of PAA-Cys was determined by Ellmann's reagent method and the ratio of 6MNA coupled was determined by glutathione reduction method. The study of permeation enhancement and stabilized function was conducted by using Franz diffusion cell method, with fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FD4) used as model drug. The influence of polymers on tight junctions of Caco-2 cell monolayer was detected with laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope. The results indicated that both PAA-Cys and PAA-Cys-6MNA could promote the permeation of FD4 across excised rat intestine, and the permeation function of PAA-Cys-6MNA was not influence by the pH of the storage environment and the oxidation of air after the protecting group 6MNA was grafted. The distribution of tight junction protein of Caco-2 cell monolayer F-actin was influenced after incubation with PAA-Cys and PAA-Cys-6MNA. In conclusion, stabilized thiomers (PAA-Cys-6MNA) maintained the permeation function compared with the traditional thiomers (PAA-Cys) and its stability was improved. The mechanism of the permeation enhancement function of the polymers might be related to their influence on tight junction relating proteins of cells.
- A Permeability Barrier Surrounds Taste Buds in Lingual Epithelia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2014 Sep 10.
Epithelial tissues are characterized by specialized cell-cell junctions, typically localized to the apical regions of cells. These junctions are formed by interacting membrane proteins and by cytoskeletal and extracellular matrix components. Within lingual epithelium, tight junctions join the apical tips of the gustatory sensory cells situated in taste cells. These junctions constitute a selective barrier that limits the penetration of chemosensory stimuli into taste buds (32). We have tested the ability of chemical compounds to permeate into sensory end organs in the lingual epithelium. Our findings reveal a robust barrier that surrounds the entire body of taste buds, not limited to just the apical tight junctions. This barrier prevents many but not all compounds from penetrating into taste buds, whether they are applied topically, injected into the parenchyma of the tongue, or circulating in the blood supply. Enzymatic treatments indicate that this barrier likely includes glycosaminoglycans because it could be disrupted by chondroitinase but less effectively by proteases. The barrier surrounding taste buds could also be disrupted by briefly treating lingual tissue samples with 75% DMSO. Brief exposure of lingual slices to DMSO did not affect the ability of taste buds within the slice to respond to chemical stimulation. The existence of a highly impermeable barrier surrounding taste buds and methods to break through this barrier may be relevant to basic research and to clinical treatments of taste.