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tight junction [keywords]
- Curcumin prevents leptin-induced tight junction dysfunction in intestinal Caco-2 BBe cells. [Journal Article]
- J Nutr Biochem 2014 Jan; 25(1):26-35.
Maintaining tight junction (TJ) integrity in the intestine is critical for nutrient absorption, host defense, and host immunity. While leptin secreted from adipose tissue is associated with obesity and obesity-related intestinal inflammation, the role of luminal leptin in intestinal TJ function is elusive. Here, we examined the role of leptin in intestinal TJ function in Caco-2 BBe cells and further explored the function of curcumin (CCM) in leptin-induced TJ dysfunction. Apical leptin, but not basolateral leptin, treatment at a concentration of 100 ng/ml deteriorated TJ function in Caco-2 BBe cells. Leptin-impaired TJ alteration was resulted from induction of leptin receptor-dependent JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway and its-related PI3K/Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Apical leptin also lowered the expression levels of genes encoding TJ-associated proteins such as zonula occludens-3, claudin-5, and occludin, and elevated expression of pro-inflammatory genes such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Leptin-impaired TJ junction in Caco-2 BBe cells was blunted by a 30-min CCM pretreatment through inhibition of leptin receptor-dependent signaling pathway, and its-associated induction of expression of genes encoding TJ-associated proteins and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Our results elucidate a novel function of luminal leptin in intestinal TJ dysfunction, and further identify CCM as an effective dietary compound that prevents leptin-impaired TJ function in intestinal cells.
- Modeling Long-Term Host Cell-Giardia lamblia Interactions in an In Vitro Co-Culture System. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(12):e81104.
Globally, there are greater than 700,000 deaths per year associated with diarrheal disease. The flagellated intestinal parasite, Giardia lamblia, is one of the most common intestinal pathogens in both humans and animals throughout the world. While attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium, Giardia induces epithelial cell apoptosis, disrupts tight junctions, and increases intestinal permeability. The underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of giardiasis, including the role lamina propria immune cells, such as macrophages, play in parasite control or clearance are poorly understood. Thus far, one of the major obstacles in ascertaining the mechanisms of Giardia pathology is the lack of a functionally relevant model for the long-term study of the parasite in vitro. Here we report on the development of an in vitro co-culture model which maintains the basolateral-apical architecture of the small intestine and allows for long-term survival of the parasite. Using transwell inserts, Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells and IC-21 macrophages are co-cultured in the presence of Giardia trophozoites. Using the developed model, we show that Giardia trophozoites survive over 21 days and proliferate in a combination media of Caco-2 cell and Giardia medium. Giardia induces apoptosis of epithelial cells through caspase-3 activation and macrophages do not abrogate this response. Additionally, macrophages induce Caco-2 cells to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines, GRO and IL-8, a response abolished by Giardia indicating parasite induced suppression of the host immune response. The co-culture model provides additional complexity and information when compared to a single-cell model. This model will be a valuable tool for answering long-standing questions on host-parasite biology that may lead to discovery of new therapeutic interventions.
- RGMa Regulates Cortical Interneuron Migration and Differentiation. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(11):e81711.
The etiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, has been linked to a failure to establish the intricate neural network comprising excitatory pyramidal and inhibitory interneurons during neocortex development. A large proportion of cortical inhibitory interneurons originate in the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) of the ventral telencephalon and then migrate through the ventral subventricular zone, across the corticostriatal junction, into the embryonic cortex. Successful navigation of newborn interneurons through the complex environment of the ventral telencephalon is governed by spatiotemporally restricted deployment of both chemorepulsive and chemoattractive guidance cues which work in concert to create a migratory corridor. Despite the expanding list of interneuron guidance cues, cues responsible for preventing interneurons from re-entering the ventricular zone of the ganglionic eminences have not been well characterized. Here we provide evidence that the chemorepulsive axon guidance cue, RGMa (Repulsive Guidance Molecule a), may fulfill this function. The ventricular zone restricted expression of RGMa in the ganglionic eminences and the presence of its receptor, Neogenin, in the ventricular zone and on newborn and maturing MGE-derived interneurons implicates RGMa-Neogenin interactions in interneuron differentiation and migration. Using an in vitro approach, we show that RGMa promotes interneuron differentiation by potentiating neurite outgrowth. In addition, using in vitro explant and migration assays, we provide evidence that RGMa is a repulsive guidance cue for newborn interneurons migrating out of the ganglionic eminence ventricular zone. Intriguingly, the alternative Neogenin ligand, Netrin-1, had no effect on migration. However, we observed complete abrogation of RGMa-induced chemorepulsion when newborn interneurons were simultaneously exposed to RGMa and Netrin-1 gradients, suggesting a novel mechanism for the tight regulation of RGMa-guided interneuron migration. We propose that during peak neurogenesis, repulsive RGMa-Neogenin interactions drive interneurons into the migratory corridor and prevent re-entry into the ventricular zone of the ganglionic eminences.
- PKCζ Mediates Breakdown of Outer Blood-Retinal Barriers in Diabetic Retinopathy. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2013; 8(11):e81600.
Diabetic macular edema represents the main cause of visual loss in diabetic retinopathy. Besides inner blood retinal barrier breakdown, the role of the outer blood retinal barrier breakdown has been poorly analyzed. We characterized the structural and molecular alterations of the outer blood retinal barrier during the time course of diabetes, focusing on PKCζ, a critical protein for tight junction assembly, known to be overactivated by hyperglycemia.Studies were conducted on a type2 diabetes Goto-Kakizaki rat model. PKCζ level and subcellular localization were assessed by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Cell death was detected by TUNEL assays. PKCζ level on specific layers was assessed by laser microdissection followed by Western blotting. The functional role of PKCζ was then evaluated in vivo, using intraocular administration of its specific inhibitor.PKCζ was localized in tight junction protein complexes of the retinal pigment epithelium and in photoreceptors inner segments. Strikingly, in outer segment PKCζ staining was restricted to cone photoreceptors. Short-term hyperglycemia induced activation and delocalization of PKCζ from both retinal pigment epithelium junctions and cone outer segment. Outer blood retinal barrier disruption and photoreceptor cone degeneration characterized long-term hyperglycemia. In vivo, reduction of PKCζ overactivation using a specific inhibitor, restored its tight-junction localization and not only improved the outer blood retinal barrier, but also reduced photoreceptor cell-death.In the retina, hyperglycemia induced overactivation of PKCζ is associated with outer blood retinal barrier breakdown and photoreceptor degeneration. In vivo, short-term inhibition of PKCζ restores the outer barrier structure and reduces photoreceptor cell death, identifying PKCζ as a potential target for early and underestimated diabetes-induced retinal pathology.
- P-glycoprotein mediated efflux limits substrate and drug uptake in a preclinical brain metastases of breast cancer model. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Front Pharmacol 2013.:136.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a specialized vascular interface that restricts the entry of many compounds into brain. This is accomplished through the sealing of vascular endothelial cells together with tight junction proteins to prevent paracellular diffusion. In addition, the BBB has a high degree of expression of numerous efflux transporters which actively extrude compounds back into blood. However, when a metastatic lesion develops in brain the vasculature is typically compromised with increases in passive permeability (blood-tumor barrier; BTB). What is not well documented is to what degree active efflux retains function at the BTB despite the changes observed in passive permeability. In addition, there have been previous reports documenting both increased and decreased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lesion vasculature. Herein, we simultaneously administer a passive diffusion marker ((14)C-AIB) and a tracer subject to P-gp efflux (rhodamine 123) into a murine preclinical model of brain metastases of breast cancer. We observed that the metastatic lesions had similar expression (p > 0.05; n = 756-1214 vessels evaluated) at the BBB and the BTB. Moreover, tissue distribution of R123 was not significantly (p > 0.05) different between normal brain and the metastatic lesion. It is possible that the similar expression of P-gp on the BBB and the BTB contribute to this phenomenon. Additionally we observed P-gp expression at the metastatic cancer cells adjacent to the vasculature which may also contribute to reduced R123 uptake into the lesion. The data suggest that despite the disrupted integrity of the BTB, efflux mechanisms appear to be intact, and may be functionally comparable to the normal BBB. The BTB is a significant hurdle to delivering drugs to brain metastasis.
- TRAF4 Is a Novel Phosphoinositide-Binding Protein Modulating Tight Junctions and Favoring Cell Migration. [Journal Article]
- PLoS Biol 2013 Dec; 11(12):e1001726.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is frequently overexpressed in carcinomas, suggesting a specific role in cancer. Although TRAF4 protein is predominantly found at tight junctions (TJs) in normal mammary epithelial cells (MECs), it accumulates in the cytoplasm of malignant MECs. How TRAF4 is recruited and functions at TJs is unclear. Here we show that TRAF4 possesses a novel phosphoinositide (PIP)-binding domain crucial for its recruitment to TJs. Of interest, this property is shared by the other members of the TRAF protein family. Indeed, the TRAF domain of all TRAF proteins (TRAF1 to TRAF6) is a bona fide PIP-binding domain. Molecular and structural analyses revealed that the TRAF domain of TRAF4 exists as a trimer that binds up to three lipids using basic residues exposed at its surface. Cellular studies indicated that TRAF4 acts as a negative regulator of TJ and increases cell migration. These functions are dependent from its ability to interact with PIPs. Our results suggest that TRAF4 overexpression might contribute to breast cancer progression by destabilizing TJs and favoring cell migration.
- TLR4/PKC-mediated tight junction modulation: a clinical marker of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Cancer 2013 Dec 6.
Chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity is a major clinical and economic burden to oncology practice. The mechanisms responsible for its development are ill defined, hampering the development of therapeutic interventions. In light of newly published research foci and clinical practice guidelines in supportive care in cancer, there has been renewed interest in the role tight junctions play in the pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity. Several preclinical studies have identified molecular defects in intestinal tight junctions following chemotherapy. Despite these findings, the mechanisms responsible for chemotherapy-induced tight junction disruption remain unclear. Recent research has highlighted roles for toll-like receptor 4 and protein kinase C signalling in the regulation of tight junctions. This critical review therefore aims to provide evidence linking toll-like receptor 4 expression, protein kinase C activation and tight junction disruption and their relationship to clinical toxicity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Glucocorticoids regulate barrier function and claudin expression in intestinal epithelial cells via MKP-1. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013 Dec 5.
Barrier dysfunction is pivotal to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and collagenous colitis. Glucocorticoids restore barrier function in Crohn's disease, but whether this reflects attenuated inflammation or an epithelial specific action has not yet been addressed. Using filter-grown Caco-2 monolayers as an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelial barrier, we observed that glucocorticoids induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in a glucocorticoid receptor dependent manner without altering flux of larger solutes or changing principal tight junction architecture. This was accompanied by reduced paracellular cation flux, reduced expression of the pore-forming tight junction component claudin-2 and upregulation of the sealing tight junction protein claudin-4. In contrast, expression of occludin, claudin-1, -7 or -8 was not altered. Dexamethasone increased expression and activity of MAPK phosphatase-1 and inhibition of this phosphatase prevented the glucocorticoid-induced changes in TEER and claudin expression, whereas inhibiting p38 or MEK1/2 was not sufficient to replicate the glucocorticoid effects. Upon exposure to IFNγ, TNFα (TNF) or IL-1β, TEERs declined in dexamethasone treated cells, but remained consistently higher than in cells not receiving glucocortiocoids. Treatment with IFN/TNF resulted in an up-regulation of claudin-2 that was significantly attenuated by dexamethasone, whereas increased claudin-2 expression upon IL-1β stimulation was not affected by glucocorticoids. Taken together, barrier augmentation might represent a previously unrecognized mechanism of action potentially contributing to the therapeutic efficacy of glucocorticoids in IBD and collagenous colitis.
- Micropatterned Polymeric Nanosheets for Local Delivery of an Engineered Epithelial Monolayer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Adv Mater 2013 Dec 4.
Like a carpet for cells, micropatterned polymeric nanosheets are developed toward local cell delivery. The nanosheets directed morphogenesis of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells and allowed for the injection of an engineered RPE monolayer through syringe needles without loss of cell viability. Such an ultrathin carrier has the promise of a minimally invasive delivery of cells into narrow tissue spaces.
- Tight junction protein claudin-1 is differentially expressed in craniopharyngioma subtypes and indicates invasive tumor growth. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuro Oncol 2013 Dec 4.
BackgroundClaudins are tight junction proteins expressed in epithelial tissues that play important roles in cell polarity and adhesion. Altered distribution of claudin-1(CLDN1) affects cell mobility and tumor invasiveness. Craniopharyngiomas (CPs) represent epithelial tumors of the sellar region, consisting of adamantinomatous (adaCP) and papillary (papCP) variants. Their tendency to infiltrate surrounding brain structures complicates successful surgery. Reliable markers are required to predict tumor behavior and to establish individualized treatment protocols.MethodsWe describe the distribution pattern of CLDN1 in a large cohort of 66 adaCPs, 21 papCPs, and 24 Rathke`s cleft cyst (RCC) cases using immunohistochemistry. CLDN1 mRNA levels were analyzed with qRT-PCR in 33 CP samples. The impact on the migration potential was studied in primary adaCP cell cultures (n = 11) treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) for CLDN1. Furthermore, CLDN1 distribution patterns and expression levels were compared between invasive (n = 16) and noninvasive (n = 17) tumor groups.ResultsPapCPs and RCCs exhibited a distinct homogenous and membranous expression pattern, whereas CLDN1 immunoreactivity appeared weaker and more heterogeneous in adaCPs. In the latter cases, whirl-like cell clusters showed complete absence of CLDN1. mRNA analysis confirmed reduced CLDN1 levels in adaCPs versus papCPs. Interestingly, invasive tumors exhibited significantly lower CLDN1 expression compared with noninvasive counterparts regardless of CP subtype. Accordingly, siRNA treatment for CLDN1 altered tumor cell migration in vitro.ConclusionCLDN1 represents a novel marker in the differential diagnosis of CP variants and RCCs. Low CLDN1 expression levels correlate with an invasive CP growth pattern and may serve as a prognostic marker.