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- Changes in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype distribution in invasive disease and nasopharyngeal carriage after the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction in Bogotá, Colombia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vaccine 2013 May 13.
BACKGROUND:In Bogotá, the Heptavalent Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) was introduced into childhood immunization schedule since 2009. The aim of this study was to assess the changes in serotype distribution and penicillin susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates recovered from nasopharyngeal samples and invasive disease among children living in Bogotá, before and after PCV7 introduction.
METHODS:Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from healthy children aged between 12 and 18 months of age before (years 2005-2006) and after (2011) PCV7 introduction. Identification of S. pneumoniae was performed by multiplex PCR. Serotype was determined by PCR and Quellung reaction. Susceptibility to penicillin, ceftriaxone, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, tetracycline and erythromycin was evaluated. In addition, distribution of serotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility before and after vaccine introduction among invasive isolates recovered from children ≤2 years old living in Bogotá was analyzed.
RESULTS:Prevalence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage declined from 55.7% (137/246) in unvaccinated to 44.2% (87/197) (p=0.01) in vaccinated children. The proportion of children carrying PCV7 serotypes decreased from 23.6% (58/246) to 7.6% (15/197) (p<0.001). The decrease was counterbalanced by an increase in the proportion of non-PCV7 serotypes. The most prevalent among emerging serotypes were 15A, 15B, 15C, 11A and 35B. Among IPD isolates, PCV7 serotypes decreased from 69.1% (235/340) in 2005/2009 to 38.0% (32/84) in 2010/2011 (p<0.001). The increase of non-PCV7 serotypes was significant. Resistance to penicillin among invasive isolates recovered from meningitis decreased from 41.1% (30/73) in the pre-vaccine period to 14.2% (2/14) in post-vaccine period (p=0.02).
CONCLUSIONS:A decrease in the prevalence of pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage following the introduction of PCV7 vaccine, have been overshadowed by an important surge in the prevalence of non-PCV7 serotypes. Systematic surveillance combining nasopharyngeal carriage surveys and IPD detection could help in evaluating the impact of conjugate vaccines.
- Pulmonary nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient with COPD: The role of defective innate response. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Heart Lung 2013 May 14.
OBJECTIVES:Pulmonary nocardiosis is an uncommon opportunistic infection affecting mainly immunocompromised patients. We herein present a case of nocardiosis without profound underlying immunodeficiency.
BACKGROUND:A female, 84-years' old patient with stage IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is presented. No profound causes of immunodeficiency existed, such as HIV infection, diabetes mellitus, malignancy, alcoholism, chemotherapy or previous corticosteroid intake. The patient recovered after treatment with trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for 6 months.
RESULTS:One year after infection resolution, stimulation of the patient's blood monocytes with Nocardia antigens revealed defective production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17.
CONCLUSION:We provide preliminary evidence for a link between defective innate immune responses and predisposition for Nocardia infections. Further studies must be conducted in order to fully investigate this mechanism of infection acquisition.
- Travel-associated faecal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: incidence and risk factors. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 May 14.
OBJECTIVES:To study the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among the faecal flora during travel, with a focus on risk factors, antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL-encoding genes.
METHODS:An observational prospective multicentre cohort study of individuals attending vaccination clinics in south-east Sweden was performed, in which the submission of faecal samples and questionnaires before and after travelling outside Scandinavia was requested. Faecal samples were screened for ESBL-PE by culturing on ChromID ESBL and an in-house method. ESBL-PE was confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Susceptibility testing was performed with the Etest. Individuals who acquired ESBL-PE during travel (travel-associated carriers) were compared with non-carriers regarding risk factors, and unadjusted and adjusted ORs after manual stepwise elimination were calculated using logistic regression.
RESULTS:Of 262 enrolled individuals, 2.4% were colonized before travel. Among 226 evaluable participants, ESBL-PE was detected in the post-travel samples from 68 (30%) travellers. The most important risk factor in the final model was the geographic area visited: Indian subcontinent (OR 24.8, P < 0.001), Asia (OR 8.63, P < 0.001) and Africa north of the equator (OR 4.94, P = 0.002). Age and gastrointestinal symptoms also affected the risk significantly. Multiresistance was seen in 77 (66%) of the ESBL-PE isolates, predominantly a combination of reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides. The most common species and ESBL-encoding gene were Escherichia coli (90%) and CTX-M (73%), respectively.
CONCLUSION:Acquisition of multiresistant ESBL-PE among the faecal flora during international travel is common. The geographical area visited has the highest impact on ESBL-PE acquisition.
- [Simultaneous determination of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Se Pu 2013 Jan; 31(1):15-21.
An analytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), including antibiotics (trimethoprim, erythromycin x 2H2O, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pencilline G, penicillin V potassium salt, cephalexin and sulfamethoxazole), beta-bloker (atenolol), anophelifuge (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzoylamide, DEET), antiepileptics (carbamazepine), central nervous system stimulant (caffeine), lipid modifying agent (clofibric acid), non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac sodium salt) and antimicrobial agents (triclosan and triclocarban). The detection and qualification of the target compounds were performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized mobile phases were methanol as organic phase, 0. 3% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate for positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate for ESI- as inorganic phase. Water samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction at 2 mL/min, and all the target PPCPs were efficiently extracted at pH 7. The extracted PPCPs were eluted by the mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (1 : 1, v/v). The average recoveries of the target compounds in the spiked pure water samples ranged from 53.9% - 112%. The average recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 45.1% - 156.6% with the relative standard deviations ranged from 2.4% - 15.7%, in the surface water samples spiked at 100 ng/L. The surface water samples collected from Yu Hangtang River in Hangzhou were detected. The results showed that nine PPCPs were detected including caffeine that reached a maximum concentration of 550.7 ng/L. It proved that this analytical method is reliable and acceptable.
- Severe tremor after cotrimoxazole-induced elevation of venlafaxine serum concentrations in a patient with major depressive disorder. [Journal Article]
- Ther Drug Monit 2013 Jun; 35(3):279-82.
: We describe a female patient who was an extensive metabolizer of cytochrome P450 isoenzyme (CYP) 2D6 and an intermediate metabolizer of CYP2C19 (genotype: CYP2C19 *1/*2). She exhibited high serum concentrations of venlafaxine and O-desmethylvenlafaxine and developed severe tremor after comedication with cotrimoxazole (sulfamethazole/trimethoprim). Venlafaxine is mainly metabolized by O- and N-demethylation. O-demethylation is catalyzed by the highly polymorphic CYP2D6 and N-demethylation by several enzymes, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP3A4. The observed overall pharmacokinetic effect was most probably the result of decreased N-demethylation of venlafaxine by (1) reduced expression of CYP2C19 due to a genetic deficit and (2) inhibition of CYP2C9 by cotrimoxazole.
- Photocatalytic degradation of trimethoprim by metallic nanoparticles supported on TiO2-P25. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Hazard Mater 2013 Apr 13.
The effect of Au, Ag, Cu and Ni nanoparticles deposited on TiO2-P25 was studied on the photodegradation of trimethoprim, a commonly used antibiotic. The synthesized materials were characterized by ICP, EDS, XRD, BET, UV-vis, TEM and TPR. The metal loading was 0.5wt.% and the average particle size was about 2nm in all the studied samples. The deposition of metallic particles on TiO2-P25 produces an enhancement of the activity of the bare semiconductor; when the degradation of trimethoprim was carried out by pure TiO2-P25, the mineralization reached only 50% of the organic matter, while by using metallic nanoparticles deposited on TiO2-P25, the mineralization of organic matter increased up to 80% for the same reaction conditions and reaction time. The evaluation of the photocatalytic activity was made for solutions containing trimethoprim in concentrations of 40ppm under UV light irradiation using a lamp with primary emission at 254nm and 2.2mW/cm(2). It is shown that the ability of the photocatalyst to mineralize trimethoprim depends on the electron affinity and the electronegativity of the deposited metal.
- Ineffectiveness and adverse events of nitrofurantoin in women with urinary tract infection and renal impairment in primary care. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2013 May 10.
PURPOSE:To determine whether treatment with nitrofurantoin in women with urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal impairment in primary care is associated with a higher risk of ineffectiveness and/or serious adverse events than in women without renal impairment.
METHODS:A cohort of 21,317 women treated with nitrofurantoin and a cohort of 7,926 women treated with trimethoprim, identified from the Pharmo Record Linkage System, were analysed. The primary outcome was ineffectiveness of treatment of nitrofurantoin defined as the start of a second antibacterial within 1 month after the start of nitrofurantoin. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of serious adverse events of nitrofurantoin leading to hospitalization within 90 days. A cohort of trimethoprim users was used to determine if the associations found for nitrofurantoin were mainly related to nitrofurantoin itself. The association between renal impairment and the risk of these outcomes was determined with Cox regression and expressed as hazard ratios (HRs).
RESULTS:Overall, the incidence density for ineffectiveness was 5.4 per 1,000 person-days, and moderate renal impairment was not associated with ineffective treatment [HR 1.1, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.74-1.51]. The overall incidence density for adverse events was 0.02 per 1,000 person-days. In patients with renal impairment (<50 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) the risk of pulmonary adverse events leading to hospitalization was significantly increased (HR 4.1, 95 % CI 1.31-13.09)
CONCLUSIONS:Nitrofurantoin treatment was not associated with a higher risk of ineffectiveness in women with UTI and moderate renal impairment (30-50 ml/min/1.73m(2)). However, we did find a significant association between renal impairment (<50 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and pulmonary adverse events leading to hospitalization.
- Whipple's disease infection surgical treatment: presentation of a rare case and literature review. [Journal Article]
- G Chir 2013 Apr; 34(4):117-21.
The Whipple' Disease (W.D.) is a very rare disease with an incidence of 1 per 1.000.000 inhabitants; it is a systemic infection that may mimic a wide spectrum of clinical disorders, which may have a fatal outcome and affects mainly male 40-50 years old. The infective agent is an actinomycete, Tropheryma Whipplei (T.W.) that was isolated 100 years after first description by Wipple, and identified in macrophages of mucosa of the small intestine by biopsy which is characterized by periodic acid-Schiff-positive, products of the inner membrane of his polysaccharide bacterial cell wall. The multisystemic clinical manifestations evolve rapidly towards an organic decay characterized by weight loss, malabsorption, diarrhea, polyathralgia, opthalmoplegia, neuro-psychiatric disorders and sometimes associated to endocarditis. Early antibiotic treatment with trimethoprim and sulfometathaxazole reduces the fatal evolution of the disease. The authors present a rare experience about a female subject in which the clinical gastrointestinal signs were preceded by neuro-psychiatric disorders, and evolved into obstruction and intestinal perforation which required an emergency surgery with temporary ileostomy, recanalized only after adequate medical treatment with a full dose of antibiotic and resolution of clinical disease for the high risks of fistulae for the edema and lymphadenopathy of mucosa. The diagnosis was histologically examined by intestinal biopsy performed during surgery, which showed PAS-positive histiocytes, while PRC polymerase RNA was negative, which confirms the high sensibility of PAS positive and low specificity of RNA polymerase for T.W.
- Surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine samples collected from community patients in a large metropolitan area, 2010-2012. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Epidemiol Infect 2013 May 9.:1-5.
SUMMARY Antibiotic susceptibilities of large cohorts of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine collected in the community are scarce. We report the susceptibilities of Enterobacteriaceae isolated from urine of non-selected community populations in a metropolitan area (Leeds and Bradford, UK) over 2 years. Isolates (n = 6614) were identified as follows: Escherichia coli (n = 5436), Klebsiella spp. (n = 525), Proteus mirabilis (n = 305), and 15 other species (n = 290); 58 isolates were unidentified. Ampicillin resistance was observed in 53% E. coli and 28% P. mirabilis; ⩾34% E. coli and P. mirabilis were non-susceptible to trimethoprim compared to 20% Klebsiella spp.; nitrofurantoin resistance was observed in 3% E. coli and 15% Klebsiella spp. The occurrence of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) was low (6%), as was non-susceptibility to carbapenems, cefipime and tigecycline (<2%). Further surveillance is required to monitor this level of resistance and additional clinical studies are needed to understand the impact on the outcome of current empirical prescribing decisions.
- Antimicrobial resistance, presence of integrons and biofilm formation of Salmonella Pullorum isolates from eastern China (1962-2010). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Avian Pathol 2013 Apr 14.
Three hundred and thirty-seven isolates of Salmonella Pullorum from eastern China between 1962 and 2010 were characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility (disk diffusion method), the presence of integrons (polymerase chain reaction followed by sequencing) and the ability to form biofilms (semi-quantitative adherence assay). Two hundred and fifty-eight isolates (76.6%) exhibited multiple drug resistance (MDR; resistant to at least three different classes of antimicrobials), and the level of drug resistance is increasing with time. There were three isolates (9.4%) exhibiting MDR from 1962 to 1968. MDR rates began to increase for isolates between 1970 to 1979 and 1980 to 1987 (64.6 to 78.7%). The MDR rates reached 96.6% for isolates between 1990 and 2010. Polymerase chain reaction screening for integrons showed that 75 isolates (22.3%) were positive for class 1 integrons while none were positive for class 2 integrons. All of the class 1 integron-positive isolates exhibited MDR and were more frequently resistant than the negative isolates. Two hundred and twenty isolates (65.3%) had the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial resistance levels to cefamandole, trimethoprim and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were significantly higher for biofilm-positive groups than the biofilm-negative groups. Our data show that multidrug resistance is common among S. Pullorum isolated from eastern China, being more frequent after 1990 than before 1990, and the presence of class 1 integrons is associated with multidrug resistance.