Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
- Indole production by the tryptophanase TnaA in Escherichia coli is determined by the amount of exogenous tryptophan. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Microbiology 2013 Feb; 159(Pt 2):402-10.
The signalling molecule indole occurs in significant amounts in the mammalian intestinal tract and regulates diverse microbial processes, including bacterial motility, biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance and host cell invasion. In Escherichia coli, the enzyme tryptophanase (TnaA) produces indole from tryptophan, but it is not clear what determines how much indole E. coli can produce and excrete, making it difficult to interpret experiments that investigate the biological effects of indole at high concentrations. Here, we report that the final yield of indole depends directly, and perhaps solely, on the amount of exogenous tryptophan. When supplied with a range of tryptophan concentrations, E. coli converted this amino acid into an equal amount of indole, up to almost 5 mM, an amount well within the range of the highest concentrations so far examined for their physiological effects. Indole production relied heavily on the tryptophan-specific transporter TnaB, even though the alternative transporters AroP and Mtr could import sufficient tryptophan to induce tnaA expression. This TnaB requirement proceeded via tryptophan transport and was not caused by activation of TnaA itself. Bacterial growth was unaffected by the presence of TnaA in the absence of exogenous tryptophan, suggesting that the enzyme does not hydrolyse significant quantities of the internal anabolic amino acid pool. The results imply that E. coli synthesizes TnaA and TnaB mainly, or solely, for the purpose of converting exogenous tryptophan into indole, under conditions and for signalling purposes that remain to be fully elucidated.
- Efficient isotopic tryptophan labeling of membrane proteins by an indole controlled process conduct. [Journal Article]
- Biotechnol Bioeng 2013 Jun; 110(6):1681-90.
A protocol for the efficient isotopic labeling of large G protein-coupled receptors with tryptophan in Escherichia coli as expression host was developed that sufficiently suppressed the naturally occurring L-tryptophan indole lyase, which cleaves tryptophan into indole, pyruvate, and ammonia resulting in scrambling of the isotopic label in the protein. Indole produced by the tryptophanase is naturally used as messenger for cell-cell communication. Detailed analysis of different process conducts led to the optimal expression strategy, which mimicked cell-cell communication by the addition of indole during expression. Discrete concentrations of indole and (15) N2 -L-tryptophan at dedicated time points in the fermentation drastically increased the isotopic labeling efficiency. Isotope scrambling was only observed in glutamine, asparagine, and arginine side chains but not in the backbone. This strategy allows producing specifically tryptophan labeled membrane proteins at high concentrations avoiding the disadvantages of the often low yields of auxotrophic E. coli strains. In the fermentation process carried out according to this protocol, we produced ∼15 mg of tryptophan labeled neuropeptide Y receptor type 2 per liter medium. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013; 110: 1681-1690. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Evidence of preorganization in quinonoid intermediate formation from L-Trp in H463F mutant Escherichia coli tryptophan indole-lyase from effects of pressure and pH. [Journal Article]
- Biochemistry 2012 Aug 21; 51(33):6527-33.
The effects of pH and hydrostatic pressure on the reaction of H463F tryptophan indole-lyase (TIL) have been evaluated. The mutant TIL shows very low activity for elimination of indole but is still competent to form a quinonoid intermediate from l-tryptophan [Phillips, R. S., Johnson, N., and Kamath, A. V. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 4012-4019]. Stopped-flow measurements show that the formation of the quinonoid intermediate at 505 nm is affected by pH, with a bell-shaped dependence for the forward rate constant, k(f), and dependence on a single basic group for the reverse rate constant, k(r), with the following values: pK(a1) = 8.14 ± 0.15, pK(a2) = 7.54 ± 0.15, k(f,min) = 18.1 ± 1.3 s(-1), k(f,max) = 179 ± 46.3 s(-1), k(r,min) = 11.4 ± 1.2 s(-1), and k(r,max) = 33 ± 1.6 s(-1). The pH effects may be due to ionization of Tyr74 as the base and Cys298 as the acid influencing the rate constant for deprotonation. High-pressure stopped-flow measurements were performed at pH 8, which is the optimum for the forward reaction. The rate constants show an increase with pressure up to 100 MPa and a subsequent decrease above 100 MPa. Fitting the pressure data gives the following values: k(f,0) = 15.4 ± 0.8 s(-1), ΔV(‡) = -29.4 ± 2.9 cm(3) mol(-1), and Δβ(‡) = -0.23 ± 0.03 cm(3) mol(-1) MPa(-1) for the forward reaction, and k(r,0) = 20.7 ± 0.8 s(-1), ΔV(‡) = -9.6 ± 2.3 cm(3) mol(-1), and Δβ(‡) = -0.05 ± 0.02 cm(3) mol(-1) MPa(-1) for the reverse reaction. The primary kinetic isotope effect on quinonoid intermediate formation at pH 8 is small (~2) and is not significantly pressure-dependent, suggesting that the effect of pressure on k(f) may be due to perturbation of an active site preorganization step. The negative activation volume is also consistent with preorganization of the ES complex prior to quinonoid intermediate formation, and the negative compressibility may be due to the effect of pressure on the enzyme conformation. These results support the conclusion that the preorganization of the H463F TIL Trp complex, which is probably dominated by motion of the l-Trp indole moiety of the aldimine complex, contributes to quinonoid intermediate formation.
- Enzymatic synthesis oF L-tryptophan from D,L-2-amino-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid and indole by Pseudomonas sp. TS1138 L-2-amino-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid hydrolase, S-carbamyl-L-cysteine amidohydrolase, and Escherichia coli L-tryptophanase. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol 2012 Mar-Apr; 48(2):183-90.
L-Tryptophan (L-Trp) is an essential amino acid. It is widely used in medical, health and food products, so a low-cost supply is needed. There are 4 methods for L-Trp production: chemical synthesis, extraction, enzymatic synthesis, and fermentation. In this study, we produced a recombinant bacterial strain pET-tnaA of Escherichia coli which has the L-tryptophanase gene. Using the pET-tnaA E. coli and the strain TS1138 of Pseudomonas sp., a one-pot enzymatic synthesis of L-Trp was developed. Pseudomonas sp. TS1138 was added to a solution of D,L-2-amino-delta2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid (DL-ATC) to convert it to L-cysteine (L-Cys). After concentration, E. coli BL21 (DE 3) cells including plasmid pET-tnaA, indole, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate were added. At the optimum conditions, the conversion rates of DL-ATC and L-Cys were 95.4% and 92.1%, respectively. After purifying using macroporous resin S8 and NKA-II, 10.32 g of L-Trp of 98.3% purity was obtained. This study established methods for one-pot enzymatic synthesis and separation of L-Trp. This method of producing L-Trp is more environmentally sound than methods using chemical synthesis, and it lays the foundations for industrial production of L-Trp from DL-ATC and indole.
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae STR3 and yeast cystathionine β-lyase enzymes: The potential for engineering increased flavor release. [Journal Article]
- Bioeng Bugs 2012 May-Jun; 3(3):178-80.
Selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains are used for wine fermentation. Based on several criteria, winemakers often use a specific yeast to improve the flavor, mouth feel, decrease the alcohol content and desired phenolic content, just to name a few properties. Scientists at the AWRI previously illustrated the potential for increased flavor release from grape must via overexpression of the Escherichia coli Tryptophanase enzyme in wine yeast. To pursue a self-cloning approach for improving the aroma production, we recently characterized the S. cerevisiae cystathionine β-lyase STR3, and investigated its flavor releasing capabilities. Here, we continue with a phylogenetic investigation of STR3 homologs from non-Saccharomyces yeasts to map the potential for using natural variation to engineer new strains.
- New insights into Escherichia coli metabolism: carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism and carbon recycling responses during growth on glycerol. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Microb Cell Fact 2012.:46.
Glycerol has enhanced its biotechnological importance since it is a byproduct of biodiesel synthesis. A study of Escherichia coli physiology during growth on glycerol was performed combining transcriptional-proteomic analysis as well as kinetic and stoichiometric evaluations in the strain JM101 and certain derivatives with important inactivated genes.Transcriptional and proteomic analysis of metabolic central genes of strain JM101 growing on glycerol, revealed important changes not only in the synthesis of MglB, LamB and MalE proteins, but also in the overexpression of carbon scavenging genes: lamB, malE, mglB, mglC, galP and glk and some members of the RpoS regulon (pfkA, pfkB, fbaA, fbaB, pgi, poxB, acs, actP and acnA). Inactivation of rpoS had an important effect on stoichiometric parameters and growth adaptation on glycerol. The observed overexpression of poxB, pta, acs genes, glyoxylate shunt genes (aceA, aceB, glcB and glcC) and actP, suggested a possible carbon flux deviation into the PoxB, Acs and glyoxylate shunt. In this scenario acetate synthesized from pyruvate with PoxB was apparently reutilized via Acs and the glyoxylate shunt enzymes. In agreement, no acetate was detected when growing on glycerol, this strain was also capable of glycerol and acetate coutilization when growing in mineral media and derivatives carrying inactivated poxB or pckA genes, accumulated acetate. Tryptophanase A (TnaA) was synthesized at high levels and indole was produced by this enzyme, in strain JM101 growing on glycerol. Additionally, in the isogenic derivative with the inactivated tnaA gene, no indole was detected and acetate and lactate were accumulated. A high efficiency aromatic compounds production capability was detected in JM101 carrying pJLBaroG(fbr)tktA, when growing on glycerol, as compared to glucose.The overexpression of several carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism genes and the absence of acetate accumulation occurred in JM101 cultures growing on glycerol. To explain these results it is proposed that in addition to the glycolytic metabolism, a gluconeogenic carbon recycling process that involves acetate is occurring simultaneously in this strain when growing on glycerol. Carbon flux from glycerol can be efficiently redirected in JM101 strain into the aromatic pathway using appropriate tools.
- Identification of haemolytic Haemophilus species isolated from human clinical specimens and description of Haemophilus sputorum sp. nov. [Journal Article]
- Int J Med Microbiol 2012 Mar; 302(2):78-83.
Haemolytic Haemophilus strains with no requirement for X factor are regularly isolated from sputum and throat swabs and occasionally from invasive infections, but the classification of such strains is not clear. We characterized 56 strains with a phenotype concordant with Haemophilus parahaemolyticus (V, but not X factor-dependent; urease-positive; tryptophanase-negative; ornithine decarboxylase-negative) by extended phenotypic testing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. In addition, 31 of the strains and representative type strains were investigated by multilocus sequence analysis based on 3 housekeeping gene fragments. Most strains could be assigned to H. parahaemolyticus and were characterized by expression of IgA1 protease and a negative test for β-galactosidase. Isolation of H. parahaemolyticus from various infections and its absence among more than 300 commensal Haemophilus isolates suggests a pathogenic potential of this organism. The majority of haemolytic strains with β-galactosidase activity did not cluster with the type strain of H. paraphrohaemolyticus, but constituted a distinct and coherent novel taxon. Ten strains of this new taxon proved to be genetically and phenotypically homogeneous. Few biochemical characters discriminate the new taxon from related Haemophilus species, but identification is easily accomplished by routine matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry. Genetic, biochemical, and spectrometry data show that the taxon merits recognition as a novel species of Haemophilus. The name Haemophilus sputorum is proposed, with CCUG 13788(T) (=DSM 24472(T)=NCTC 13537(T)) as the type strain.
- Indole-3-acetaldehyde from Rhodococcus sp. BFI 332 inhibits Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2012 Nov; 96(4):1071-8.
Pathogenic biofilms have been associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents. To identify nontoxic biofilm inhibitors for enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7, the spent media of a 4,104 Actinomycetes library was screened. The culture spent medium (1%, v/v) of plant pathogen Rhodococcus sp. BFI 332 markedly inhibited E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic E. coli O157:H7 cells. Rhodococcus sp. BFI 332 produced significant amounts of indole-3-acetaldehyde and indole-3-acetic acid, and the former of which reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation. Global transcriptome analyses showed that indole-3-acetaldehyde most repressed two curli operons, csgBAC and csgDEFG, and induced tryptophanase (tnaAB) in E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells. Electron microscopy showed that spent medium of Rhodococcus sp. BFI 332 and indole-3-acetaldehyde reduced curli production in E. coli O157:H7. The spent medium of Rhodococcus sp. BFI 332 also significantly reduced the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Overall, this study suggests that indole derivatives are present in the Actinomycetes strains and they can be used as biofilm inhibitors against pathogenic bacteria.
- Transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli K-12 and O157:H7 associated with lettuce leaves. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Appl Environ Microbiol 2012 Mar; 78(6):1752-64.
An increasing number of outbreaks of gastroenteritis recently caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7 have been linked to the consumption of leafy green vegetables. Although it is known that E. coli survives and grows in the phyllosphere of lettuce plants, the molecular mechanisms by which this bacterium associates with plants are largely unknown. The goal of this study was to identify E. coli genes relevant to its interaction, survival, or attachment to lettuce leaf surfaces, comparing E. coli K-12, a model system, and E. coli O157:H7, a pathogen associated with a large number of outbreaks. Using microarrays, we found that upon interaction with intact leaves, 10.1% and 8.7% of the 3,798 shared genes were differentially expressed in K-12 and O157:H7, respectively, whereas 3.1% changed transcript levels in both. The largest group of genes downregulated consisted of those involved in energy metabolism, including tnaA (33-fold change), encoding a tryptophanase that converts tryptophan into indole. Genes involved in biofilm modulation (bhsA and ybiM) and curli production (csgA and csgB) were significantly upregulated in E. coli K-12 and O157:H7. Both csgA and bhsA (ycfR) mutants were impaired in the long-term colonization of the leaf surface, but only csgA mutants had diminished ability in short-term attachment experiments. Our data suggested that the interaction of E. coli K-12 and O157:H7 with undamaged lettuce leaves likely is initiated via attachment to the leaf surface using curli fibers, a downward shift in their metabolism, and the suppression of biofilm formation.
- Dextran sodium sulfate-induced inflammation alters the expression of proteins by intestinal Escherichia coli strains in a gnotobiotic mouse model. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Appl Environ Microbiol 2012 Mar; 78(5):1513-22.
To identify Escherichia coli proteins involved in adaptation to intestinal inflammation, mice were monoassociated with the colitogenic E. coli strain UNC or with the probiotic E. coli strain Nissle. Intestinal inflammation was induced by treating the mice with 3.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Differentially expressed proteins in E. coli strains collected from cecal contents were identified by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis. In both strains, acute inflammation led to the downregulation of pathways involved in carbohydrate breakdown and energy generation. Accordingly, DSS-treated mice had lower concentrations of bacterial fermentation products in their cecal contents than control mice. Differentially expressed proteins also included the Fe-S cluster repair protein NfuA, the tryptophanase TnaA, and the uncharacterized protein YggE. NfuA expression was 3-fold higher in E. coli strains from DSS-treated than from control mice. Reporter experiments confirmed the induction of nfuA in response to iron deprivation, mimicking Fe-S cluster destruction by inflammation. YggE expression, which has been reported to reduce the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, was 4- to 8-fold higher in E. coli Nissle than in E. coli UNC. This was confirmed by in vitro reporter gene assays indicating that Nissle is better equipped to cope with oxidative stress than UNC. Nissle isolated from DSS-treated and control mice had TnaA levels 4- to 7-fold-higher than those of UNC. Levels of indole resulting from the TnaA reaction were higher in control animals associated with E. coli Nissle. Because of its anti-inflammatory effect, indole is hypothesized to be involved in the extension of the remission phase in ulcerative colitis described for E. coli Nissle.