- Chronic nasal dysfunction in children: Allergic rhinitis? Infectious? What to do if neither? [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Dec; 23(6):491-8.
To review challenges in the diagnosis, work-up, and management of healthy children who present to the otolaryngologist with nasal dysfunction. Common symptoms include chronic nasal congestion, with or without rhinorrhea, with or without previous empirically treated 'allergic rhinitis' and/or 'sinus' infection. Symptoms are often unresolved despite chronic use of intranasal steroid, antihistamine, and/or leukotriene receptor antagonists.There are no published studies addressing nasal symptoms in children who test negative for allergies yet report persistent nasal obstruction, congestion, and/or rhinorrhea. Recent publications continue to address efficacy of medical and/or surgical treatment for allergic rhinitis or acute/chronic rhinosinusitis. Best practice for children who 'fail' medical therapy but have impaired quality of life because of nasal dysfunction remains unknown.Chronic nasal symptoms are common in childhood despite daily treatment using intranasal steroid, antihistamines, and/or leukotriene receptor antagonist therapies. Diet and dietary habit history should be included during evaluation and differential diagnosis as excessive dairy and sugar may contribute to chronic symptoms. Children who fail medical therapy for persistent nasal symptoms, allergic or not, should be referred and considered for outfracture of inferior turbinates and inferior turbinoplasty. Turbinate reduction procedures have demonstrated significant improvement in all domains of SinoNasal Quality of Life as measured by 'SN-5' survey.
- Radiofrequency Ablation Turbinoplasty versus Microdebrider-Assisted Turbinoplasty: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Meta-Analysis, Review]
- Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Dec; 153(6):951-6.
To critically review published literature for treatment-related outcomes for bilateral inferior turbinate reduction (IFTR) via either microdebrider-assisted turbinoplasty (MAT) or radiofrequency turbinoplasty. The primary outcomes were relief of nasal obstruction according to visual analog scale and nasal airflow, volume, and resistance measures based on acoustic rhinomanometry.MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Catalog, and CINAHL.The databases were searched with the terms "turbinoplasty" and "turbinate reduction." Inclusion criteria were English language, human subjects, and studies specifically relating to IFTR with radiofrequency turbinoplasty or MAT. Exclusion criteria were pediatric patients and concurrent nasal procedures. Results were tabulated, and the data were analyzed per random effects modeling. Subgroup analysis and quality assessment were also performed.A total of 976 articles were initially identified, with 26 meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Random effects modeling demonstrated a significant improvement after IFTR, as measured with the visual analog scale (4.26-point improvement, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 3.32-5.20, P < .001, k = 21 studies, I(2) = 99%) and with acoustic rhinomanometry measurements of volume (2.43-cm(3) improvement, 95% CI = 0.48-4.38, P = .015, k = 6 studies, I(2) = 99%), flow (203-mL/s improvement, 95% CI = 131-276, P < .001, k = 4 studies, I(2) = 99%), and resistance change (2.78-Pa/cm(3) improvement, 95% CI = 0.433-5.13, P = .020, k = 5 studies, I(2) = 99%). There was no difference in outcome by technique, allergic rhinitis, or quality score. The 2 highest-quality papers favored MAT. The median follow-up was 6 months.IFTR produces a significant subjective and objective improvement in nasal airflow in the short term. This change does not appear to be related to the technique used for IFTR.
- Anterior spreader flap technique: A new minimally invasive method for stabilising and widening the nasal valve. [Journal Article]
- J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg 2015 Dec; 68(12):1687-93.
The 'anterior spreader flap' is a new minimally invasive technique, for the treatment of nasal valve insufficiency or stenosis. The aim of this study was to present our experience with a series of patients with nasal valve dysfunction corrected by the minimally invasive spreader flap technique.We performed a retrospective review of our patients with nasal valve malfunction who underwent the anterior spreader flap between June 2010 and June 2013. The patients had to judge their symptoms of nasal obstruction pre- and 12 months post-operatively by the Nasal Obstruction and Septoplasty Effectiveness (NOSE) quality-of-life assessment scale. The difference between the pre- and post-operative evaluations of each group and between the groups was calculated, and it was statistically analysed.Forty-three patients were treated. In seven patients, the anterior spreader flap was performed as a single procedure (group F), in 15 patients the anterior spreader flap was combined with a septoplasty and a turbinoplasty (group FST), in 10 patients with a turbinoplasty (group FT) and in 11 with a septoplasty (group FS). All patients reported significant post-operative improvement in nasal breathing (p < 0.05). The mean improvement (diffNOSE) of all patients was 54.2 points. The 'FS' group and the 'FST' group showed best post-operative results, but there were no significant differences between the groups (p > 0.8).The anterior spreader flap is an effective and safe method for minimally invasive improvement of nasal breathing in patients with nasal valve dysfunction.
- The effect of "Pyriform Turbinoplasty" on nasal airflow using a virtual model. [Journal Article]
- Rhinology 2015 Sep; 53(3):242-8.
A new procedure, pyriform turbinoplasty, is described and nasal airflow is measured before and after this procedure in a virtual model.Pyriform turbinoplasty is the submucosal reduction of the bone of the frontal process of the maxilla and the lacrimal bone. It opens part of the lateral margin of the nasal valve area with minimal damage to nasal mucosa. The resection of bone in this area can be extended by "nasal wall lateralization" when the lacrimal bone that joins the uncinate process behind the lacrimal duct as well as the base of the inferior turbinate and the edge of the maxilla at the rim of the pyriform aperture are removed. Nasal airflow was simulated using computational fluid dynamics and ANSYS Fluent solver.Analysis using fluid dynamics showed that these procedures help ventilation in the main airflow areas without substantially altering the normal pattern of airflow.The changes after performing a pyriform turbinoplasty seem to be an improvement when compared to the changes after inferior turbinate surgery that can misdirect the airflow largely through the inferior meatus.
- Radiofrequency turbinoplasty for nonallergic rhinitis in geriatric patients. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Am J Rhinol Allergy 2015 Sep-Oct; 29(5):e134-7.
Radiofrequency (RF) turbinoplasty may be effective in treating nonallergic rhinitis in elderly patients. The present study evaluated the efficacy of nasal turbinate surgery with RF for the treatment of nonallergic rhinitis in elderly patients refractory to medical therapy.A total of 35 consecutive patients older than 65 years of age (mean subject age, 75.5 ± 9.6 [standard deviation] years) with nonallergic rhinitis refractory to medical therapy who underwent RF turbinate surgery were enrolled in this study. The efficacy of RF turbinoplasty in treating nonallergic rhinitis in elderly patients was evaluated by using rhinoscopy and a visual analog scale score of nasal symptoms.The response rate of primary RF turbinate surgery for nonallergic rhinitis refractory to medical therapy was 68.6%. Postoperative symptom scores for rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction were significantly improved. Persistent crust formation developed in seven patients (20.0%). No patient experienced major complications (e.g., septal hematoma, abscess, septal perforation), but partial bone necrosis was observed in one patient.RF turbinoplasty appeared to be effective for treating some nonallergic rhinitis symptoms in elderly patients, including rhinorrhea and nasal obstruction. These preliminary results are encouraging and warrant further investigation.
- Utility of Inferior Turbinoplasty for the Treatment of Nasal Obstruction in Children: A 10-Year Review. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2015 Oct; 141(10):901-4.
Inferior turbinoplasty (IT) in pediatric patients is a common procedure used to treat childhood nasal obstruction. Most of the published IT studies in this population did not control for concurrent airway procedures.To assess postoperative outcomes in pediatric patients undergoing isolated IT.Ten-year retrospective review of the medical records of 1770 children (aged <18 years) undergoing an IT procedure at Children’s Hospital Colorado from August 1, 2003, through August 1, 2013. Patients with simultaneous procedures involving the upper airway were excluded. The review identified demographic and clinical information, operative technique, and postprocedural follow-up data. The last follow-up was completed on April 21, 2014. A telephone questionnaire was administered to parents to obtain long-term outcome data. Data were analyzed from March 10 to July 23, 2014.Demographics, complications, postoperative outcomes, the need for revision surgery and continued use of medication, and overall parent satisfaction with the procedure. Outcomes were assessed with a 5-point Likert scale of parental perception of their child’s ability to breathe through the nose (nasal patency) preoperatively and currently (1 indicates extremely poor; 5, extremely well) and their overall satisfaction rating for the procedure (1 indicates extremely dissatisfied; 5, extremely satisfied).Of the 1770 children, 107 underwent isolated IT. The mean age of the cohort was 10.5 (range, 1.2-17.9) years. The IT procedures included radiofrequency ablation (72 [67.3%]), microdebridement (19 [17.8%]), and partial turbinate resection (21 [19.6%]). No major complications were observed. Eight revision ITs for persistent nasal symptoms were performed independently of the initial surgical procedure, including 4 of 72 radiofrequency ablations (5.6%), 1 of 19 microdebridements (5.3%), and 3 of 21 partial turbinate resections (14.3%), with no difference among the 3 techniques (P = .10). The parents of 63 patients completed the telephone questionnaire with a mean follow-up of 4.55 (range, 0.63-10.68) years. The combined parental satisfaction on a 5-point Likert scale for the extremely satisfied and satisfied categories was 44 (69.8%), and the nasal patency score improved significantly from 2.0 to 3.4 (95% CI, 1.03-1.65; P < .001), independently of surgical techniques. Thirty-four patients (54.0%) continued to require medical management owing to persistent nasal symptoms. Patients with a history of allergic rhinitis had a greater improvement of nasal patency (2.1 to 3.9; P = .02) and a higher postoperative use of medical therapy (13 of 34 patients [38.2%] vs 21 of 73 [28.8%]; P = .01).Inferior turbinoplasty showed overall utility and was safe and effective in the treatment of nasal obstruction in children for whom medical management had failed. No differences between surgical techniques were found in patient satisfaction, improvement of nasal patency, and recurrence, likely related to sample size. More than half of the patients continued to use medical therapy postoperatively, suggesting that inferior turbinate hypertrophy should not be considered solely as a surgical disease. Allergic rhinitis was identified as a significant comorbidity.
- How I Do It: Medial Flap Inferior Turbinoplasty. [Journal Article, Technical Report]
- Am J Rhinol Allergy 2015 Jul-Aug; 29(4):314-5.
Techniques for inferior turbinate reduction vary from complete turbinectomy to limited cauterization. Surgical methods differ on the degree of tissue reduction and reliance on surgical tissue removal versus tissue ablation.The technique and surgical steps of our preferred method of turbinate reduction are presented.Critical steps include proper design of the medial flap and removal of turbinate bone and lateral mucosa to allow lateral positioning of the medial flap. Bipolar cautery of the inferior turbinate artery branches allows complete haemostasis and undermining of the head allows proper debulking of the anterior aspect of the turbinate and widening of the nasal valve area.The medial flap inferior turbinoplasty provides consistent, robust results. Long-term relief of obstructive symptoms without additional risk of complication is expected with this procedure.
- Applied Endoscopic Anatomical Evaluation of the Lacrimal Sac. [Journal Article]
- Iran J Otorhinolaryngol 2015 May; 27(80):213-7.
Dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR), a popular surgical procedure, has been performed using an endoscopic approach over recent years. Excellent anatomical knowledge is required for this endoscopic surgical approach. This study was performed in order to better evaluate the anatomical features of the lacrimal apparatus from cadavers in the Isfahan forensic center as a sample of the Iranian population.DCR was performed using a standard method on 26 cadaver eyes from the forensic center of Isfahan. The lacrimal sac was exposed completely, then the anatomical features of the lacrimal sac and canaliculus were measured using a specified ruler.A total of 26 male cadaveric eyes were used, of which four (16.7%) were probably non-Caucasian. Two (8%) of the eyes needed septoplasty, one (4%) needed uncinectomy, and none needed turbinoplasty. Four (16%) lacrimal sacs were anterior to axilla, one (4%) was posterior and 20 (80%) were at the level of the axilla of the middle turbinate. The mean difference of distance from the nasal sill to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 39.04 (±4.92) mm. The mean difference of distance from the nasal sill to the posterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 45.50 (±4.47) mm. The mean of width and length of the lacrimal sac was 7.54 (±1.44) mm and 13.16 (±5.37) mm, respectively. The mean difference of distance from the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac to the posterior edge of the uncinate process was 14.06 (±3.00) mm, while the mean difference of distance from the anterior nasal spine to the anterior edge of the lacrimal sac (from its mid-height) was 37.20 (±5.37) mm.The mean height of the fundus was 3.26 (±1.09) mm. The mean difference of distance from the superior punctum to the fundus was 12.70 (±1.45) mm, and from the inferior punctum to the fundus was 11.10 (±2.02) mm.Given the differences between the various studies conducted in order to evaluate the position of the lacrimal sac, studies such as this can help to better identify the position of lacrimal sac during surgery based on ethnic differences. In addition, these studies can help novice surgeons to better navigate in a surgical scenario.
- Long-term outcomes of powered endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy in acute dacryocystitis. [Journal Article]
- Laryngoscope 2016 Mar; 126(3):551-3.
Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) is rapidly gaining recognition as a primary modality of management in acute dacryocystitis and lacrimal abscess. The purpose of the present study is to report long-term outcomes of powered endoscopic DCR in cases of acute dacryocystitis.Prospective interventional case series.Twenty-one powered endoscopic DCRs were performed in 21 patients presenting with acute dacryocystitis. All cases were operated by a single surgeon (m.j.a.) using earlier published techniques. All lacrimal systems were intubated for 6 weeks. A minimum follow-up of 1 year after stent removal was considered for final analysis. Main outcome measures were the anatomical and functional success of the surgical procedure.The mean age of patients at presentation was 31.8 years. A total of 14.3% (3/21) were pediatric patients with known history of persistent congenital nasolacrimal duct obstruction (CNLDO), and 9.5% (2/21) had a history of external DCR in the past. All patients received postoperative antibiotics. Additional procedures included distal canalicular trephination, septoplasty, and middle turbinoplasty in one patient each. All cases showed resolution of pain and swelling at 1 week follow-up. At the mean follow-up of 15.4 months, anatomical success was achieved in 85.7% of the patients (18/21), and functional success was achieved in 80.9% (17/21).Powered endoscopic DCR is a useful modality in the management acute dacryocystitis, with good outcomes that are maintained over a long duration of time.4. Laryngoscope, 126:551-553, 2016.
- Predictive factors of subjective outcomes after septoplasty with and without turbinoplasty: can individual perceptual differences of the air passage be a main factor? [Journal Article]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015 Jul; 5(7):616-21.
Although septoplasty provides adequate correction of septal deviation, patients are not always satisfied with the procedure. The degree of satisfaction after septal surgery may be affected by individual differences in the perception of one's nasal passage changes and emotional factors. The aim of this study is to identify the predictive factors that influence subjective septoplasty outcomes.Forty-nine patients with septal deviation and nasal obstruction were enrolled. Forty-three patients completed the study 3 months after surgery. Age, gender, allergies, smoking, and degree of septal deviation were evaluated. The differences in the visual analogue scale for nasal obstruction and nasal volume measured by acoustic rhinometry between pre-decongestant and post-decongestant states were analyzed. A stress questionnaire (SQ) and Beck's depression index (BDI) were also used to evaluate the emotional factors. Subjective satisfaction was evaluated as the difference in nasal obstruction symptom evaluation (NOSE) scores between baseline and 3 months postoperation.Subjective satisfaction was not related to individual perceptual differences in nasal passage changes, depression index, age, gender, allergy status, smoking, or degree of septal deviation (p > 0.05 in all; univariate analysis). The baseline SQ and NOSE scores were significant predictive factors in univariate analysis. However, on multiple regression, only the baseline NOSE scores were related to subjective satisfaction after septoplasty.Individual perceptual differences of air passage changes and emotional factors do not predict subjective symptom improvement after septoplasty. Baseline symptoms were the only predictive factor for patient satisfaction after septoplasty.