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- Portal hypertension: A critical appraisal of shunt procedures with emphasis on distal splenorenal shunt in children. [Journal Article]
- J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2014 Apr; 19(2):80-4.
Extrahepatic portal venous obstruction (EHPVO) is the most common cause of pediatric portal hypertension. We analyzed the investigative protocol and results of portosystemic shunts in this group of patients.A total of 40 consecutive children aged below 12 years operated with a diagnosis of extra-hepatic portal hypertension formed the study group. Historical data and clinical data were collected. All patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, ultrasound Doppler and computed tomographic portogram pre-operatively and post-operatively. Results with respect to shunt patency, hypersplenism and efficacy of different radiological investigations were collected.A total of 40 patients, 28 boys and 12 girls constituted the study group. Lienorenal shunt (LRS) was performed in 14 patients; distal splenorenal shunt in 21 patients and side-to-side lienorenal shunt in 4 patients, inferior mesenteric renal shunt was performed in 1 patient. Follow-up ranged from 36 to 70 months. At a minimum follow-up of 3 years, 32 (80%) patients were found to have patent shunts. Patent shunts could be visualized in 30/32 patients with computer tomographic portogram (CTP) and 28/32 with ultrasound. Varices regressed completely in 26/32 patients and in the rest incomplete regression was seen. Spleen completely regressed in 19/25 patients. Hypersplenism resolved in all patients with patent shunts.Portosystemic shunting in children with EHPVO is a viable option. While long-term cure rates are comparable with sclerotherapy, repeated hospital visits are reduced with one time surgery. Pre-operative and post-operative assessment can be performed with complimentary use of ultrasound, CTP and endoscopy.
- Ovarian preservation in children for adenexal pathology, current trends in laparoscopic management and our experience. [Journal Article]
- J Indian Assoc Pediatr Surg 2014 Apr; 19(2):65-9.
Primary cysts and tumors of the ovary alongwith torsion are often regarded as an indication for open oophorectomy because of the fear of leaving an ischemic organ inside and chances of recurrence. We wish to report our experience of both modalities of management where we initially removed adenexal torsion by either laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy or oophorectomy, but later followed a more conservative approach of adenexal lesion removal with ovarian preservation.Retrospective review of clinical records of patients with ovarian pathology who were managed laparoscopically.46 cases of pediatric ovarian pathology were managed between March 2006 and March 2013 in two centers by a team of surgeons. The age ranged from 1 days to 18 years (average 14.3 years) and the pathology varied from 30 cases of a simple ovarian cyst with torsion, 3 cases of ovarian torsion without any cyst, 7 cases of a dermoid cyst with torsion in all, 1 case of secreting ovarian tumor and 5 cases of a paraovarian cyst with torsion. All patients had a normal tumor marker except 1 girl with a functional ovarian tumor who had elevated LDH and estrogen levels alongwith suppressed LH and FSH. In the initial period of our study we did 1 salpingo-oophorectomy for a suspected complex lesion and two oophorectomies for torsion with a simple cyst. In the later part of our study we performed laparoscopic cystectomy and ovarian preservation in 40 cases, including 7 cases of dermoid, where we performed laparoscopic detorsion with dermoid cystectomy and ovarian preservation in the same sitting. In three cases of chronic torsion who presented to us late, we could not preserve the ovary and had to resort to salpingo-ophorectomy. Histology showed a simple corpus luteal and follicular ovarian cyst in 31 cases, a paraovarian cyst in 5 cases with mature teratoma in 7 cases. Twenty-five patients with ovarian preservation following detorsion were subjected to follow-up ultrasound, who were found to have normal shape, size and blood flow compared to the contra lateral side.We outline our experience from the management of 46 cases of various ovarian pathologies with and without ischemia and found that ovarian torsion with a benign pathology and ischemia is not a contraindication for ovarian preservation, as pointed out in the current literature.
- High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Ablation of Uterine Fibroids - Potential Impact on Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2014 Feb; 74(2):139-145.
Laparoscopic myomectomy is regarded as the gold standard for women with symptomatic fibroids who wish to become pregnant. High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU or MRgFUS) ablation of uterine fibroids is also being discussed as a non-surgical, minimally invasive, therapeutic option. This review examines the available data on the impact of HIFU/MRgFUS on fertility and pregnancy, focusing particularly on potential direct side-effects of this type of intervention on ovaries, fallopian tubes and uterus and potential late effects on pregnancy and birth, based on the current literature. All pregnancies after HIFU/MRgFUS published to date (around 100 cases) were evaluated. The published case series suggest that HIFU/MRgFUS ablation has no impact on the rate of miscarriages or other obstetrical outcome parameters. Because no prospective studies exist which permit firm conclusions to be drawn on the impact of HIFU/MRgFUS on fertility and pregnancy outcome in women with symptomatic fibroids, this approach is currently only recommended for women with suspected fertility problems due to uterine fibroids who either decline surgery or who have an unacceptably high surgical risk.
- Natural Size Development of Myomata - Ultrasound Observational Study of 55 Premenopausal Patients. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd 2014 Jan; 74(1):75-80.
Objective: The natural growth progression of uterine leiomyomata will be studied and used to identify potential predictive criteria of myoma size development. This should answer the question of whether myoma growth is dependent on patient age, or on the localisation or original size of the myoma, as well as how much of a size increase can be expected per unit of time, and the proportion of myomata which shrink. Patients and Methods: Patient files of a myoma surgery from 2010 to 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. The following inclusion criteria applied: diagnosis of at least one, but not more than three myomata, a minimum of two consultations within three years, the performance of a transvaginal ultrasound to determine size, no pregnancy, and no medical or surgical myoma reduction measures. Only premenopausal patients were included in the analysis. Myoma volume was approximated using a formula similar to that used to calculate the volume of an ellipsoid. Results: 55 out of 102 patients (median age: 38 years), in which a total of 72 myomata were diagnosed, could be included in the evaluation. The median diameter of the myomata at the start of the study was 3.8 cm, with an average growth rate of 30 % over 6 months (range: - 46 to + 459 %). 15 % of the myomata regressed. The linear regression analysis showed a correlation between myoma growth over 6 months, the original size of the myoma (p = 0.023) and patient age (p = 0.038), but no connection was found to the localisation of the myoma. Smaller myomata decreased significantly more in size than larger myomata (p = 0.011). Older patients presented with larger myomata. Conclusions: Myomata demonstrate a strikingly large variation in size development. Their growth is highly individual and not ultimately predictable. Patients should be advised of the possibility of spontaneous myoma regression.
- Shear Wave Elastography in Evaluation of Cervical Lymph Node Metastasis of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma: Elasticity Index as a Prognostic Implication. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Surg Oncol 2015 Jan 5.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of shear wave elastography (SWE) for predicting cervical lymph node (LN) metastasis and the prognostic implication of SWE as histopathologic factors of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).Eighty-four LNs of 66 patients with PTC underwent B-mode ultrasonography (BUS) and SWE before ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy or preoperative evaluation. SWE elasticity indices (EI) of mean (Emean), minimum (Emin), maximum (Emax) and the ratio of Emean in LNs and surrounding muscle (Emean-m) were measured at the stiffest portion of LNs (kPa). SWE EI were correlated with the pathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic findings, including number and size of metastatic LNs, the ratio of the number of metastatic LN/dissected LN, and the presence of extranodal extension. Diagnostic performances of SWE EI and BUS for predicting LN metastasis were assessed using receiver operating curve analysis.All SWE EI were significantly higher in metastatic LNs than in benign LNs (p < 0.005). Combined Emean [area under the curve (AUC) 0.811] or Emin (AUC 0.812) with BUS showed significantly higher AUC than BUS (0.738) for predicting metastatic LNs (p = 0.041 and 0.033, respectively). The number of positive LNs/dissected LNs and the largest LN size were significantly correlated with SWE EI (p < 0.05 and p < 0.005, respectively). Metastatic LNs with extranodal extension showed significantly higher SWE EI (p < 0.005) than those without extranodal extension.Combined use of SWE and BUS was adjunctive to the diagnostic performance of BUS for the prediction of LN metastasis of PTC, and quantitative SWE could predict pathologic prognostic factors of LN metastasis of PTC.
- Systemic effects of polymethylmethycrylate in total knee replacement: A prospective case-control study. [Journal Article]
- Bone Joint Res 2014; 3(4):108-16.
Mortality rates reported by the National Joint Registry for England and Wales (NJR) were higher following cemented total knee replacement (TKR) compared with uncemented procedures. The aim of this study is to examine and compare the effects of cemented and uncemented TKR on the activation of selected markers of inflammation, endothelium, and coagulation, and on the activation of selected cytokines involved in the various aspects of the systemic response following surgery.This was a single centre, prospective, case-control study. Following enrolment, blood samples were taken pre-operatively, and further samples were collected at day one and day seven post-operatively. One patient in the cemented group developed a deep-vein thrombosis confirmed on ultrasonography and was excluded, leaving 19 patients in this cohort (mean age 67.4, (sd 10.62)), and one patient in the uncemented group developed a post-operative wound infection and was excluded, leaving 19 patients (mean age 66.5, (sd 7.82)).Both groups had a similar response with regards to the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα). CD40 levels rose significantly on the cemented group over day one to day seven compared with that of the uncemented group, which occurred over the first 24 hours. The CD14/42a levels demonstrated a statistically significant increase in the cemented group (p < 0.001 first 24 hours and p = 0.02 between days one and seven).The uncemented and cemented groups demonstrated significant changes in the various parameters measured at various time points but apart from CD14/42a levels, there was no significant difference in the serum markers of inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction following cemented TKR. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2014;3:108-16.
- May increased CA125 in borderline ovarian tumor be indicative of a poor prognosis? A case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Tumour Biol 2014 Apr 17.
We present a case of a 58-year-old menopausal woman referred to our hospital for the presence of large pelvic masses diagnosed by clinical examination and pelvic ultrasound. MRI examination showed voluminous bilateral capsulated multilocular ovarian cysts slightly hyperintense on T1-weighted images with thick septa and small papillary projections. CT scan confirmed the MRI findings. Among the ovarian tumor markers analyzed (CA125, HE4, and CA72.4), only Ca125 was slightly increased (48 U/ml). These data were suggestive of mucinous ovarian tumor. The patient underwent total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, appendectomy, and multiple peritoneal biopsies. Pathological examination revealed bilateral borderline mucinous ovarian tumor with superficial atypical implants. Nine months later, the patient complained of left coxofemoral pain and underwent a PET/TC total body that suggested pubic bone metastases. Ovarian tumor markers were analyzed, and a second PET/TC was performed. CA125 was 252 U/ml, HE4 62 pM/L, and CA72.4 > 100 U/Ml. PET/TC was suggestive of peritoneal carcinosis. The patient was readmitted to the hospital. Clinical examination revealed small vaginal nodules. All nodules were excised. Microscopic analysis of all specimens revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma of intestinal type.The case shows that even a slight CA125 increase in the presence of a borderline ovarian tumor should not be overlooked since it can be indicative of a progressive disease. This case also highlights its additional diagnostic value when serum CA125 analysis is used in conjunction with MRI and CT imaging for the prognosis of mucinous borderline ovarian tumors (mBOTs).
- Sirolimus Immunoprophylaxis and Renal Histological Changes in Long-Term Cardiac Transplant Recipients: A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Ann Pharmacother 2014 Apr 16.
The effects of sirolimus (SIR), as a substitution for calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) immunoprophylaxis, on renal function in very-long-term cardiac transplant recipients have been a matter of controversy.To assess the impacts of SIR as a substitution for CNI on renal function up to 24 months in long-term cardiac recipients as well as the renal histological changes in patients with suspected CNI-induced nephrotoxicity.A total of 23 cardiac transplant recipients aged 57.7 ± 11.2 years, 91 months post-cardiac transplantation were recruited; 15 patients were randomized to CNI-free immune suppression with SIR, and 8 patients were allocated to continue their CNI regimens. Serum creatinine and calculated serum creatinine clearance were measured at prespecified time points up to 24 months. Renal structure and function were assessed by renal biopsies, renal ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline.There were no significant changes in creatinine clearance during the course of the study in patients treated with SIR. However, SIR-treated patients exhibited a significant decrease in 24-hours and nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Typical findings of significant hypertensive renal disease were detected in 9 of the 11 (82%) patients. Features of chronic CNI toxicity were detected in 6 (55%) patients.There is a very high rate of hypertensive renal disease concomitantly with some degree of CNI toxicity in long-term cardiac transplant recipients with renal dysfunction. This very high rate of hypertension-related disease may limit the impact of SIR on improving renal function long term following cardiac transplantation.
- [An easy, safe and affective method for the treatment of intussusception: ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg 2014 Mar; 20(2):127-31.
Intussusception is one of the important causes of intestinal obstruction in children. Hydrostatic reduction under ultrasound guidance is a popular treatment method for intussusception. In the present study, we aimed to explain the demographic characteristics of and treatment approaches in patients diagnosed with intussusception by ultrasound.Forty-one patients diagnosed with intussusception by ultrasound between August 2011 and May 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Twenty-four of these patients who had no contraindications had been treated with ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction.Twenty-four of the patients were male and 17 were female, a 1.4/1 male-to-female ratio. The majority of the patients were between the ages of 6-24 months and 2-5 years. The mean age was 31.12±26.32 months (range 3-125). Patients were more frequently diagnosed in April and May. Seventeen patients who had clinical contraindications enrolled directly for surgery. In 20 of the 24 patients who underwent ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction, reduction was achieved. Three experienced recurrence. In two of these patients, successful reduction was achieved with the second attempt. The remaining patient was enrolled for surgery. Hydrostatic reduction was performed 26 times on these 24 patients, and in 22, success was achieved (84.6%). No procedure-related complications occurred in the patients.Ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction, with its high success rates and lack of radiation risk, should be the first choice therapeutic approach for children diagnosed with intussusception.