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- Renal dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis: Where do we stand? [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Gastrointest Pharmacol Ther 2014 Aug 6; 5(3):156-68.
Patients with cirrhosis and renal failure are high-risk patients who can hardly be grouped to form precise instructions for diagnosis and treatment. When it comes to evaluate renal function in patients with cirrhosis, determination of acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD) or AKI on CKD should be made. First it should be excluded the prerenal causes of AKI. All cirrhotic patients should undergo renal ultrasound for measurement of renal resistive index in every stage of liver dysfunction and urine microscopy for differentiation of all causes of AKI. If there is history of dehydration on the ground of normal renal ultrasound and urine microscopy the diuretics should be withdrawn and plasma volume expansion should be tried with albumin. If the patient does not respond, the correct diagnosis is HRS. In case there is recent use of nephrotoxic agents or contrast media and examination shows shock, granular cast in urinary sediment and proteinuria above 0.5 g daily, acute tubular necrosis is the prominent diagnosis. Renal biopsy should be performed when glomerular filtration rate is between 30-60 mL/min and there are signs of parenchymal renal disease. The acute renal function is preferable to be assessed with modified AKIN. Patients with AKIN stage 1 and serum creatinine ≥ 1.5 mg/dL should be at close surveillance. Management options include hemodynamic monitoring and management of fluid balance and infections, potentially driving to HRS. Terlipressin is the treatment of choice in case of established HRS, administered until there are signs of improvement, but not more than two weeks. Midodrine is the alternative for therapy continuation or when terlipressin is unavailable. Norepinephrine has shown similar effect with terlipressin in patients being in Intensive Care Unit, but with much lower cost than that of terlipressin. If the patient meets the requirements for transplantation, dialysis and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt are the bridging therapies to keep the transplant candidate in the best clinical status. The present review clarifies the latest therapeutic modalities and the proposed recommendations and algorithms in order to be applied in clinical practice.
- Poststroke muscle architectural parameters of the tibialis anterior and the potential implications for rehabilitation of foot drop. [Journal Article]
- Stroke Res Treat 2014.:948475.
Poststroke dorsiflexor weakness and paretic limb foot drop increase the risk of stumbling and falling and decrease overall functional mobility. It is of interest whether dorsiflexor muscle weakness is primarily neurological in origin or whether morphological differences also contribute to the impairment. Ten poststroke hemiparetic individuals were imaged bilaterally using noninvasive medical imaging techniques. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify changes in tibialis anterior muscle volume and muscle belly length. Ultrasonography was used to measure fascicle length and pennation angle in a neutral position. We found no clinically meaningful bilateral differences in any architectural parameter across all subjects, which indicates that these subjects have the muscular capacity to dorsiflex their foot. Therefore, poststroke dorsiflexor weakness is primarily neural in origin and likely due to muscle activation failure or increased spasticity of the plantar flexors. The current finding suggests that electrical stimulation methods or additional neuromuscular retraining may be more beneficial than targeting muscle strength (i.e., increasing muscle mass).
- Digital vasculitis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis responded well to adalimumab. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Rheumatol 2014.:416825.
42-year-old old female patient, followed up with diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis for 15 years, was admitted with necrotising ulcer of left hand 1st and 2nd fingertips and pain, swelling, limitation of movement, and morning stiffness at bilateral wrist, and metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal joints. Laboratory tests revealed elevated acute phase reactants. Radial and ulnar arteries were clear in upper extremity Doppler ultrasound. The patient was diagnosed as RA activation and digital ulcer and administered iloprost infusion for five days and 1 mg/kg corticosteroid and 20 mg/week methotrexate (MTX). After one month, a partial regression of clinical and laboratory findings was observed. However, 6 months later, due to relapsed and increased complaints and findings, adalimumab 40 mg was administered. Two months later, clinical and laboratory findings apparently decreased.
- MRI in diagnosis of a giant prostatic utricle. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Radiol 2014.:217563.
A prostatic utricle cyst is an epithelial lined diverticulum arising from the prostatic urethra and usually asymptomatic when small. When enlarged, it may be symptomatic and is typically accompanied by hypospadias. We present a case of a markedly enlarged prostatic utricle in a neonate without hypospadias, demonstrated on voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), ultrasound, and 1.5 Tesla MRI.
- Endovascular embolisation of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms. [Journal Article]
- Radiol Res Pract 2014.:258954.
Objective.To evaluate the technical success, safety, and outcome of endovascular embolization procedure in management of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms. Materials and Methods. 46 patients were treated for 53 visceral pseudoaneurysms at our institution. Preliminary diagnostic workup in all cases was performed by contrast enhanced abdominal CT scan and/or duplex ultrasound. In all patients, embolization was performed as per the standard departmental protocol. For data collection, medical records and radiology reports of all patients were retrospectively reviewed. Technical success, safety, and outcome of the procedure were analyzed.
Results.Out of 46 patients, 13 were females and 33 were males. Mean patient age was 44.79 ± 13.9 years and mean pseudoaneurysm size was 35 ± 19.5 mm. Technical success rate for endovascular visceral pseudoaneurysm coiling was 93.47% (n = 43). Complication rate was 6.52% (n = 3). Followup was done for a mean duration of 21 ± 1.6 months (0.5-69 months). Complete resolution of symptoms or improvement in clinical condition was seen in 36 patients (80%) out of those 45 in whom procedure was technically successful.
Conclusion.Results of embolization of visceral artery pseudoaneurysms with coils at our center showed high success rate and good short term outcome.
- Testicular artery pseudoaneurysm: a case report. [Journal Article]
- F1000Res 2014.:2.
This is a case of an unusual cause of a testicular mass and the clinical features associated with its presentation and management. The patient presented with testicular pain and was found to have a testicular mass on ultrasound with a central 1cm anechoic region with arterial wave-form concerning for a pseudoaneurysm. The patient underwent orchiectomy with resolution of his symptoms. This case highlights the presentation of testicular artery pseudoaneurysm and outcome following orchiectomy.
- Are clinical, laboratory, and imaging markers suitable predictors of vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection? [Journal Article]
- Korean J Urol 2014 Aug; 55(8):536-41.
This study was conducted to determine the predictive value of clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection.One hundred fifty-three children with their first febrile urinary tract infection were divided into two groups according to the results of voiding cystourethrography: 60 children with vesicoureteral reflux and 93 children without. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, likelihood ratio (positive and negative), and accuracy of the clinical, laboratory, and imaging variables for the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux were determined.Of the 153 children with febrile urinary tract infection, 60 patients (39.2%) had vesicoureteral reflux. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding fever>38℃, suprapubic pain, C-reactive protein quantitative level, number of red blood cells in the urine, and results of renal ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (p<0.05). There were significant positive correlations between fever>38.2℃ and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning and vesicoureteral reflux. Also, there were significant positive correlations between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive urinary nitrite test, hyaline cast, and renal ultrasound and high-grade vesicoureteral reflux.This study revealed fever>38.2℃ and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning as the best predictive markers for vesicoureteral reflux in children with their first febrile urinary tract infection. In addition, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive urinary nitrite test, hyaline cast, and renal ultrasound are the best predictive markers for high-grade vesicoureteral reflux.
- Adolescent varicocele: are somatometric parameters a cause? [Journal Article]
- Korean J Urol 2014 Aug; 55(8):533-5.
It has been reported that varicocele is found less frequently in obese men. Accordingly, we evaluated varicocele patients and statistically analyzed the correlation between varicocele and somatometric parameters.A total of 211 patients underwent surgery for varicoceles. All patients underwent history taking, physical examination, and scrotal ultrasound to determine the presence and severity of varicocele. An age-matched control group consisted of 102 patients who were found not to have varicocele according to physical examinations and scrotal ultrasound. The age, weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) of the two groups were compared. The statistical analyses were performed by use of PASW Statistics ver. 18.0. A p-value of less than 0.05 was used for statistical significance.In the varicocele group, the mean age, height, weight, and BMI were 29.42±14.01 years, 168.53±9.97 cm, 62.14±13.17 kg, and 21.66±3.21 kg/m(2), respectively. The distribution of varicocele grade was as follows: 103 (48.8%) grade III, 72 (34.1%) grade II, and 36 (17.1%) grade I. In the control group, the mean age, height, weight, and BMI were 30.83±17.31 years, 161.93±19.83 cm, 64.69±17.86 kg, and 24.04±3.64 kg/m(2), respectively. Analyzing these data specifically in adolescents, they showed significant differences in age, height, and BMI (p=0.000, p=0.000, and p=0.004, respectively) between two groups. There were no significant differences in somatometric parameters between patients with different grades of varicocele.Our results showed that patients with varicoceles were significantly taller and had a lower BMI than did patients without varicoceles, especially among adolescents. Carefully designed future studies may be needed.
- Endoscopic assessment and management of early esophageal adenocarcinoma. [Journal Article, Review]
- World J Gastrointest Oncol 2014 Aug 15; 6(8):275-88.
Esophageal carcinoma affects more than 450000 people worldwide and the incidence is rapidly increasing. In the United States and Europe, esophageal adenocarcinoma has superseded esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in its incidence. Esophageal cancer has a high mortality rates secondary to the late presentation of most patients at advanced stages. Endoscopic screening is recommended for patients with multiple risk factors for cancer in Barrett's esophagus. These risk factors include chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease, hiatal hernia, advanced age, male sex, white race, cigarette smoking, and obesity. The annual risk of esophageal cancer is approximately 0.25% for patients without dysplasia and 6% for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Twenty percent of all esophageal adenocarcinoma in the United States is early stage with disease confined to the mucosa or submucosa. The significant morbidity and mortality of esophagectomy make endoscopic treatment an attractive option. The American Gastroenterological Association recommends endoscopic eradication therapy for patients with high-grade dysplasia. Endoscopic modalities for treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma include endoscopic resection techniques and endoscopic ablative techniques such as radiofrequency ablation, photodynamic therapy and cryoablation. Endoscopic therapy should be precluded to patients with no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Local tumor recurrence is low after endoscopic therapy and is predicted by poor differentiation of tumor, positive lymph node and submucosal invasion. Surgical resection should be offered to patients with deep submucosal invasion.
- Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pelvic abscess: A case series of 8 patients. [Journal Article]
- World J Gastrointest Endosc 2014 Aug 16; 6(8):373-8.
To show the safety and effectiveness of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pelvic abscess that were inaccessible for percutaneous drainage.Eight consecutive patients with pelvic abscess that were not amenable to drainage under computed tomography (CT) guidance were referred for EUS-guided drainage. The underlying cause of the abscesses included diverticulitis in 4, postsurgical surgical complications in 2, iatrogenic after enema in 1, and Crohn's disease in 1 patient. Abscesses were all drained under EUS guidance via a transrectal or transsigmoidal approach.EUS-guided placement of one or two 7 Fr pigtail stents was technically successful and uneventful in all 8 patients (100%). The abscess was perisigmoidal in 2 and was multilocular in 4 patients. All procedures were performed under conscious sedation and without fluoroscopic monitoring. Fluid samples were successfully retrieved for microbiological studies in all cases and antibiotic policy was adjusted according to culture results in 5 patients. Follow-up CT showed complete recovery and disappearance of abscess. The stents were retrieved by sigmoidoscopy in only two patients and had spontaneously migrated to outside in six patients. All drainage procedures resulted in a favourable clinical outcome. All patients became afebrile within 24 h after drainage and the mean duration of the postprocedure hospital stay was 8 d (range 4-14). Within a median follow up period of 38 mo (range 12-52) no recurrence was reported.We conclude that EUS-guided drainage of pelvic abscesses without fluoroscopic monitoring is a minimally invasive, safe and effective approach that should be considered in selected patients.