Download the Free Unbound MEDLINE PubMed App to your smartphone or tablet.
Available for iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, and Android.
urinary retention [keywords]
- Permanent prostate brachytherapy using high V150. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pract Radiat Oncol 2014 Oct 7.
Prostate brachytherapy sometimes requires the volume receiving >150% of the prescribed dose (V150) to be >50% to obtain satisfactory coverage. There has been concern expressed that high V150 may be associated with higher rates of urinary retention and morbidity.We reviewed 207 consecutive cases of prostate brachytherapy treated with palladium 103 ((103)Pd; n = 140) or iodine 125 ((125)I; n = 67). Prescribed doses for (103)Pd monotherapy and boost were 124 and 90 Gy, respectively; for (125)I, the corresponding doses were 160 and 120 Gy. Patients were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 3 months, and every 6 months thereafter.Median follow-up at the time of analysis was 18 months. For (103)Pd, the mean intraoperative volume and V150 were 30.3 cm(3) and 72%, respectively; corresponding values for (125)I were 38.3 cm(3) and 59%, respectively. Two of the patients treated with iodine and 9 treated with palladium experienced acute urinary retention, which was not statistically significant (P = .48). The rectal V100 for (103)Pd was significantly less than that for (125)I (P < .001). The mean baseline, 1-month, and 12-month American Urologic Association (AUA) scores for (103)Pd were 8.5, 19.7, and 8.2, respectively; for (125)I, the values were 7.4, 17.1, and 13.4, respectively. At 12 months, the AUA scores returned to baseline in the (103)Pd-treated patients, whereas scores in (125)I-treated patients remained elevated (P = .005). High V150 did not appear to cause undue risk of urinary retention or morbidity based on logistic regression analysis of patients treated with monotherapy performed with either isotope.The risk of urinary retention was low, despite high V150 values for both isotopes. In patients treated with brachytherapy alone, no significant increase in urinary morbidity was seen in relation to V150. AUA scores returned to baseline in (103)Pd-treated patients at 1 year, whereas (125)I-treated patients demonstrated continued elevation.
- Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anim Sci 2014 Nov 20.
Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin ( GLY: ) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% on energy balance in finishing cattle diets were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 503 kg) using a replicated Latin square design. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period and random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Glycerin replaced dry-rolled corn ( DRC: ) at 0% ( GLY-0: ), 5% ( GLY-5: ), 10% ( GLY-10: ), and 15% ( GLY-15: ) of dietary dry matter. Dry matter intake decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss tended to decrease linearly (P < 0.07), and DE also tended to increase linearly (P = 0.07) as dietary level of GLY increased. Urinary energy loss was not different (P > 0.31) as a proportion of GE as GLY increased in the diet. Methane energy loss as a proportion of GE intake tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10) decreasing from 0% to 10% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter. As a proportion of GE intake, ME tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), increasing from 0% GLY to 10% GLY and then decreasing. As a proportion of GE intake, heat production increased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Additionally, as a proportion of GE intake, retained energy ( RE: ) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.07) increasing from 0% to 10% GLY inclusion and decreasing thereafter. As a proportion of N intake, urinary and fecal N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.04) as GLY increased in the diet. Furthermore, g of N retained and N retained as a % of N intake both decreased linearly (P < 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Total dry matter digestibility tended (P < 0.10) to respond quadratically increasing at a decreasing rate from 0% to 5% GLY inclusion. Overall, RE tended to decrease as GLY increased in the diet in conjunction with a decrease in N retention, which could indicate an increased metabolic cost to the animal associated with feeding GLY. Based on RE, the feeding value of GLY in high-concentrate diets is greater than DRC at 5% and 10% of DM, but less at 15% of DM.
- Role of Renal Sensory Nerves in Physiological and Pathophysiological Conditions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 2014 Nov 19.:ajpregu.00351.2014.
Whether activation of afferent renal nerves contributes to the regulation of arterial pressure and sodium balance has been long overlooked. In normotensive rats, activating renal mechanosensory nerves decreases efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (ERSNA) and increases urinary sodium excretion, an inhibitory renorenal reflex. There is an interaction between efferent and afferent renal nerves whereby increases in ERSNA increase afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA) leading to decreases in ERSNA by activation of the renorenal reflexes to maintain low ERSNA to minimize sodium retention. High sodium diet enhances and low dietary sodium reduces the responsiveness of the renal sensory nerves, thus producing physiologically appropriate responses to maintain sodium balance. Increased renal angiotensin II reduces the responsiveness of the renal sensory nerves in physiological and pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, congestive heart failure and ischemia-induced acute renal failure. Impairment of inhibitory renorenal reflexes in these pathological states would contribute to the hypertension and sodium retention. When the inhibitory renorenal reflexes are suppressed, excitatory reflexes may prevail. Renal denervation reduces arterial pressure in experimental hypertension and in treatment resistant hypertensive patients. The fall in arterial pressure is associated with a fall in muscle sympathetic nerve activity suggesting increased ARNA contributing to increased arterial pressure in these patients. Although removal of both renal sympathetic and afferent renal sensory nerves most likely contributes to the arterial pressure reduction initially, additional mechanisms may be involved in long-term arterial pressure reduction since sympathetic and sensory nerves reinnervate renal tissue in a similar time dependent fashion following renal denervation.
- Total plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Scand J Clin Lab Invest 2014 Nov 20.:1-9.
Background and aim. In patients with fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA (ClP) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was therefore undertaken in order to compare ClP with the urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA (ClU) in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. Material and methods. A total of 136 patients with cirrhosis (24 without fluid retention, 112 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51)Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 hours. ClP was determined from the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, extrapolated to infinity. ClU was determined as urinary excretion relative to the plasma concentration-time area up to voiding. Results. In patients without fluid retention, the difference between ClP and ClU (ClP - ClU = ClΔ) was mean 4.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2). In patients with ascites, ClΔ was significantly higher (17.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2), p < 0.0001). ClΔ increased with lower values of GFR (r = - 0.458, p < 0.001). Repeated measurements of ClU in a subgroup of patients with fluid retention (n = 25) gave almost identical values. Different types of corrections of one-pool clearance were almost identical with ClP, except for higher clearance values, which were somewhat underestimated by the former. Conclusion. In patients with fluid retention and ascites ClP and corrected one-pool clearance overestimates GFR substantially. Although ClU may underestimate GFR slightly, patients with ascites should collect urine quantitatively in order to obtain a reliable measurement of GFR.
- Effect of dietary protein on intake, nutrients utilization, nitrogen balance, blood metabolites, growth and puberty in growing Bhadawari buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) heifers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Trop Anim Health Prod 2014 Nov 19.
Fifteen Bhadawari buffalo heifers of 207 ± 9.78 kg mean body weight were randomly distributed into three dietary groups to evaluate the effect of protein level on nutrient utilization, nitrogen (N) balance, growth rate, blood metabolites, and puberty. All animals were offered wheat straw-berseem diets supplemented with concentrate mixtures of similar energy (2.7 Mcal/kg) and different protein levels (14.3-22 %). Animals of standard-protein group (SPG) were offered protein and energy as per requirement, while animals of low-protein group (LPG) and high-protein group (HPG) were fed 20 % less and 20 % more protein, respectively, than SPG. Feed dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intake (% body wt. and g/kg w(0.75)) were similar for all three diets; however, the crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake on percent body weight and per kilogram metabolic weight was higher (P < 0.05) in HPG than in SPG or LPG. Digestibility of CP, cellulose, and hemicellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in HPG versus LPG. Fecal N excretion was similar, while urinary N excretion was highest (P < 0.05) in HPG (74.83 g/day) compared with SPG (50.03 g/day) and LPG (47.88 g/day), which resulted in lower N retention in HPG than in the other dietary groups. Level of dietary N had no effect on blood metabolites viz. glucose, urea, and N. Digestible energy (DE) and ME contents of diets were identical, while DCP contents were higher (P < 0.05) in HPG than in LPG. Feed and nutrient (CP and ME) conversion efficiency to produce a unit kilogram weight gain was identical among the dietary groups. Dietary protein level had no effect on the heifer's weight and age at puberty. The mean growth rate of heifers at 240 days was higher (P > 0.05) in SPG (330.8 g/day) than in LPG (296.7 g/day), while the animals gained more weight in January to March months and the lowest weight in May to July months. Protein level had no effect on conception rate of heifers. Results revealed that 20 % higher or less protein than the ICAR requirement had no significant (P > 0.05) on feed intake, nutrient conversion efficiency for weight gain, heifer growth, and puberty; however, 20 % more protein increased urinary N loss.
- Dysuria and acute urinary retencion as initial presentation of primary vaginal lymphoma. Case report and bibliographic review. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Esp Urol 2014 Nov; 67(9):775-779.
We report a case of primary vaginal lymphoma. The clinical presentation was an episode of dysuria and acute urinary retention. We performed a bibliographic review.Thirty-six year-old patient who consulted in the urology clinic for hesitancy that triggered an episode of acute urinary retention. Physical examination revealed thickening of the vaginal wall. Biopsy was performed and diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell primary vaginal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was obtained.Primary lymphomas of the female genital tract are rare. The third most frequent location is vagina. The most common manifestation is vaginal bleeding. Urinary symptoms are rarely the first sign. Diagnosis requires a biopsy. The first choice for treatment is Rituximab- CHOP immuno-chemotherapy.Vaginal lymphoma is a rare disease. Unfrequently, the first clinical manifestations are urinary tract symptoms, and even less acute urinary retention.
- Efficacy and perioperative safety of synthetic mid-urethral slings in obese women with stress urinary incontinence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Urogynecol J 2014 Nov 19.
Obesity is associated with an increased prevalence of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Mid-urethral polypropylene sling is considered the surgical gold standard for treatment of SUI. We reviewed the current literature on efficacy at 1 year (or more) and perioperative safety of synthetic mid-urethral sling procedures for SUI in obese women.A systematic search of PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane databases was performed using the MeSH terms "Stress urinary incontinence", "Overweight", "Obesity" and "Surgery". We included 13 full-text papers published from January 1995 to May 2014. We defined two groups of women: non-obese (BMI below 30 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI above 30 kg/m(2)). Data regarding subjective and objective cure and selected perioperative complications were pooled and compared.The pooled data from the 13 studies showed that 76.4 % and 74.7 % of non-obese and obese women, respectively, were subjectively cured (p = 0.70), and 83.3 % and 79.2 %, respectively, were objectively cured (p = 0.56). Bladder perforation was more frequently reported in non-obese women (p < 0.01). We did not detect a significant difference in postoperative urine retention or sling excision between the two groups (p = 0.36 and p = 0.17, respectively).Cure rates were found to be comparable in obese and non-obese women. Perioperative complications were not reported to occur more often in obese women. The outcomes of sling procedures for SUI appear to be comparable in obese and non-obese women, and counselling of obese women regarding outcomes and perioperative complications can be similar.
- Simultaneous open preperitoneal repair of inguinal hernia with open prostatectomy for benign prostate hyperplasia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Trop Doct 2014 Nov 17.
Where surgical resources are slim, patients may suffer the obstructive symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia until they present with frank urinary retention and they may have unattended inguinal hernia. The best strategy to take care of patients who have both problems at once has remained elusive. We report a small case series of 10 patients in whom open preperitoneal inguinal hernia repair was done together with suprapubic prostatectomy over a 10-year period in the district hospital.
- A simple technique to facilitate treatment of urethral strictures with optical internal urethrotomy. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Urol 2014.:137605.
Urethral stricture is a common condition that can lead to serious complications such as urinary infections and renal insufficiency secondary to urinary retention. Treatment options include catheterization, urethroplasty, endoscopic internal urethrotomy, and dilation. Optical internal urethrotomy offers faster recovery, minimal scarring, and less risk of infection, although recurrence is possible. However, technical difficulties associated with poor visualization of the stenosis or of the urethral lumen may increase procedural time and substantially increase the failure rates of internal urethrotomy. In this report we describe a technique for urethral catheterization via a suprapubic, percutaneous approach through the urinary bladder in order to facilitate endoscopic internal urethrotomy.
- High salt intake increases copeptin but salt sensitivity is associated with fluid induced reduction of copeptin in women. [Journal Article]
- Int J Hypertens 2014.:641587.
This study investigated if copeptin is affected by high salt intake and whether any salt-induced changes in copeptin are related to the degree of salt sensitivity. The study was performed on 20 men and 19 women. In addition to meals containing 50 mmol NaCl daily, capsules containing 100 mmol NaCl and corresponding placebo capsules were administered during 4 weeks each, in random order. Measurements of 24 h blood pressure, body weight, 24 h urinary volume, and fasting plasma copeptin were performed at high and low salt consumption. Copeptin increased after a high compared to low dietary salt consumption in all subjects 3,59 ± 2,28 versus 3,12 ± 1,95 (P = 0,02). Copeptin correlated inversely with urinary volume, at both low (r = -0,42; P = 0,001) and high (r = -0,60; P < 0,001) salt consumption, as well as with the change in body weight (r = -0,53; P < 0,001). Systolic salt sensitivity was inversely correlated with salt-induced changes of copeptin, only in females (r = -0,58; P = 0,017). As suppression of copeptin on high versus low salt intake was associated with systolic salt sensitivity in women, our data suggest that high fluid intake and fluid retention may contribute to salt sensitivity.