urinary retention [keywords]
- Rapid progression of mixed neuroendocrine carcinoma-acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate: A case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oncol Lett 2016 Aug; 12(2):1019-1022.
The current study presents the case of a 78-year-old male with mixed neuroendocrine (NE) carcinoma-acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate. The patient received endocrine therapy (maximal androgen blockade) after the initial diagnosis resulting in a significant decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. The patient underwent transurethral resection of the prostate after 6 months of androgen-deprivation therapy for extraordinarily salient difficulty in urination, and histopathology demonstrated mixed NE carcinoma-acinar adenocarcinoma once again. The NE prostate cancer progressed rapidly even though the serum PSA was controlled at a low level on account of the endocrine therapy. Previous treatment protocols were replaced by combined chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, and the patient responded well. The patient's serum PSA remained at a low level, however, urethral dilatation for acute urinary retention was required again 5 months later and the lower urinary tract symptoms became increasingly evident. The patient eventually died of cachexia.. These findings indicate that mixed NE carcinoma-acinar adenocarcinoma has a higher degree of malignancy and that endocrine therapy for prostate cancer has a propensity to facilitate progression of this tumor.
- Postoperative Management of the Physiological Effects of Spinal Anesthesia. [Journal Article]
- J Perianesth Nurs 2016 Aug; 31(4):330-9.
Spinal anesthesia is a common regional anesthesia used in ambulatory and hospital settings. Spinal anesthesia has been shown to reduce postoperative pain and morbidity in certain populations. Understanding the physiological changes during spinal anesthesia can help predict and manage side effects including hypotension, bradycardia, decreased expiration, nausea, vomiting, and urinary retention. This article describes the physiological effects of spinal anesthesia in a body systems approach, describes how to assess the spinal level, and presents common side effects seen postoperatively and how to successfully manage and treat these patients.
- Best Practices for Intrathecal Baclofen Therapy: Screening Test. [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neuromodulation 2016 Jul 19.
Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) screening assesses response to a test dose of ITB on spasticity and function and identifies adverse reactions.An expert panel consulted on best practices after conducting an extensive literature search and conducting an online survey.A successful trial may confirm predetermined goals, which may include improved mobility/positioning, decreased time/improved independence for activities, less home exercise, better wheelchair tolerance, decreased caregiver time, improved sleep, and reduced pain, or may modify goals and expectations. Individuals should not be tested in the presence of active medical issues (e.g., MS exacerbations, active urinary tract infection, nonhealing wounds). Oral antispasmodics can be weaned before trial if a goal is to eliminate them. The standard baclofen test dose is a 50-mcg bolus, 25 mcg in very small children or patients who rely on spasticity for mobility. Patients unresponsive to the standard dose may require 75 mcg or 100 mcg; 24 hours should elapse between bolus doses. Cardiopulmonary parameters should be checked frequently during the first two hours postinjection, and spasticity measures assessed at least twice within four hours. Observation continues until the patient is stable and recovers from hypertonia. Adverse events include spinal headaches, nausea/vomiting, urinary retention, hypotension, seizures, drowsiness/sedation, respiratory depression, and coma. Before implantation, team members must discuss starting dose, drug concentration, delivery mode, pump size and location, and catheter tip placement. Patients/caregivers should understand the commitment necessary for ITB therapy.Screening helps identify appropriate candidates for ITB.
- Effect of prostate volume on the peripheral nerve block anesthesia in the prostate biopsy: A strobe-compliant study. [Journal Article]
- Medicine (Baltimore) 2016 Jul; 95(28):e4184.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of periprostatic nerve block (PNB) in transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy on different prostate volume.A total of 568 patients received prostate biopsy in our hospital from May 2013 to September 2015 and were retrospectively studied. All patients were divided into local anesthesia group (LAG) and nerve block group (NBG). Then each group was subdivided into 4 subgroups (20-40, 40-60, 60-100, and >100 mL groups) according to different prostate volume range. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and visual numeric scale (VNS) were used to assess the patient's pain and quantify their satisfaction. The scores and complications were compared between the groups.The age and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level before biopsy had no significant differences at intergroup or intragroup level. The VAS scores were significantly lower in the NBG than those in the LAG in terms of prostate volume (1 (1-2) versus 2 (1-3), 2 (1-3) versus 2 (2-4), 2 (2-3) versus 3 (2-5), 4 (3-5) versus 5 (4-7), all P < 0.05). Conversely, the VNS scores were higher in the NBG (4 (3-4) versus 3.5 (3-4), 3 (3-4) versus 3 (3-3), 3 (2-4) versus 3 (2-3), 2 (2-2) versus 1 (1-2), all P < 0.05). Patients with smaller prostate volume undergoing PNB or local anesthesia experienced significantly lower pain and higher satisfaction scores than those with large prostate. Whether in PNB or local anesthesia group, patients with large prostate volume had more chance to have hematuria, hemospermia, urinary retention than smaller one except infection (P < 0.05). Those complications had no significant differences between LAG and NBG (P > 0.05).Compared with local anesthesia, ultrasound-guided PNB has superior analgesic effect and equal safety, but for patients with a large prostate volume, the analgesic effect is inefficient.
- Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for overactive bladder in constipated children: The role of constipation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Pediatr Urol 2016 Jul 5.
Parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is an effective method for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB), and, additionally, it accelerates bowel transit time. Therefore, not only does parasacral transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improve lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), but it also resolves the problem of constipation in a significant number of children. Since TENS has a positive effect on LUTS and on the symptoms of fecal retention, it is possible that its action regarding OAB could be directly associated with the improvement in constipation. In other words, the positive effect of parasacral TENS in OAB would be because constipation was resolved. The objective of this study was to test that hypothesis.To test the hypothesis that the positive effect of parasacral TENS in OAB would be because constipation had improved with this method.In this prospective study, children with OAB alone were submitted to parasacral TENS. The inclusion criteria consisted of children with idiopathic OAB alone The Rome III criteria for children of 4-18 years of age were used to diagnose constipation. All the children were treated with 20 sessions of parasacral TENS applied for 20 min, three times weekly on alternating days (Figure). No instructions were given to the participants with respect to diet, laxatives, or pharmaceutical treatment for constipation throughout the study period. None of the patients used anticholinergics. Standard urotherapy was prescribed.Parasacral TENS improves OAB and constipation. The presence of constipation before treatment was not associated with a poorer prognosis insofar as the resolution of the symptoms of OAB was concerned. Likewise, there was no association between the resolution of constipation with parasacral TENS and the resolution of OAB.There was no statistically significant difference in urinary symptoms between the constipated and nonconstipated children. There was an improvement in urgency, urge incontinency and in holding maneuvers in both the constipated and non-constipated children; however, there was no significant improvement in enuresis. The resolution of OAB was not associated with the resolution of constipation and vice versa.
- Total hip arthroplasty-related pelvic pseudotumor: Unusual presentation with hydronephrosis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Acta Orthop Traumatol Turc 2016 Jul 14.
- Surveillance following Focal Therapy interventions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Esp Urol 2016 Jul; 69(6):364-374.
Focal therapy (FT) is a tissuesparing treatment paradigm for localized prostate cancer (PCa) with the potential to improve functional outcomes while maintaining oncologic safety. This paper aims to provide an overview of important considerations and practical recommendations relating to the follow-up after FT.Literature review of papers related to FT in PCa derived from Medline/Pubmed database.The recommended minimum follow-up period after FT is 5 years. Standard history taking should include: signs of disease progression, treatment-related complications and psychological aspects. Oncological outcome is based on serial prostate specific antigen monitoring, follow-up imaging (most commonly with multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging) and repeat biopsies (systematic from entire gland or targeted from treated zone). Significant PCa has been found at biopsy in up to 17% of patients after FT. Functional outcomes are evaluated using standardized questionnaires that relate to urinary function, erectile function and quality of life. A systematic review reports urinary continence in 83-100% of patients, erections sufficient for penetration in 54-100%. Outcomes differ between ablative energies and treatment templates. The most common side effects after FT are urinary retention (0-17%), urinary tract infection (UTI) (0-17%) and urinary stricture (0-5%). Rectal fistula is a rare complication occurring in up to 0.1-2% of patients. Clavien-Dindo Grade 3-4 complications are reported in 0-4% of patients. Type and rate vary with treatment modality. Complications should be reported using standardized reporting systems. Most data on FT outcomes come from small heterogeneous trials. Pooling of standardized data is necessary to advance the field of FT.Stringent follow-up after FT is required to confirm oncologic safety of the individual patient. Standardized data gathering and data pooling is necessary to evaluate whether FT can live up to its promise of improving functional outcomes while maintaining oncological safety.
- Focal Cryotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Esp Urol 2016 Jul; 69(6):317-326.
To systematically review the oncological and functional outcomes of contemporary primary prostate focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer in the context of current developments in prostate focal therapy.We performed a systematic search of the Pubmed, Cochrane and Embase databases to identify studies where primary prostate focal cryotherapy was performed to treat prostate cancer. These included reports on focal/ lesion/ sector ablation, hemi-ablation and partial prostate ablation. We excluded salvage focal therapy studies. Where multiple reports were published over time from a single cohort, the latest one was used.Our search yielded 290 publications, including 17 primary reports on eight single-center cohort studies and one multi-center registry report. Of 1,595 men identified, mean age was 60.5-69.5 years and mean PSA 5.1-7.8 ng/ml. When stratified by D'Amico risk criteria, 52% of the aggregate total number of men were low-risk, 38% intermediate-risk and 10% high-risk. Besides 12-core TRUS biopsy, 3 cohorts reported using TTMB and one included mpMRI to select men for focal treatment. Median follow-up ranged from 13-63 months. BPFS ranged from 71-98%. The overall post-treatment positive biopsy rate was 8-25%. Among 5 cohorts with a mandatory 6-12 month posttreatment biopsy, 216 of 272 men (79%) did undergo biopsy, with 47 positive (21.8%). Of these, 15 were infield, 26 outfield, 2 bilateral and 4 undeclared. Ten upgraded to Gleason≥7. Overall, two men had metastatic disease and none died of prostate cancer. Post-treatment continence rates were 96-100% and rates of erectile dysfunction ranged from 0-42%. The rate of post-treatment urinary retention ranged from 0-15%. The rate of recto-urethral fistula was 0-0.1%.Focal cryotherapy for localized prostate cancer is a safe and provides good preservation of sexual and urinary function. Accurate cancer localization and risk stratification is key to patient selection. In highly selected patients, focal therapy has good short to medium term oncological efficacy.
- Type IV Sacrococcygeal Teratoma Displacing the Urinary Bladder: Unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging. [Journal Article]
- Case Rep Urol 2016.:1423157.
Type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma is a rare pediatric tumor that is confined to the presacral area with no external component. The signs and symptoms often arise due to mass effect and compression of adjacent organs. Urinary retention is an uncommon presenting symptom in these patients. A wide spectrum of imaging findings may be encountered in cases with sacrococcygeal teratoma because of variability of tumor size and components. We hereby present a unique magnetic resonance urography finding in a type IV sacrococcygeal teratoma which caused bladder displacement. A meticulous and complete resection of tumor with special attention to the pelvic plexus led to preservation of normal voiding function and normal bowel function in this patient.
- Bioavailability of potassium from potatoes and potassium gluconate: a randomized dose response trial. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Clin Nutr 2016 Jul 13.
The bioavailability of potassium should be considered in setting requirements, but to our knowledge, the bioavailability from individual foods has not been determined. Potatoes provide 19-20% of potassium in the American diet.We compared the bioavailability and dose response of potassium from nonfried white potatoes with skin [targeted at 20, 40, and 60 milliequivalents (mEq) K] and French fries (40 mEq K) with potassium gluconate at the same doses when added to a basal diet that contained ∼60 mEq K.Thirty-five healthy, normotensive men and women with a mean ± SD age of 29.7 ± 11.2 y and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 24.3 ± 4.4 were enrolled in a single-blind, crossover, randomized controlled trial. Participants were partially randomly assigned to the order of testing for nine 5-d interventions of additional potassium as follows: 0 (control; repeated at phases 1 and 5), 20, 40, and 60 mEq K/d consumed as a potassium gluconate supplement or as unfried potato or 40 mEq K from French fries completed at phase 9. The bioavailability of potassium was determined from the area under the curve (AUC) of serial blood draws and cumulative urinary excretion during a 24-h period and from a kinetic analysis. The effects of the potassium source and dose on the change in blood pressure and augmentation index (AIx) were determined.The serum potassium AUC increased with the dose (P < 0.0001) and did not differ because of the source (P = 0.53). Cumulative 24-h urinary potassium also increased with the dose (P < 0.0001) and was greater with the potato than with the supplement (P < 0.0001). The kinetic analysis showed the absorption efficiency was high across all interventions (>94% ± 12%). There were no significant differences in the change in blood pressure or AIx with the treatment source or dose.The bioavailability of potassium is as high from potatoes as from potassium gluconate supplements. Future studies that measure the effect of dietary potassium on blood pressure will need to evaluate the effect of various dietary sources on potassium retention and in both normal and hypertensive populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01881295.