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urinary retention [keywords]
- Incidence of delayed hair re-growth, pruritus, and urinary retention after epidural anaesthesia in dogs. [Journal Article]
- Tierarztl Prax Ausg K Kleintiere Heimtiere 2014 Apr 16; 42(2):94-100.
Objective:Delayed hair re-growth, pruritus and urinary retention are known complications after epidural anaesthesia in dogs. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the effect of epidurally administered drugs on the occurrence of these complications in dogs. Material and methods: Ninety dogs were included in this study. Eighty client-owned dogs undergoing surgery were randomly assigned to one of three epidural treatment groups: either morphine and bupivacaine (MB), bupivacaine (B), or saline solution 0.9% (S) was administered epidurally to these patients. Ten dogs were only clipped in the lumbosacral area (C). Follow-up started 4 weeks after clipping and was performed every 4-5 weeks in cases of delayed hair re-growth or pruritus. Hair re-growth in the lumbosacral area was observed and compared to hair re-growth in the surgical field and the fentanyl patch area. Cytological analysis and a trichogram were performed if hair re-growth was delayed after 6 months. Time interval to first urination postoperatively was recorded (n = 80).
Results:Hair re-growth was delayed in 11 dogs (12.2%; B: n = 7, S: n = 2, MB: n = 1, C: n = 1) with no differences between groups. Pruritus was evident in two dogs (2.2%; MB: n = 1, S: n = 1). After 6 months, hair had started to re-grow in all but one dog (B). After 10 months the coat of this dog had re-grown. Time to first urination did not differ between groups. Conclusion and clinical relevance: No direct correlation between the particular drugs injected epidurally and delayed hair re-growth, pruritus and urinary retention could be shown. Dog owners should be informed that hair re-growth after epidural anaesthesia could be markedly delayed.
- Self-adhesive mesh for Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair. Experience of a single center. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Minerva Chir 2014 Apr 15.
Lichtenstein tension-free mesh repair is the most frequently performed procedure for inguinal hernioplasty. In the past surgery aimed to control recurrences. Nowadays it is important to avoid postoperative chronic pain and thus several studies have examined the potential role of meshes in causing postoperative pain.The purpose of this study was to retrospectively assess the early and long-term results after Lichtenstein tension-free repair using a self-adhesive mesh (Parietex ProgripTM -Covidien, Germany) in a single center.The study enrolled 211 patients, 199 males (94.3%) and 12 females (5.7%), mean age 62 years (28-90 years), between January 2008 and December 2011. Of these, 206 had primary inguinal hernias while 5 were recurrences following previous tension repair. Ten different general surgeons, including residents, performed Lichtenstein hernia repair using a 12 x 8-cm Parietex ProgripTM mesh. In 88.1% of patients no additional fixation was used, while in 11.9% a single 2-0 polypropylene stitch was placed on the pubic bone. A 1-10 visual analog scale (VAS) was used to assess postoperative pain, evaluating it at 1 week, 1 month and 12, 24 and 36 months. Local paresthesia was assessed at same intervals. Any pain sensation lasting longer than 3 months postoperatively, or requiring injection of analgesics was defined as chronic pain.Mean operating time was 64.1 minutes (SD +/- 21.14). There were no intraoperative complications. Early post-operative complications included hematoma-seroma (5.7% cases), superficial wound infection (1%), urinary retention (0.5%), and scrotal swelling (1%). The main follow-up period was 3 years, although patients operated between 2009 and 2011 underwent a shorter follow-up. At 1-year follow-up, 17 patients reported groin discomfort, but did not require analgesics. Three patients reported moderate pain, requiring occasional use of oral analgesics, and 2 of these described a discontinuous pain mainly during movement. One patient reported severe pain requiring local injection of analgesics. At 2-year follow-up, 3 patients reported groin discomfort. Five of the 17 patients who reported discomfort at 1 year were lost to the 2-year follow-up. One patient kept reporting a high VAS score (6), though slightly reduced from the previously reported at 1-year follow-up. Recurrence was observed in 0.5% at 1 year and in 2.4% at 2 years. At 3 years only half of the patients (102) were still on follow-up. Of these, 1 reported mild discomfort and 3 developed hernia recurrence. Globally a decrease in pain and local discomfort was observed. No cases of seroma, testicular complications or mesh infection were reported at 1-, 2- and 3-year follow-up.Self-gripping mesh for inguinal hernia repair is a good and safe option, easy to handle and with a low incidence of chronic pain (< 3%). A sutureless fixation seems to prevent the development of postoperative chronic pain, without increasing recurrence rates. Using a self-adhesive mesh also slightly reduce operating times, and costs are lower when compared to biological glue used to fix the mesh. In conclusion, our experience with the self-gripping mesh is limited but positive, randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm our results.
- Ligasure Versus Stapled Hemorrhoidectomy in the Treatment of Hemorrhoids: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech 2014 Apr 12.
The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare the outcomes of Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy and stapled hemorrhoidectomy for prolapsed hemorrhoids. Original studies in any language were searched from MEDLINE database, PubMed, Web of science and the Cochrane Library database, and Wangfang database. Randomized control trials that compared Ligasure hemorrhoidectomy with stapled hemorrhoidectomy were identified. Data were extracted independently for each study, and a meta-analysis was performed using fixed and random-effects models. Five trials including 397 patients met the inclusion criteria. Patients treated with Ligasure had a significantly shorter operative time compared with patients who underwent stapler techniques. The recurrence rate was higher in patients who underwent stapled hemorrhoidectomy. No statistically significant differences were observed in postoperative bleeding, urinary retention, difficult defecating, anal fissure, anal stenosis, incontinence, postoperative pain, return to normal activities, and hospital stay. Our meta-analysis shows that Ligasure is an effective instrument for hemorrhoidectomy, which results in shorter operation time and lower recurrence rate.
- Active sacral neuromodulator during pregnancy. A unique case report. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Am J Obstet Gynecol 2014 Apr 11.
Sacral neuromodulation with implanted device is used in patients suffering from urinary retention and malfunctioning overactive bladder where conservative treatment is not sufficient. The knowledge of its effect on pregnancy is not known. This article presents the case of a 34 year-old pregnant woman with implanted device and its use was not discontinued during her pregnancy. Full-term pregnancy was achieved and a healthy child was delivered via Caesarean section. Sacral neuromodulation during pregnancy appears to be safe and it may be preferable to intermittent bladder catheterizations that increase the chance of urinary infections.
- Indwelling bladder catheterisation as part of intraoperative and postoperative care for caesarean section. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014 Apr 11.:CD010322.
Caesarean section (CS) is the most common obstetric surgical procedure, with more than one-third of pregnant women having lower-segment CS. Bladder evacuation is carried out as a preoperative procedure prior to CS. Emerging evidence suggests that omitting the use of urinary catheters during and after CS could reduce the associated increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs), catheter-associated pain/discomfort to the woman, and could lead to earlier ambulation and a shorter stay in hospital.To assess the effectiveness and safety of indwelling bladder catheterisation for intraoperative and postoperative care in women undergoing CS.We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 December 2013) and reference lists of retrieved studies.Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing indwelling bladder catheter versus no catheter or bladder drainage in women undergoing CS (planned or emergency), regardless of the type of anaesthesia used. Quasi-randomised trials, cluster-randomised trials were not eligible for inclusion. Studies presented as abstracts were eligible for inclusion providing there was sufficient information to assess the study design and outcomes.Two review authors independently assessed studies for eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Data were checked for accuracy.The search retrieved 16 studies (from 17 reports). Ten studies were excluded and one study is awaiting assessment. We included five studies involving 1065 women (1090 recruited). The five included studies were at moderate risk of bias.Data relating to one of our primary outcomes (UTI) was reported in four studies but did not meet our definition of UTI (as prespecified in our protocol). The included studies did not report on our other primary outcome - intraoperative bladder injury (this outcome was not prespecified in our protocol). Two secondary outcomes were not reported in the included studies: need for postoperative analgesia and women's satisfaction. The included studies did provide limited data relating to this review's secondary outcomes. Indwelling bladder catheter versus no catheter - three studies (840 women) Indwelling bladder catheterisation was associated with a reduced incidence of bladder distension (non-prespecified outcome) at the end of the operation (risk ratio (RR) 0.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.00 to 0.35; one study, 420 women) and fewer cases of retention of urine (RR 0.06, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.47; two studies, 420 women) or need for catheterisation (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.16; three studies 840 participants). In contrast, indwelling bladder catheterisation was associated with a longer time to first voiding (mean difference (MD) 16.81 hours, 95% CI 16.32 to 17.30; one study, 420 women) and more pain or discomfort due to catheterisation (and/or at first voiding) (average RR 10.47, 95% CI 4.71 to 23.25, two studies, 420 women) although high levels of heterogeneity were observed. Similarly, compared to women in the 'no catheter' group, indwelling bladder catheterisation was associated with a longer time to ambulation (MD 4.34 hours, 95% CI 1.37 to 7.31, three studies, 840 women) and a longer stay in hospital (MD 0.62 days, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.10, three studies, 840 women). However, high levels of heterogeneity were observed for these two outcomes and the results should be interpreted with caution.There was no difference in postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) due to uterine atony. There was also no difference in the incidence of UTI (as defined by trialists) between the indwelling bladder catheterisation and no catheterisation groups (two studies, 570 women). However, high levels of heterogeneity were observed for this non-prespecified outcome and results should be considered in this context. Indwelling bladder catheter versus bladder drainage - two studies (225 women)Two studies (225 women) compared the use of an indwelling bladder catheter versus bladder drainage. There was no difference between groups in terms of retention of urine following CS, length of hospital stay or the non-prespecified outcome of UTI (as defined by the trialist).There is some evidence (from one small study involving 50 women), that the need for catheterisation was reduced in the group of women with an indwelling bladder catheter (RR 0.04, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.70) compared to women in the bladder drainage group. Evidence from another small study (involving 175 women) suggests that women who had an indwelling bladder catheter had a longer time to ambulation (MD 0.90, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.55) compared to women who received bladder drainage.This review includes limited evidence from five RCTs of moderate quality. The review's primary outcomes (bladder injury during operation and UTI), were either not reported or reported in a way not suitable for our analysis. The evidence in this review is based on some secondary outcomes, with heterogeneity present in some of the analyses. There is insufficient evidence to assess the routine use of indwelling bladder catheters in women undergoing CS. There is a need for more rigorous RCTs, with adequate sample sizes, standardised criteria for the diagnosis of UTI and other common outcomes.
- Gross Hematuria and Urinary Retention Among Men From a Nationally Representative Survey in Sierra Leone. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Urology 2014 Apr 8.
To estimate the prevalence of gross hematuria and urinary retention among men in Sierra Leone and report on barriers to care and associated disability. Gross hematuria and urinary retention are classic urologic complaints that require medical attention for significant underlying pathology, but their burden has not been quantified in a developing country.A cluster randomized, cross-sectional household survey was administered in Sierra Leone using the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical need tool as a verbal head-to-toe examination. A total of 2 respondents in each of 25 households in 75 clusters were surveyed to assess surgical needs. Data on questions related to blood from the penis and the inability to urinate for men >12 years were included in the present analysis to determine the period and point prevalence of hematuria and urinary retention.From 3645 total respondents, 1054 (28.9%) were men >12 years included in the analysis. Period and point prevalence of gross hematuria were 21.8 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 13.0-30.7) and 12.3 per 1000 (95% CI 5.7-19.0), respectively, and for urinary retention, they were 19.9 per 1000 (95% CI 11.5-28.4) and 4.7 per 1000 (95% CI 0.5-8.9), respectively. Lack of financial resources was the major barrier to care. Disability assessment showed 19.1% were not able to work as a result of urinary retention, and 34.8% felt ashamed of their gross hematuria.The results provide a prevalence estimate of gross hematuria and urinary retention for men in Sierra Leone. Accessible medical and surgical care will be critical for early intervention and management.
- Prospective, Single Center, Single Surgeon's Experience with an Atraumatic Self-adhering Mesh in 100 Consecutive Patients. [Journal Article]
- Surg Technol Int 2014 Mar.:178-82.
The purpose of this study was to show the short- and long-term results of a lightweight self-adhering mesh, Adhesix®. Between February 2011 and April 2013, we prospectively collected data of 100 consecutive patients who underwent incisional or inguinal hernia repair. Mean follow-up time was 23 months (range 7-33 months). Mean length of hospital stay was 1.7 days (range 0.5-16 days). No recurrences occurred. Pain was significantly reduced after 1 month (4.1 vs 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.9-3.1; P < 0.0001) as well as at the last follow-up visit (1.6 vs 0.48; 95% CI 0.6-1.7; P < 0.0001). SF 36 scaled scores, as an indicator of quality of life, were good with 86, 84, 86, 84, 83, 88, 92, 87. Only 2 patients developed clinically significant seromas. No clinically significant hematomas were observed. Neither mesh nor wound infections occurred. Four patients developed urinary retention immediately postoperative, while 2 were hospitalized 2 weeks after discharge because of pneumonia. Two patients died because of unrelated causes. Based on these results, use of the Adhesix mesh seems to be safe, feasible, and efficient in hernia repair.
- A case of myelitis with anti-aquaporin 4 antibody concomitant with immune thrombocytopenic purpura. [Journal Article]
- Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2014; 54(3):195-9.
We report a 44-year-old woman who had anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) antibody-positive myelitis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). She was admitted to our hospital with paraparesis, dysesthesia below the Th8 dermatome level on her right side and lower extremities, constipation and urinary retention. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a longitudinally extending lesion at the level of Th4-Th10. Her serum sample was positive for anti-AQP4 antibody. Corticosteroid therapy was initiated, and her symptoms were largely ameliorated. Furthermore, concurrently with the myelitis, her platelet count dropped (99 × 10(9)/l). A diagnosis of ITP was made with positive serum platelet-associated IgG (PA-IgG) and negative work-up for blood malignancies by bone marrow aspiration. Since a causal relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ITP is suggested by several studies, she was also examined and diagnosed with H. pylori-positive ITP. After the bacteria eradication therapy, her platelet count and PA-IgG returned to normal range. Furthermore, the anti-AQP4 antibody titer declined and her symptoms were almost resolved. We considered that H. pylori might influence progression of the myelitis as well as induction and development of ITP.
- A late-recognized Currarino syndrome in an adult revealed by an anal fistula. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int J Surg Case Rep 2014 Mar 12; 5(5):240-242.
Currarino syndrome (CS) is characterized by the triad of anorectal malformations, sacral bone defects, and presacral mass in which an autosomal dominant inheritance has been described. The surgical community has a little no knowledge of CS in adults, apart from, perhaps, a small number of paediatric surgeons. Therefore, we sought to describe this unusual cause of anal fistula.A 55-year-old man was referred with an anal fistula. The patient was scheduled for drainage of multiple collections and an anal fistulectomy. Cytological results were confirmed that the cyst was dermoid (and non abscess). One month after surgery, the patient informs us of his CS. MRI was performed and it revealed an anterior sacral mass. It was to decide to realize an exeresis of this mass by coelioscopy. The patient experienced severely constipated and urinary retention. After therapy by Peristeen anal irrigation and self Intermittent catheterization (six times daily), there was a good improvement in symptoms.This is an extremely rare case of CS revealed in an adult. MRI is a sensitive non-invasive diagnostic tool, and could be performed on any patient with long-standing anal fistula.We recommend an early and multidisciplinary approach of CS is suspected in a patient. The surgeon must always be alert to the possibility of pelvic nerves injury during an exeresis of a retrorectal tumour fistulized.
- Urinary incontinence in frail elderly persons: Report from the 5th International Consultation on Incontinence. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurourol Urodyn 2014 Apr 2.
Evidence based guidelines for the management of frail older persons with urinary incontinence are rare. Those produced by the International Consultation on Incontinence represent an authoritative set of recommendations spanning all aspects of management.To update the recommendations of the 4th ICI.A series of systematic reviews and evidence updates were performed by members of the working group in order to update the 2009 recommendations. The resulting guidelines were presented at the 2012 meeting of the European Associatioon of Urology.Along with the revision of the treatment algorithm and accompanying text. There have been significant advances in several areas including pharmacological treatment of overactive bladder.The committee continue to notes the relative paucity of data concerning frail older persons and draw attention to knowledge gaps in this area. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.