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urinary retention [keywords]
- Solid phase extraction and nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionisation mass spectrometry for improved global urine metabolomics. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Anal Chem 2014 Dec 18.
Global urine metabolomics is a rapidly expanding field with the potential to discover biomarkers of disease and exposure. To date most methods focus on rapid sample preparation, using neat or diluted urine, together with high throughput analyses, and are poorly suited for detection of low abundance metabolites present in urine samples. In this study, novel methods have been developed to analyse urine by splitless nanoflowUHPLC-nanoESI-TOFMS (nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS) after pre-concentration by solid phase extraction (SPE), thus enabling significant improvements in analytical sensitivity and coverage of the urinary metabolome. In initial work, urine samples were extracted by both anion and cation exchange mixed mode polymeric SPE cartridges and qualitatively compared with those using conventional sample preparations using UHPLC-ESI-TOFMS analyses. Compared with neat or diluted urine samples, SPE concentration of urine resulted in detection of additional metabolites including bile acids, lipids, pharmaceuticals and markers of lifestyle, with little loss of other components of the metabolome. Analyses of SPE preparations by nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS revealed excellent retention time repeatability with <1% coefficient of variation (CV) for 96% of analysed peaks. The repeatability of the MS response was <30% CV for >79% of MS features in both negative and positive nESI modes. Compared with UHPLC-ESI-TOFMS, analysis by the nano-platform enabled detection of signalling molecules important in disease processes including sex steroids, glucocorticoids, eicosanoids and neurotransmitter metabolites. The significant improvement in sensitivity arising from use of splitless nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS analyses of SPE-concentrated samples represents a step change in coverage of the urinary metabolome thereby increasing the potential for biomarker discovery.
- Urinary Retention After Hysterectomy and Postoperative Analgesic Use. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Female Pelvic Med Reconstr Surg 2014 Dec 17.
This study aimed to determine risk factors, including postoperative analgesic use, for the development of postoperative urinary retention (PUR) after hysterectomy for routine gynecologic indications using a case-control study design.Cases of PUR after hysterectomy were identified from billing data. Cases were those patients requiring recatheterization for inability to void. Controls were similarly identified and matched by age and date of surgery in a 3:1 control-to-case ratio. Chart review was performed to obtain demographic, medical, surgical, anesthetic, and medication data. Cumulative and interval doses of postoperative narcotic were recorded and converted into morphine equivalents. Crude odds ratios (ORs) were determined for potential risk factors for PUR using standard statistical analysis. Conditional logistic regression was used on multivariate models, including cumulative postoperative narcotic use, to determine adjusted ORs for risk factors.Twenty-six cases of PUR were matched with 78 controls. The cases had a higher body mass index (32 vs 28 kg/m, P = 0.02), had a higher preoperative use of tricyclic antidepressants (TCA; 19.2% vs 1.3%, P = 0.004), were more likely to present preoperative urinary retention associated with fibroids (19.2% vs 0%, P < 0.01), and received a higher cumulative narcotic dose in the postoperative period (109 vs 73.6 mg, P < 0.001). In a multivariate model, preoperative TCA use (OR, 30.1; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-456; P = 0.01) and cumulative narcotic dose (OR, 2.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.44-4.56; P < 0.01) were significantly associated with PUR.Postoperative urinary retention after hysterectomy is associated with higher postoperative narcotic dose, preoperative TCA use, and preoperative urinary retention.
- The use of self-gripping (Progrip™) mesh during laparoscopic total extraperitoneal (TEP) inguinal hernia repair: a prospective feasibility and long-term outcomes study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Surg Endosc 2014 Dec 18.
The use of self-gripping mesh during laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repairs may eliminate the need for any additional fixation, and thus reduce post-operative pain without the added concern for mesh migration. Long-term outcomes are not yet prospectively studied in a controlled fashion.Under IRB approval, from January 2011-April 2013, 91 hernias were repaired laparoscopically with self-gripping mesh without additional fixation. Patients were followed for at least 1 year. Demographics and intraoperative data (defect location, size, and mesh deployment time) are recorded. VAS is used in the recovery room (RR) to score pain, and the Carolinas Comfort Scale ™ (CCS), a validated 0-5 pain/quality of life (QoL) score where a mean score of >1.0 means symptomatic pain, is employed at 2 weeks and at 1 year. Morbidities, narcotic usage, days to full activity and return to work, and CCS scores are reported.Sixty two patients, with 91 hernias repaired with self-gripping mesh, completed follow-up at a mean time period of 14.8 months. Seventeen hernias were direct defects (average size 3.0 cm). Mesh deployment time was 193.7 s. RR pain was 1.1/10 using a VAS. Total average oxycodone/acetaminophen (5 mg/325 mg) usage = 5.0 tablets, days to full activity was 1.6, and return to work was 4.2 days. Thirteen small asymptomatic seromas were palpated without any recurrences or groin tenderness, and all seromas resolved by the 6 month visit. Transient testis discomfort was reported in five patients. Urinary retention was 3.2 %. Mean CCS™ scores at the first visit for groin pain laying, bending, sitting, walking, and step-climbing were 0.2, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, and 0.3, respectively. At the first post op visit, 4.8 % had symptomatic pain (CCS > 1). At 14.8 months, no patients reported symptomatic pain with CCS scores for all 62 patients averaging 0.02, (range 0-0.43). There are no recurrences thus far.Self-gripping mesh can be safely used during laparoscopic TEP inguinal hernia repairs; our cohort had a rapid recovery, and at the 1-year follow-up visit, there were no recurrences and no patients reported any chronic pain as defined by a CCS™ > 1.
- Mitragynine 'Kratom' Related Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Anal Toxicol 2014 Dec 16.
A 24-year-old man whose medical history was significant for alcohol abuse and depression was found unresponsive in bed. He had several prior suicide attempts with 'pills' and had also been hospitalized for an accidental overdose on a previous occasion. Autopsy findings were unremarkable apart from pulmonary edema and congestion, and urinary retention. Postmortem peripheral blood initially screened positive for mitragynine 'Kratom' (by routine alkaline drug screen by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, GC-MS), which was subsequently confirmed by a specific GC-MS selective ion mode analysis following solid-phase extraction. Concentrations were determined in the peripheral blood (0.23 mg/L), central blood (0.19 mg/L), liver (0.43 mg/kg), vitreous (<0.05 mg/L), urine (0.37 mg/L) and was not detected in the gastric. Therapeutic concentrations of venlafaxine, diphenhydramine and mirtazapine were also detected together with a negligible ethanol of 0.02% (w/v). The results are discussed in relation to previous cases of toxicity, and the lack of potential for mitragynine postmortem redistribution.
- Persistent urinary retention after surgery for deep infiltrating endometriosis: a multi-center series of 16 cases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Arch Gynecol Obstet 2014 Dec 17.
Persistent urinary retention (UR) is a complication of 3.5-14.3 % of patients having undergone deep pelvic endometriosis (DPE) surgery of posterior compartment, and it is prone to persist. The purpose of this study is to identify surgical procedures and clinical circumstances associated with persistent UR, and consider its treatment.We undertook a multi-center retrospective study studying medical records of patients who had surgery for DPE between January 2005 and December 2012. Patients who suffered from UR defined as a post-void residual (PVR) volume >100 mL needing intermittent self-catheterizations more than 30 days after surgery were included. Preoperative data (functional complaints, clinical examination, imaging, medical treatment) were recorded. Types of surgery and detailed postoperative urinary symptoms were noted.881 patients had surgery for DPE and 16 patients were included (1.8 %). In 93.8 % of cases, a lesion of posterior compartment was clinically significant. Mean lesion size was 28.8 ± 7.3 mm. Colorectal resection and colpectomy were necessary in 93.8 and 87.5 % of cases, respectively. Loss of bladder sensation and straining during urination were the two most common post-operative symptoms. 11 patients still required self-catheterization up to 1 year after the intervention.Patients with increased risks of UR present with a symptomatic and clinically palpable deep pelvic endometriotic lesion of the posterior compartment. Treatment implies surgery with colorectal resection. Bilateral resection of utero-sacral ligaments and posterior colpectomy tend to increase that risk. Complications due to PVR volume and straining during urination may be prevented by self-catheterization.
- Thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) vs. patient controlled analgesia (PCA) in laparoscopic colectomy: a meta-analysis. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Hepatogastroenterology 2014 Jul-Aug; 61(133):1213-9.
Use of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still controversial. Previous clinical trials have conflicting findings in terms of bowel function return, length of hospital stay and postoperative complications. This meta-analysis aims to assess the effect of TEA on clinical outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery compared with patient controlled analgesia (PCA).Randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) compared the effect of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) and patient controlled analgesia (PCA) on outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal surgery was searched. The effects on pain relief, bowel function return, length of hospital stay and post-operative complications were compared.Seven RCTs were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with PEA, TEA contributed significantly lower visual analog scale (VAS) or verbal rate scale (VRS) pain score during the initial period after surgery. No significant difference was observed in time to return of bowel function and length of hospital stay between the two groups. TEA group was associated with lower risk in nausea and vomiting, but with similar risk in urinary retention, urinary tract infection, wound infection, ileus and anastomotic leakage compared with PCA group.Use of epidural analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal surgery helps to provide better pain alleviation during the initial period after operation. This benefit is not at the expense of increased risks of any major complications, or significantly longer hospital stay. No significant benefits in return of bowel function were observed.
- Efficacy of sling procedures for treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. [Journal Article]
- Coll Antropol 2014 Sep; 38(3):1063-9.
The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and surgical outcome of the sling procedures in stress incontinent women in comparison to conventional anterior colporrhaphy. Total of 56 patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) were treated with sling procedure between November 2011 and March 2013, 39/56 (69.6%) with suprapubic arc (SPARC) and 17/56 (30.4%) with MiniArc method. During the same period total of 49 patients with SUI were treated with traditional anterior colporrhaphy according to Bagovid method as the control group. All patients were prospectively clinically assessed over aperiod of 3, 6 and l2 months after surgery. The objective cure rate after the follow-up was 92.9% (52/56) in observed group of patients and 79.6% (39/49) in control group and improvement was occurred in rest of 5.4% (3/56) and 18.4% (9/49), respectively (p < 0.05). The overall complications rate was significantly lower in the observed group of patients than in the control group, 12.5% (7/56) vs. 28.6% (14/49), (p < 0.05). In the sling group was postoperatively noticed slightly higher rate of urinary incontinence, but in the colporrhaphy group was emphasized rate of urinary retention. Only one from the each group of patients failed the surgical procedure and required additional correction for SUI. The mean operating time for SPARC and MiniArc procedure was 19 +/- 7 and 9 +/- 5 minutes, respectively (p < 0.0001). Mean duration of hospitalization was significantly shorter in the sling group of patients (2.6 +/- 1.0, range 2-7) days than in the control group of (9.6 +/- 1.8, range 6-18), (p < 0.001 < 0.0001). According to presented results, sling is a highly effective method in patients with SUI with low incidence of perioperative complications, promising long-term results and high patient's satisfaction.
- A Phase II Study of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Low-Intermediate-High-Risk Prostate Cancer Using Helical Tomotherapy: Dose-Volumetric Parameters Predicting Early Toxicity. [Journal Article]
- Front Oncol 2014.:336.
Endpoint: To assess early urinary (GU) and rectal (GI) toxicities after helical tomotherapy Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT), and to determine their predictive factors.Since May 2012, 45 prostate cancer patients were treated with eight fractions of 5.48 (low risk, 29%) or 5.65 Gy (intermediate-high risk, 71%) on alternative days over 2.5 weeks. The exclusion criteria were Gleason score 9-10, PSA >40 ng/mL, cT3b-4, IPSS ≥20, and history of acute urinary retention. During the follow-up, a set of potential prognostic factors was correlated with urinary or rectal toxicity.The median follow-up was 13.8 months (2-25 months). There were no grade ≥3 toxicities. Acute grade 2 GU complications were found in a 22.7% of men, but in 2.3% of patients at 1 month, 0% at 6 months, and 0% at 12 months. The correspondent figures for grade 2 GI toxicities were 20.4% (acute), 2.3% (1 month), 3.6% (6 months), and 5% (12 months). Acute GI toxicity was significantly correlated with the rectal volume (>15 cm(3)) receiving 28 Gy, only when expressed as absolute volume. The age (>72 years old) was a predictor of GI toxicity after 1 month of treatment. No correlation was found, however, between urinary toxicity and the other analyzed variables. IPSS increased significantly at the time of the last fraction and within the first month, returning to the baseline at sixth month. Urinary-related quality of life (IPSS question 8 score), it was not significantly worsen during radiotherapy returning to the baseline levels 1 month after the treatment. At 12 months follow-up patient's perception of their urinary function improved significantly in comparison with the baseline.Our scheme of eight fractions on alternative days delivered using helical tomotherapy is well tolerated. We recommend using actual volume instead of percentual volume in the treatment planning, and not to exceed 15 cm(3) of rectal volume receiving ≥25 Gy in order to diminish acute GI toxicity.
- Virtual HDR CyberKnife SBRT for Localized Prostatic Carcinoma: 5-Year Disease-Free Survival and Toxicity Observations. [Journal Article]
- Front Oncol 2014.:321.
Prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) may substantially recapitulate the dose distribution of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy, representing an externally delivered "Virtual HDR" treatment method. Herein, we present 5-year outcomes from a cohort of consecutively treated virtual HDR SBRT prostate cancer patients.Seventy-nine patients were treated from 2006 to 2009, 40 low-risk, and 39 intermediate-risk, under IRB-approved clinical trial, to 38 Gy in four fractions. The planning target volume (PTV) included prostate plus a 2-mm volume expansion in all directions, with selective use of a 5-mm prostate-to-PTV expansion and proximal seminal vesicle coverage in intermediate-risk patients, to better cover potential extraprostatic disease; rectal PTV margin reduced to zero in all cases. The prescription dose covered >95% of the PTV (V100 ≥95%), with a minimum 150% PTV dose escalation to create "HDR-like" PTV dose distribution.Median pre-SBRT PSA level of 5.6 ng/mL decreased to 0.05 ng/mL 5 years out and 0.02 ng/mL 6 years out. At least one PSA bounce was seen in 55 patients (70%) but only 3 of them subsequently relapsed, biochemical-relapse-free survival was 100 and 92% for low-risk and intermediate-risk patients, respectively, by ASTRO definition (98 and 92% by Phoenix definition). Local relapse did not occur, distant metastasis-free survival was 100 and 95% by risk-group, and disease-specific survival was 100%. Acute and late grade 2 GU toxicity incidence was 10 and 9%, respectively; with 6% late grade 3 GU toxicity. Acute urinary retention did not occur. Acute and late grade 2 GI toxicity was 0 and 1%, respectively, with no grade 3 or higher toxicity. Of patient's potent pre-SBRT, 65% remained so at 5 years.Virtual HDR prostate SBRT creates a very low PSA nadir, a high rate of 5-year disease-free survival and an acceptable toxicity incidence, with results closely resembling those reported post-HDR brachytherapy.
- Evidence-Based Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Guidelines and Burn-Injured Patients: A Pilot Study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Burn Care Res 2014 Dec 10.
The objective of this pilot study was to describe effectiveness of an evidence-based guideline designed to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) in reducing CA-UTI in the burn-injured patient population. The study used a pre- and post-bundle implementation comparison design. Inclusion criteria included burn-injured patients of all ages with an indwelling urinary catheter. Patient demographic data were collected by medical record review when informed of a CA-UTI. The Rosswurm-Larrabee Model six-step process model guided implementation of practice change. The sample included eight burn-injured patients (7-88 years). Catheter day range was 1 to 27 days. Each patient had a clear indication for an indwelling urinary catheter; the need for accurate urinary output measurement in a critically injured patient. Four patients had a catheter placed twice during the stay. Nurses reported using a bladder scanner to assess bladder volume for post-operative patients with urinary retention avoiding use of an indwelling urinary catheter in some cases. Integration of evidence-based guidelines in practice resulted in a reduced CA-UTI rate, reduced catheter days, increased days between CA-UTI, and outperformance of the national benchmark statistic. In 2013, the burn unit reduced catheter days by about 75% and reduced infection incidence by >90% in three quarters after implementation of the practice changes. The unit was able to sustain a CA-UTI rate of zero for 248 days.