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urinary retention [keywords]
- The male suburethral sling: remaining questions. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Urol 2014 Jun; 21(4):7350.
The AdVance transobturator sling represents an important treatment option for male stress urinary incontinence. Accordingly, recent data suggests AdVance to yield success rates of 62%-77% through 3 year follow up.1,2 Although experience to date is favorable, many questions exist. Foremost, the ideal technique for intraoperative placement and tensioning remains a topic of discussion. The exact mechanism by which sling placement restores continence is unknown, but is hypothesized to comprise an elevation of the bulbar urethra both ventrally and cranially. This "repositioning" may then lead to improved urethral coaptation. Concurrently, urodynamic investigation suggests that sling action does not involve an obstructive effect.3 Despite these findings, other investigation highlights the questions that remain regarding sling mechanism of action and the role that urethral compression may place in continence restoration. Accordingly, study of postoperative MRI findings suggests that urethral bulb indentation may be associated with postoperative continence.4 Further, acute urinary retention (AUR) is frequently observed following sling placement, seen in 12%-21% of cases.2,5 Although it is hypothesized that the high rate of AUR may relate to a detrusor muscle deconditioned during prolonged periods of low outlet resistance, a role of urethral compression cannot be excluded. The authors seek to investigate the hypothesis that postoperative AUR may actually be associated with improved continence outcomes. The authors identify continence rates of 100% and 26% in comparison of patients experiencing postoperative AUR versus patients undergoing successful void trial, respectively.6 While this finding is of value, several issues are important to mention. Foremost, additional research is needed to confirm the primary study finding given that prior multivariate analysis has demonstrated that AUR presence/absence was not an independent risk factor for sling failure.7 Second, given some data suggesting that sling success rates deteriorate over time, longitudinal long term investigation is important to determine whether postoperative AUR may be a predictor for durable success rates.8 Finally, assessment of urgency outcomes following male sling placement is important. De novo irritative symptoms and voiding dysfunction following midurethral sling placement in women are a significant concern. Such adverse effects are thought to arise due to an obstructive or irritative effect of the sling. Although the mechanism of action of the AdVance sling is likely different, data regarding urgency outcomes is nonetheless important. This is especially true of patients experiencing AUR postoperatively, even if transient. Despite the many questions that remain, the primary study finding of improved outcomes in patients experiencing AUR is important. Anecdotally, I have observed this tendency in my own practice and believe this to be an observation warranting investigation.
- Prognostic value of postoperative urinary retention after male sling insertion. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Can J Urol 2014 Jun; 21(4):7344-7349.
While urinary retention is a known complication of AdVance male sling (AMS) placement for post-prostatectomy incontinence (PPI), there is minimal data regarding ultimate continence outcomes for patients who experience this complication. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of continence after AMS placement in patients who had postoperative urinary retention as compared with those patients who did not.A retrospective review was conducted of patients who underwent AMS placement for PPI between 2008 and 2011 with postoperative void trial (TOV). Preoperative factors such as urodynamic findings, daily pad number (PPD) and weight were recorded. Follow up data included pad use, need for catheterization and complications. Statistical analysis compared patients with and without postoperative urinary retention.Thirty-five patients were included with a mean follow up of 11.8 months. Complete continence was 60%, while 83% of patients were improved. PPD improved from 2.9 pads to 0.8 pads after AMS placement. Sixteen patients (46%) had postoperative urinary retention requiring clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Of the 16 patients in postoperative retention, 100% were completely continent (PPD = 0), compared to 5 of 19 patients (26%) who passed first TOV (p < 0.00001). All patients who required CIC were able to void within 7 days.Postoperative urinary retention after AMS placement for PPI occurs in about 50% of patients and is short-lived. Patients who experienced postoperative urinary retention had good continence outcomes.
- Adult prostate sarcoma: the memorial sloan kettering experience. [Journal Article]
- Urology 2014 Sep; 84(3):624-8.
To present our institutional experience with adult prostate sarcoma over 30 years.We reviewed 38 cases of adult prostate sarcoma diagnosed and treated at our institution between 1982 and 2012. Univariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine if there was an association between specific disease characteristics (tumor size, histology, American Joint Committee on Cancer stage, and metastasis at diagnosis) and cancer-specific survival (CSS).A total of 38 patients were included, with a median age of 50 years (range, 17-73 years). Most men presented with lower urinary tract symptoms (45%), hematuria (24%), or acute urinary retention (21%). Diagnosis was established with prostate needle biopsy (68%) or transurethral resection of the prostate (18%). The predominant histologic subtypes were leiomyosarcoma (13 cases, 34%) and rhabdomyosarcoma (12 cases, 32%). Rhabdomyosarcoma was associated with poorer CSS (hazard ratio, 3.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-7.92; P = .027) compared with leiomyosarcoma. We did not observe a significant relationship between tumor size and CSS. Overall, median CSS was 2.9 years (95% CI, 1.5-5.4), with 7.7 years for clinically localized disease (95% CI 2.5; upper bound not reached) and 1.5 years for metastatic disease (95% CI 1.1, 2.7).Adult prostate sarcoma has a poor prognosis, especially in cases of metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. Surgery remains the standard of care, but it provides limited benefit to those with metastatic disease or as a consolidation therapy after partial response to systemic therapy.
- Estrogen receptor-alpha is a key mediator and therapeutic target for bladder complications of benign prostatic hyperplasia. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Urol 2014 Aug 25.
While estrogens are important in prostate growth and play a role in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), no current therapies directly target estrogen action. Estrogens act primarily via estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and estrogen receptor beta (ERβ). Using a mouse model, we evaluated the relative contribution of these receptors to bladder complications of BPH. We also evaluated prevention of these bladder complications by selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), raloxifene and tamoxifen (ERα selective antagonists) and (R,R)-5,11-Diethyl-5,6,11,12-tetrahydro-2,8-chrysenediol (R,R-THC, ERβ selective antagonist).Adult male C57bl/6 mice received implants of 25 mg testosterone (T) and 2.5 mg 17β-estradiol (E2) slow release pellets and untreated controls underwent sham surgery. We used ERα and ERβ knockout (KO) mice compared to their respective wild type (WT) littermates to probe contributions of ER subtypes. WT mice treated with T+E2 were compared to mice treated with T+E2 and 25 mg SERM to evaluate prevention of BPH complications with SERMs.While ERαWT and ERβWT littermates treated with T+E2 developed large bladders with urinary retention, ERαKO mice treated with T+E2 did not. ERβKO mice treated with T+E2 developed large bladders with urinary retention and increased bladder mass. Co-treatment with the ERα antagonist raloxifene resulted in decreased bladder mass compared to WT mice treated with T+E2, while bladders from mice treated with the ERβ antagonist R,R-THC were similar to T+E2-treated mice.ERα, but not ERβ, is a key mediator of bladder complications of BPH, and is a potential target for future therapies.
- Implementing a Clinical Practice Guideline to Manage Postpartum Urinary Retention. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Nurs Care Qual 2014 Aug 27.
Postpartum urinary retention is a common condition in obstetric units. A Clinical Practice Guideline was implemented in a high-risk obstetrical unit to decrease variance of clinical practice, rate of postpartum urinary retention, and number of urinary catheterizations and increase awareness of this common condition. Guideline implementation met the 4 aims, including a decreased rate of urinary retention.
- A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Caudal Block as Compared to Noncaudal Regional Techniques for Inguinal Surgeries in Children. [REVIEW]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:890626.
This systematic review and meta-analysis were designed to compare the analgesic effectiveness and adverse effects with the use of caudal analgesia as compared to noncaudal regional analgesia techniques in children undergoing inguinal surgeries. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CENTRAL (Cochrane) databases were searched for randomized control trials published in English language from 1946 up to 2013. Use of rescue analgesia and adverse effects were considered as primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Outcomes were pooled using random effects model and reported as risk ratio (RR) with 95% CI. Out of 3240 hits and 24 reports for final selection, 17 were included in this review. Caudal analgesia was found to be better in both early (RR = 0.81 [0.66, 0.99], P = 0.04) and late (RR = 0.81 [0.69, 0.96], P = 0.01) periods, but with a significant risk of motor block and urinary retention. According to GRADE, the quality of evidence was moderate. Although potentially superior, caudal analgesia increases the chance of motor block and urinary retention. There are limited studies to demonstrate that the technical superiority using ultrasound translates into better clinical success with the inguinal nerve blocks.
- Prostatic abscesses and severe sepsis due to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus producing panton-valentine leukocidin. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Infect Dis 2014 Aug 27; 14(1):466.
Prostatic abscesses are an uncommon disease usually caused by enterobacteria. They mostly occur in immunodeficient patients. It is thus extremely rare to have a Staphylococcal prostatic abscess in a young immunocompetent patient.A 20-year-old patient was treated with ofloxacin for a suspicion of prostatitis. An ultrasonography was performed because of persisting symptoms and showed acute urinary retention and prostatic abscesses. So the empirical antibiotic therapy was modified with ceftriaxone/amikacin. The disease worsened to severe sepsis and the patient was admitted in ICU. CT-scan and MRI confirmed three abscesses with perirectal infiltration and the bacteriological samples (abscesses and blood cultures) were positive to methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidine. The treatment was changed with fosfomycin/ofloxacin which resulted in a general improvement and the regression of the abscesses.Staphyloccocus aureus producing Panton-Valentine leukocidin are most commonly responsible for skin and soft tissue infections. To this day, no other case of prostatic abscess due to this strain but susceptible to methicillin has been described.
- OnabotulinumtoxinA for the treatment of overactive bladder. [Journal Article, Review]
- Res Rep Urol 2014.:79-89.
OnabotulinumtoxinA injection is a safe and effective treatment for adults with refractory overactive bladder. There is sufficient level 1 evidence to support offering onabotulinumtoxinA injections as a second-line treatment to patients who have failed behavioral therapy and oral medications such as antimuscarinics and β3 agonists. An intradetrusor injection of 100 U of onabotulinumtoxinA is likely the optimal dose to balance risks and benefits, and this is the dose approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Improvement in urgency urinary incontinence episodes, as well as symptom scores and quality of life, were seen in around 60%-65% of patients, and were significantly improved compared with those on placebo. Most studies have reported a duration of symptom relief ranging from 6 to 12 months, with repeat injections being safe and efficacious. Overall, the risk of urinary retention was around 6% across the study populations.
- An evidence-based review of NX1207 and its potential in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. [Journal Article, Review]
- Res Rep Urol 2014.:67-70.
In elderly men, benign prostatic hyperplasia is often associated with lower urinary tract symptoms, and its prevalence rises with age. Lower urinary tract symptoms can be very bothersome and lead to a decrease in health-related quality of life. Furthermore, benign prostatic hyperplasia is a progressive disease that can lead to serious complications like acute urinary retention. Medical treatment with α1-blockers or 5α-reductase inhibitors is recommended by the European Association of Urology. On the other hand, there are some new innovations such as NX1207. The aim of this review is to summarize the published data. NX1207 is a new drug that is administered by transrectal intraprostatic injection under ultrasound guidance. The substance leads to prostate volume reduction and symptomatic improvement. However, patient numbers are still low and currently treatment with NX1207 is still experimental.
- Toward eliminating catheter-associated urinary tract infections in an academic health center. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Surg Res 2014 Jul 24.
Eliminating catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) is at the forefront of quality improvement and cost reduction for payers and hospitals alike. Herein we describe a double-focused strategy to eliminate CAUTI's on a surgical oncology unit over the course of 24 mo.CAUTI's were tracked on a 30-bed surgical oncology unit 12 mo before and 12 mo after implementation of specific measures aimed at (1) decreasing utilization and (2) increasing catheter bundle and hand hygiene compliance. A policy of early Foley catheter removal was implemented. Univariate analyses were performed comparing nominal and numerical variables between the pre- and post-intervention groups.The pre- and post-intervention groups comprised of 1376 and 1467 patients, respectively. Postintervention, there was a significant decrease in both total Foley (P = 0.02) and patient (P = 0.03) days. This resulted in a significant reduction in utilization rate from 0.28 to 0.24, (P < 0.0001) and median CAUTI rate from 4.6 to 0.0 (P = 0.03). Reduced CAUTIs were associated with significant improvements in monthly bundle compliance at ≥95% (75% versus 17%, P = 0.003) and hand hygiene compliance at ≥95% (92% versus 58%, P = 0.05). Among our thoracic epidural cohort (n = 11), three patients (27%) required reinsertion for urinary retention. None of these epidural patients were diagnosed with a CAUTI.Although not eliminated entirely, CAUTIs on our unit were significantly reduced through decreased utilization and improved compliance to institutional patient safety measures. Adoption of these strategies to other inpatient units would not only improve patient safety but also result in significant cost savings.