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vegetative function [keywords]
- Subcellular localization of rice acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) indicates that OsACBP6::GFP is targeted to the peroxisomes. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- New Phytol 2014 Apr 16.
Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) show conservation at the acyl-CoA-binding (ACB) domain which facilitates binding to acyl-CoA esters. In Arabidopsis thaliana, six ACBPs participate in development and stress responses. Rice (Oryza sativa) also contains six genes encoding ACBPs. We investigated differences in subcellular localization between monocot rice and eudicot A. thaliana ACBPs. The subcellular localization of the six OsACBPs was achieved via transient expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) fusions in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells, and stable transformation of A. thaliana. As plant ACBPs had not been reported in the peroxisomes, OsACBP6::GFP localization was confirmed by transient expression in rice sheath cells. The function of OsACBP6 was investigated by overexpressing 35S::OsACBP6 in the peroxisomal abc transporter1 (pxa1) mutant defective in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation. As predicted, OsACBP1::GFP and OsACBP2::GFP were localized to the cytosol, and OsACBP4::GFP and OsACBP5::GFP to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, OsACBP3::GFP displayed subcellular multi-localization while OsACBP6::GFP was localized to the peroxisomes. 35S::OsACBP6-OE/pxa1 lines showed recovery in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) peroxisomal β-oxidation, wound-induced VEGETATIVE STORAGE PROTEIN1 (VSP1) expression and jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation. These findings indicate a role for OsACBP6 in peroxisomal β-oxidation, and suggest that rice ACBPs are involved in lipid degradation in addition to lipid biosynthesis.
- Four Arabidopsis AREB/ABF transcription factors function predominantly in gene expression downstream of SnRK2 kinases in abscisic-acid signaling in response to osmotic stress. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Plant Cell Environ 2014 Apr 16.
Under osmotic stress conditions such as drought and high salinity, the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles in stress-responsive gene expression mainly through three bZIP transcription factors, AREB1/ABF2, AREB2/ABF4, and ABF3, which are activated by SNF1-related kinase 2s (SnRK2s) such as SRK2D/SnRK2.2, SRK2E/SnRK2.6, and SRK2I/SnRK2.3 (SRK2D/E/I). However, since the three AREB/ABFs are crucial, but not exclusive, for the SnRK2-mediated gene expression, transcriptional pathways governed by SRK2D/E/I are not fully understood. Here, we show that a bZIP transcription factor, ABF1, is a functional homolog of AREB1, AREB2, and ABF3 in ABA-dependent gene expression in Arabidopsis. Despite lower expression levels of ABF1 than those of the three AREB/ABFs, the areb1 areb2 abf3 abf1 mutant plants displayed increased sensitivity to drought and decreased sensitivity to ABA in primary root growth compared with the areb1 areb2 abf3 mutant. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses revealed that expression of downstream genes of SRK2D/E/I, which include many genes functioning in osmotic-stress responses and tolerance such as transcription factors and LEA proteins, were mostly impaired in the quadruple mutant. Thus, these results indicate that the four AREB/ABFs are the predominant transcription factors downstream of SRK2D/E/I in ABA signaling in response to osmotic stress during vegetative growth.
- Putative RhoGAP proteins orchestrate vegetative growth, conidiogenesis and pathogenicity of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Fungal Genet Biol 2014 Apr 11.
Rho GTPases, acting as molecular switches, are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular functions. Rho GTPase activating proteins (Rho GAPs) function as negative regulators of Rho GTPases and are required for a variety of signaling processes in cell development. But the mechanisms underlying Rho GAPs in Rho-mediated signaling pathways in fungi are still elusive. There are eight RhoGAP domain-containing genes annotated in the Magnaporthe oryzae genome. To understand the function of these RhoGAP genes, we generated knockout mutants of each of the RhoGAP genes through a homologous recombination-based method. Phenotypic analysis showed that growth rate of aerial hyphae of the Molrg1 deletion mutant decreased dramatically. The ΔMolrg1 mutant showed significantly reduced conidiation and appressorium formation by germ tubes. Moreover, it lost pathogenicity completely. Deletion of another Rho GAP (MoRga1) resulted in high percentage of larger or gherkin-shaped conidia and slight decrease in conidiation. Appressorial formation of the ΔMoRga1 mutant was delayed significantly on hydrophobic surface, while the development of mycelial growth and pathogenicity in plants was not affected. Confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging showed that MoRga1-GFP localizes to septal pore of the conidium, and this localization pattern requires both LIM and RhoGAP domains. Furthermore, either deleting the LIM or RhoGAP domain or introducing an inactivating R1032A mutation in the RhoGAP domain of MoRga1 caused similar defects as the Morga1 deletion mutant in terms of conidial morphology and appressorial formation, suggesting that MoRga1 is a stage-specific regulator of conidial differentiation by regulating some specific Rho GTPases. In this regard, MoRga1 and MoLrg1 physically interacted with both MoRac1-CA and MoCdc42-CA in the yeast two-hybrid and pull-down assays, suggesting that the actions of these two GAPs are involved in MoRac1 and MoCdc42 pathways. On the other hand, six other putative Rho GAPs (MoRga2 to MoRga7) were dispensable for conidiation, vegetative growth, appressorial formation and pathogenicity, suggesting that these Rho GAPs function redundantly during fungal development. Taking together, Rho GAP genes play important roles in M. oryzae development and infectious processes through coordination and modulation of Rho GTPases.
- TRANSPARENT TESTA 8 inhibits seed fatty acid accumulation by targeting several seed development regulators in Arabidopsis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Plant Physiol 2014 Apr 10.
ABSTRACT Fatty acids (FAs) and FA-derived complex lipids have important functions in plant growth and vegetative development. They are a class of prominent metabolites stored in mature seeds. The factors and regulatory networks that control FA accumulation in plant seeds remain largely unknown. The function of TRANSPARENT TESTA 8 (TT8) in the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis and formation of seed coat color has been extensively studied. However, the effect of TT8 on seed FA biosynthesis remains unclear. In this report, TT8 acted maternally to affect seed FA biosynthesis and inhibited seed FA accumulation by downregulating a group of genes either critical to embryonic development or FA biosynthesis. Moreover, tt8 mutation reduced protein deposition in seeds during maturation. Post-translational activation of a TT8-GR fusion protein and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that TT8 repressed the activities of LEC1, LEC2, and FUS3, which are transcriptional factors important for seed development, and the expression of CDS2 that mediates glycerolipid biosynthesis. The results of this study provided insights into the functions of TT8 and the complicated networks regulating the formation of FA-derived complex lipids in plant seeds. Keywords: Fatty acids, TT8, flavonoid biosynthesis, protein deposition, Arabidopsis.
- The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora can survive in ambient air without carbonic anhydrases. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Mol Microbiol 2014 Apr 10.
The rapid interconversion of carbon dioxide and bicarbonate (hydrogen carbonate) is catalyzed by metalloenzymes termed carbonic anhydrases (CAs). CAs have been identified in all three domains of life and can be divided into five evolutionarily unrelated classes (α, β, γ, δ and ζ) that do not share significant sequence similarities. The function of the mammalian, prokaryotic and plant α-CAs has been intensively studied but the function of CAs in filamentous ascomycetes is mostly unknown. The filamentous ascomycete Sordaria macrospora codes for four CAs, three of the β-class and one of the α-class. Here, we present a functional analysis of CAS4, the S. macrospora α-class CA. The CAS4 protein was posttranslationally glycosylated and secreted. The knockout strain Δcas4 had a significantly reduced rate of ascospore germination. To determine the cas genes required for S. macrospora growth under ambient air conditions, we constructed double and triple mutations of the four cas genes in all possible combinations and a quadruple mutant. Vegetative growth rate of the quadruple mutant lacking all cas genes was drastically reduced compared to the wild type (wt) and invaded the agar under normal air conditions. Likewise the fruiting bodies were embedded in the agar and completely devoid of mature ascospores.
- Rice-Straw Mulch Reduces the Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Populations on Kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) Plants. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e94174.
Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.
- Post-transcriptional regulation of meiotic genes by a nuclear RNA silencing complex. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- RNA 2014 Apr 8.
RNA is a central component of gene-silencing pathways that regulate diverse cellular processes. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an RNA-based mechanism represses meiotic gene expression during vegetative growth. This pathway depends on the zinc finger protein Red1, which is required to degrade meiotic mRNAs as well as to target histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylation, a repressive chromatin mark, to a subset of meiotic genes. However, the mechanism of Red1 function is unknown. Here we use affinity purification and mass spectrometry to identify a Red1-containing nuclear RNA silencing (NURS) complex. In addition to Red1, this complex includes the Mtl1, Red5, Ars2, Rmn1, and Iss10 proteins and associates with several other complexes that are involved in either signaling or mediating RNA silencing. By analyzing the effects of gene knockouts and inducible knockdown alleles, we show that NURS subunits regulate RNA degradation and H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes. We also identify roles for individual NURS subunits in interactions with Mmi1, an RNA-binding protein that marks meiotic RNAs for destruction, and the nuclear exosome RNA degradation complex. Finally, we show that the levels of H3K9 methylation at meiotic genes are not sufficient to restrict RNA polymerase II access or repress gene expression during vegetative growth. Our results demonstrate that Red1 partners with other proteins to silence meiotic gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Conservation of a NURS-like complex in human cells suggests that this pathway plays an ancient and fundamental role in RNA silencing.
- Genome-wide identification and transcriptional profiling analysis of auxin response-related gene families in cucumber. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Res Notes 2014 Apr 8; 7(1):218.
Auxin signaling has a vital function in the regulation of plant growth and development, both which are known to be mediated by auxin-responsive genes. So far, significant progress has been made toward the identification and characterization of auxin-response genes in several model plants, while no systematic analysis for these families was reported in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), a reference species for Cucurbitaceae crops. The comprehensive analyses will help design experiments for functional validation of their precise roles in plant development and stress responses.A genome-wide search for auxin-response gene homologues identified 16 auxin-response factors (ARFs), 27 auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs), 10 Gretchen Hagen 3 (GH3s), 61 small auxin-up mRNAs (SAURs), and 39 lateral organ boundaries (LBDs) in cucumber. Sequence analysis together with the organization of putative motifs indicated the potential diverse functions of these five auxin-related family members. The distribution and density of auxin response-related genes on chromosomes were not uniform. Evolutionary analysis showed that the chromosomal segment duplications mainly contributed to the expansion of the CsARF, CsIAA, CsGH3, and CsLBD gene families. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that many ARFs, AUX/IAAs, GH3s, SAURs, and LBD genes were expressed in diverse patterns within different organs/tissues and during different development stages. They were also implicated in IAA, methyl jasmonic acid, or salicylic acid response, which is consistent with the finding that a great number of diverse cis-elements are present in their promoter regions involving a variety of signaling transduction pathways.Genome-wide comparative analysis of auxin response-related family genes and their expression analysis provide new evidence for the potential role of auxin in development and hormone response of plants. Our data imply that the auxin response genes may be involved in various vegetative and reproductive developmental processes. Furthermore, they will be involved in different signal pathways and may mediate the crosstalk between various hormone responses.
- Regions-of-Interest: Where our readers and authors are from. [EDITORIAL]
- Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2014 Apr 5.
More and more libraries provide access to Acta Physiologica. After several years of increasing library access, there are far more than 3000 libraries worldwide that will allow you to check our contents on a regular basis. More than half of these libraries are situated within the United States. Reader numbers peak in March and October, during which we welcome more than 30,000 unique visitors to our journal pages. These numbers vary little over the year, except for an expected dip during the Northern hemisphere's holiday season of July and August. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Downloading-Reading-Citing? Some thoughts on our bibliometrics. [EDITORIAL]
- Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2014 Apr 5.
Journals publishing articles in long-term oriented disciplines, which may not develop very rapidly, are handicapped by the impact factor. So why should the impact factor be restricted to a 24-month window? The minority of the articles published in the journal determines the impact factor. So would it not be better to determine the median of citations instead of the mean citations? The typical amount of references varies between disciplines. Obviously, disciplines requiring more citations will publish journals with higher impact factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.