(vegetative function) articles in PubMed
- Study on Expression Modes and Cleavage Role of miR156b/c/d and its Target Gene Vv-SPL9 During the Whole Growth Stage of Grapevine. [Journal Article]
- J Hered 2016 Sep 22JH
- miR156 regulates the expression of its target SPL (PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE) genes during flower and fruit development, diverse developmental stage transitions, especially from vegetative to reproductiv...
miR156 regulates the expression of its target SPL (PROMOTER BINDING-LIKE) genes during flower and fruit development, diverse developmental stage transitions, especially from vegetative to reproductive growth phases, by cleaving the target mRNA SPL of one plant-specific transcription factor. However, systematic reports on grapevine have yet to be presented. Here, the precise sequence of miR156 (vvi-miR156b/c/d) in grapevine "Takatsuma" was cloned with a previously cloned grapevine SPL (Vv-SPL9). Expression profiles in 18 grapevine tissues were identified through stem-loop RT-PCR. The interaction mode between vvi-miR156b/c/d and Vv-SPL9 was further validated by detecting the cleavage site and cleavage products of 3'- and 5'-ends via an integrated approach of 5'-RLM-RACE (RNA ligase-mediated 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends), 3'-PPM-RACE (poly(A) polymerase-mediated 3'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and qRT-PCR (real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction). The variation in their cleavage roles in the whole growth stage of grapevine was also systematically investigated. Results showed that vvi-miR156b/c/d exhibited typical temporal-spatial-specific expression levels. The expression levels were higher in vegetative organs, such as leaf, than in reproductive organs, such as tendrils, flowers, and berries. A significant variation was observed during vegetative-to-reproductive transition. The expression patterns of Vv-SPL9 showed the opposite trends with those of vvi-miR156b. We confirmed that the cleavage site was at the 10th site of vvi-miR156b/c/d complementary to Vv-SPL9 in "Takatsuma" grapevine. We also identified the temporal-spatial variation of the cleavage products. This variation can indicate the regulatory function of miR156 on SPL in grapevines. Our findings provide further insights into the functions of vvi-miR156b/c/d and its target Vv-SPL9, and also help enrich our knowledge of small RNA-mediated regulation in grapevine.
- Genome-Wide Analysis of Genes Encoding Methionine-Rich Proteins in Arabidopsis and Soybean Suggesting Their Roles in the Adaptation of Plants to Abiotic Stress. [Journal Article]
- Int J Genomics 2016; 2016:5427062IJ
- Oxidation and reduction of methionine (Met) play important roles in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signaling in living organisms. To understand the impacts of Met oxidation and reductio...
Oxidation and reduction of methionine (Met) play important roles in scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and signaling in living organisms. To understand the impacts of Met oxidation and reduction in plants during stress, we surveyed the genomes of Arabidopsis and soybean (Glycine max L.) for genes encoding Met-rich proteins (MRPs). We found 121 and 213 genes encoding MRPs in Arabidopsis and soybean, respectively. Gene annotation indicated that those with known function are involved in vital cellular processes such as transcriptional control, calcium signaling, protein modification, and metal transport. Next, we analyzed the transcript levels of MRP-coding genes under normal and stress conditions. We found that 57 AtMRPs were responsive either to drought or to high salinity stress in Arabidopsis; 35 GmMRPs were responsive to drought in the leaf of late vegetative or early reproductive stages of soybean. Among the MRP genes with a known function, the majority of the abiotic stress-responsive genes are involved in transcription control and calcium signaling. Finally, Arabidopsis plant which overexpressed an MRP-coding gene, whose transcripts were downregulated by abiotic stress, was more sensitive to paraquat than the control. Taken together, our report indicates that MRPs participate in various vital processes of plants under normal and stress conditions.
- Lower Superoxide Dismutase 2 (SOD2) Protein Content in Mononuclear Cells Is Associated with Better Survival in Patients with Hemodialysis Therapy. [Journal Article]
- Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016; 2016:7423249OM
- Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality dat...
Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) converts superoxide anions to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Human data on SOD2 protein content in chronic kidney disease (CKD) are sparse and mortality data are lacking. We investigated SOD2 protein content in monocytes from patients with hemodialysis therapy (n = 81), CKD stage 1-5 (n = 120), and healthy controls (n = 13) using in-cell Western assays. SOD2 protein decreased from CKD stage 1 until stage 4 whereas it increased again in stage 5 with and without hemodialysis. SOD2 gene expression, analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR, was not significantly different between the groups. Elevating cellular superoxide production reduced SOD2 protein content. This effect was abolished by the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol. Using gelelectrophoresis and Western blot we did not detect nitrotyrosine modifications of SOD2 in CKD. Finally, in patients with CKD stage 5 with hemodialysis therapy higher than median SOD2 protein content was associated with higher all-cause mortality. In conclusion, SOD2 protein content declined in CKD until stage 4 while SOD2 gene expression did not. Increased cellular superoxide anion production might affect SOD2 protein content. In advanced CKD (stage 5) SOD2 protein content increased again, but higher than median SOD2 protein content in these patients did not confer a survival benefit.
- Major depressive disorder. [Journal Article]
- Nat Rev Dis Primers 2016; 2:16065NR
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease that is characterized by depressed mood, diminished interests, impaired cognitive function and vegetative symptoms, such as disturbed sleep o...
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating disease that is characterized by depressed mood, diminished interests, impaired cognitive function and vegetative symptoms, such as disturbed sleep or appetite. MDD occurs about twice as often in women than it does in men and affects one in six adults in their lifetime. The aetiology of MDD is multifactorial and its heritability is estimated to be approximately 35%. In addition, environmental factors, such as sexual, physical or emotional abuse during childhood, are strongly associated with the risk of developing MDD. No established mechanism can explain all aspects of the disease. However, MDD is associated with alterations in regional brain volumes, particularly the hippocampus, and with functional changes in brain circuits, such as the cognitive control network and the affective-salience network. Furthermore, disturbances in the main neurobiological stress-responsive systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the immune system, occur in MDD. Management primarily comprises psychotherapy and pharmacological treatment. For treatment-resistant patients who have not responded to several augmentation or combination treatment attempts, electroconvulsive therapy is the treatment with the best empirical evidence. In this Primer, we provide an overview of the current evidence of MDD, including its epidemiology, aetiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment.
- Genome-wide analysis of long intergenic non-coding RNAs in chickpea and their potential role in flower development. [Journal Article]
- Sci Rep 2016; 6:33297SR
- Non-coding RNAs constitute a major portion of the transcriptome in most of eukaryotes. Long non-coding transcripts originating from the DNA segment present between the protein coding genes are termed...
Non-coding RNAs constitute a major portion of the transcriptome in most of eukaryotes. Long non-coding transcripts originating from the DNA segment present between the protein coding genes are termed as long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs). Several evidences suggest the role of lincRNAs in regulation of various biological processes. In this study, we identified a total of 2248 lincRNAs in chickpea using RNA-seq data from eight successive stages of flower development and three vegetative tissues via an optimized pipeline. Different characteristic features of lincRNAs were studied and compared with those of predicted mRNAs in chickpea. Further, we utilized a method using network propagation algorithm to reveal the putative function of lincRNAs in plants. In total, at least 79% of the identified chickpea lincRNAs were assigned with a putative function. A comprehensive expression profiling revealed differential expression patterns and tissue specificity of lincRNAs in different stages of flower development in chickpea. In addition, potential lincRNAs-miRNA interactions were explored for the predicted lincRNAs in chickpea. These findings will pave the way for understanding the role of lincRNAs in the regulatory mechanism underlying flower development in chickpea and other legumes.
- TWS1, a novel small protein, regulates various aspects of seed and plant development. [Journal Article]
- Plant Physiol 2016 Sep 9PP
- Small proteins have long been overlooked due to their poor annotation and the experimental challenges they pose. However, in recent years, their role in various processes has started to emerge openin...
Small proteins have long been overlooked due to their poor annotation and the experimental challenges they pose. However, in recent years, their role in various processes has started to emerge opening new research avenues. Here, we present the isolation and characterization of two allelic mutants twisted seed1-1 (tws1-1) and tws1-2 which exhibit an array of developmental and biochemical phenotypes in Arabidopsis seeds. We have identified AT5G01075 as the subtending gene encoding a small protein of 81 amino acids localized in the endoplasmic reticulum. TWS1 is strongly expressed in seeds, where it regulates both embryo development and accumulation of storage compounds. TWS1 loss-of-function seeds exhibit increased starch, sucrose and proteins accumulation at the detriment of fatty acids. TWS1 is also expressed in vegetative and reproductive tissues where it is responsible for proper epidermal cell morphology and overall plant growth. At the cellular level, TWS1 is responsible for cuticle deposition on epidermal cells and organization of the endomembrane system. Finally, we show that TWS1 is a single copy gene in Arabidopsis, and it is specifically conserved among angiosperms.
- A history of the autonomic nervous system: part II: from Reil to the modern era. [Review]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Sep 9CN
- CONCLUSIONS: The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.
- A history of the autonomic nervous system: part I: from Galen to Bichat. [Review]
- Childs Nerv Syst 2016 Sep 9CN
- CONCLUSIONS: Although our thoughts of an autonomic nervous system arose with the Greeks, the evolution and final understanding of this neural network would not be fully realized until centuries later. Therefore, our current knowledge of this system is based on hundreds of years of hypotheses and testing and was contributed to by many historic figures.
- 30 years of battling the cell wall. [Journal Article]
- Med Mycol 2016 Sep 8MM
- In Aspergillus fumigatus, like in other pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting environmental stresses such as phagocytic killing. Most of the chemical...
In Aspergillus fumigatus, like in other pathogenic fungi, the cell wall is essential for fungal growth as well as for resisting environmental stresses such as phagocytic killing. Most of the chemical analyses undertaken on the cell wall of A. fumigatus are focused on the mycelial cell wall because it is the vegetative stage of the fungus. However, the cell walls of the mycelium and conidium (which is the infective propagule) are different especially at the level of the surface layer, which plays a significant role in the interaction between A. fumigatus conidia and phagocytic cells of the immune system. In spite of the essential function of the cell wall in fungal life, progresses have been extremely slow in the understanding of biosynthesis as well in the identification of the key host responses against the cell wall components. A major difficulty is the fact that the composition and structural organization of the cell wall is not immutably set and is constantly reshuffled depending on the environmental conditions.
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- Overexpression of a flower-specific aerolysin-like protein from the dioecious plant Rumex acetosa alters flower development and induces male sterility in transgenic tobacco. [Journal Article]
- Plant J 2016 Sep 6PJ
- Sex determination in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with a complex XY1 Y2 sex chromosome system (females are XX and males are XY1 Y2 ), is not controlled by an active Y chromosome but depends on th...
Sex determination in Rumex acetosa, a dioecious plant with a complex XY1 Y2 sex chromosome system (females are XX and males are XY1 Y2 ), is not controlled by an active Y chromosome but depends on the ratio between the number of X chromosomes and autosomes. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms of sex determination, we generated a subtracted cDNA library enriched in genes specifically or predominantly expressed in female floral buds in early stages of development, when sex determination mechanisms come into play. In the present paper, we report the molecular and functional characterisation of FEM32, a gene encoding a protein that shares a common architecture with proteins in different plants, animals, bacteria and fungi of the aerolysin superfamily; many of these function as β pore-forming toxins. The expression analysis, assessed by Northern blot, RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation, demonstrates that this gene is specifically expressed in flowers in both early and late stages of development, although its transcripts accumulate much more in female flowers than in male flowers. The ectopic expression of FEM32 under both the constitutive promoter 35S and the flower-specific promoter AP3 in transgenic tobacco showed no obvious alteration in vegetative development but was able to alter floral organ growth and pollen fertility. The 35S::FEM32 and AP3::FEM32 transgenic lines showed a reduction in stamen development and pollen viability, as well as a diminution in fruit set, fruit development and seed production. Compared to other floral organs, pistil development was, however, enhanced in plants overexpressing FEM32. According to these effects, it is likely that FEM32 functions in Rumex by arresting stamen and pollen development during female flower development. The aerolysin-like pore-forming proteins of eukaryotes are mainly involved in defence mechanisms against bacteria, fungi and insects and are also involved in apoptosis and programed cell death (PCD), a mechanism that could explain the role of FEM32 in Rumex sex determination. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.