- SUMO E3 Ligases GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b regulate vegetative growth in soybean. [Journal Article]
- JIJ Integr Plant Biol 2016 Oct 20
- SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and enviro...
SIZ1 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) E3 ligase that mediates post-translational SUMO modification of target proteins and thereby regulates developmental processes and hormonal and environmental stress responses in Arabidopsis. However, the role of SUMO E3 ligases in crop plants is largely unknown. Here, we identified and characterized two Glycine max (soybean) SUMO E3 ligases, GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b. Expression of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b was induced in response to salicylic acid (SA), heat, and dehydration treatment, but not in response to cold, ABA, and NaCl treatment. Although GmSIZ1a was expressed at higher levels than was GmSIZ1b, both genes encoded proteins with SUMO E3 ligase activity in vivo. Heterologous expression of GmSIZ1a or GmSIZ1b rescued the mutant phenotype of Arabidopsis siz1-2, including dwarfism, constitutively activated expression of pathogen-related genes, and ABA-sensitive seed germination. Simultaneous down-regulation of GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b (GmSIZ1a/b) using RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing decreased heat shock-induced SUMO conjugation in soybean. Moreover, GmSIZ1RNAi plants exhibited reduced plant height and leaf size. However, unlike Arabidopsis siz1-2 mutant plants, flowering time and SA levels were not significantly altered in GmSIZ1RNAi plants. Taken together, our results indicate that GmSIZ1a and GmSIZ1b mediate SUMO modification and positively regulate vegetative growth in soybean.
- Cyclosporin a induces renal episodic hypoxia. [Journal Article]
- APActa Physiol (Oxf) 2016 Sep 30
- CONCLUSIONS: Cyclosporin A provokes episodic hypoxia in nephron segments most susceptible to chronic CsA toxicity. Fih is upregulated and likely blocks further Hif activity. Continuous tubular Hif upregulation via Vhl-KO worsens the outcome of chronic CsA-induced renal toxicity.
- Deletion of the SACPD-C locus alters the symbiotic relationship between Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and soybean resulting in elicitation of plant defense response and nodulation defects. [Journal Article]
- MPMol Plant Microbe Interact 2016 Oct 17
- Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizob...
Legumes form symbiotic association with soil-dwelling bacteria collectively called rhizobia. This association results in the formation of nodules, unique plant-derived organs, within which the rhizobia are housed. Rhizobia encoded-nitrogenase facilitates the conversation of atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia, which is utilized by the plants for its growth and development. Fatty acids have been shown to play an important role in root nodule symbiosis. In this study, we have investigated the role of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase- isoform C (SACPD-C), a soybean enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of stearic acid into oleic acid, which is expressed in developing seeds and in nitrogen fixing nodules. In-depth cytological investigation of nodule development in sacpd-c mutant lines M25 and MM106 revealed gross anatomical alteration in the sacpd-c mutants. Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed ultrastructural alterations in the sacpd-c mutants that are typically associated with plant defense response to pathogens. In nodules of two sacpd-c mutants, the combined jasmonic acid species (JA, JA-ile) were found to be reduced and OPDA levels were significantly higher, relative to wild-type lines. Salicylic acid (SA) levels were not significantly different between genotypes, which is divergent from previous studies of sacpd mutant studies on vegetative tissues. Soybean nodule phytohormone profiles were very divergent from those of roots, and root profiles were found to be almost identical between mutant and wild-type genotypes. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were also found to be higher in nodules of sacpd-c mutants. PR-1 gene expression was extremely elevated in M25 and MM106, while the expression of nitrogenase was significantly reduced in these sacpd-c mutants compared with the parent cultivar 'Bay'. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses confirmed sacpd-c mutants also accumulated higher amounts of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the nodules. Our study establishes a major role for SACPD-C activity as essential for proper maintenance of soybean nodule morphology and physiology and indicates that OPDA signaling is likely to be involved in attenuation of nodule biotic defense responses.
- Grape yield and quality responses to simulated year 2100 expected climatic conditions under different soil textures. [Journal Article]
- JSJ Sci Food Agric 2016 Oct 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Among the adaptation techniques to cope with the described effects on fruit composition, soil selection should be considered with attention in addition to irrigation practices.
- An Ash1-Like Protein MoKMT2H Null Mutant Is Delayed for Conidium Germination and Pathogenesis in Magnaporthe oryzae. [Journal Article]
- BRBiomed Res Int 2016; 2016:1575430
- Ash1 is a known H3K36-specific histone demethylase that is required for normal Hox gene expression and fertility in Drosophila and mammals. However, little is known about the expression and function ...
Ash1 is a known H3K36-specific histone demethylase that is required for normal Hox gene expression and fertility in Drosophila and mammals. However, little is known about the expression and function of the fungal ortholog of Ash1 in phytopathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. Here we report that MoKMT2H, an Ash1-like protein, is required for conidium germination and virulence in rice. We obtained MoKMT2H null mutant (ΔMoKMT2H) using a target gene replacement strategy. In the ΔMoKMT2H null mutants, global histone methyltransferase modifications (H3K4me3, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, and H3K36me2/3) of the genome were unaffected. The ΔMoKMT2H mutants showed no defect in vegetative hyphal growth, conidium morphology, conidiation, or disease lesion formation on rice leaves. However, the MoKMT2H deletion mutants were delayed for conidium germination and consequently had decreased virulence. Taken together, our results indicated that MoKMT2H plays an important role in conidium germination during appressorium formation in the rice blast fungus and perhaps other pathogenic plant fungi.
- Keeping in synch. [Editorial]
- APActa Physiol (Oxf) 2016 Oct 14
- Have you ever felt socially jet lagged? Running out of time? Or that everyone around you just keeps running late? If the answer is yes, this might not only be your subjective feeling, but rather a me...
Have you ever felt socially jet lagged? Running out of time? Or that everyone around you just keeps running late? If the answer is yes, this might not only be your subjective feeling, but rather a measurable outcome in a society comprising young and old, owls and larks, and all of them with clocks running in different periods, phases and amplitudes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Regulatory cis-elements are located in accessible promoter regions of the CAT2 promoter and affect activating histone modifications in Arabidopsis thaliana. [Journal Article]
- PMPlant Mol Biol 2016 Oct 12
- Catalase 2 (CAT2) plays an important role in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide released either during photorespiration or as a consequence of biotic and abiotic stress as well as in the initiat...
Catalase 2 (CAT2) plays an important role in the detoxification of hydrogen peroxide released either during photorespiration or as a consequence of biotic and abiotic stress as well as in the initiation of senescence. To date, our understanding of the regulation of CAT2 gene expression is rather poor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that a wide region of the CAT2 promoter is nucleosome depleted, reflecting the ability to rapidly respond to changing environmental and stress conditions and, thus, adjusting the transcript levels of CAT2. The lowest nucleosome density was found in the region of -900 bp relative to the transcription initiation start (TIS) where two regulatory elements are located. The distance of the nucleosome depleted region to the TIS is quite unusual because the majority of nucleosome free regions are generally located in close vicinity to the 5' untranslated region. The analysis of transgenic 5' upstream deletion::gusA Arabidopsis lines showed that this region is important for the regulation of CAT2 promoter activity. To evaluate the function of the two motifs, the contribution of each element to CAT2 promoter activity was analyzed by site directed mutagenesis. The data revealed that the CAT2 promoter is regulated by the ACGT motif (Box2) rather than by the G-Box binding motif (Box1) in the vegetative phase of development. Furthermore, the presence of both Box1 and Box2 positively affected the abundance of activating histone modifications.
- The Small GTPase MoSec4 Is Involved in Vegetative Development and Pathogenicity by Regulating the Extracellular Protein Secretion in Magnaporthe oryzae. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Plant Sci 2016; 7:1458
- The Rab GTPase proteins play important roles in the membrane trafficking, and consequently protein secretion and development of eukaryotic organisms. However, little is known about the function of Ra...
The Rab GTPase proteins play important roles in the membrane trafficking, and consequently protein secretion and development of eukaryotic organisms. However, little is known about the function of Rab GTPases in Magnaporthe oryzae. To further explore the function of Rab GTPases, we deleted the ortholog of the yeast Sec4p protein in M. oryzae, namely MoSEC4. The ΔMosec4 mutant is defective in polarized growth and conidiation, and it displays decreased appressorium turgor pressure and attenuated pathogenicity. Notably, the biotrophic invasive hyphae produced in rice cells are more bulbous and compressed in the ΔMosec4 mutant. Further studies showed that deletion of the MoSEC4 gene resulted in decreased secretion of extracellular enzymes and mislocalization of the cytoplasmic effector PWL2-mCherry-NLS. In accordance with a role in secretion, the GFP-MoSec4 fusion protein mainly accumulates at tips of growing vegetative hyphae. Our results suggest that the MoSec4 protein plays important roles in the secretion of extracellular proteins and consequently hyphal development and pathogenicity in the rice blast fungus.
- Acta Physiologica's appearance and gestalt 2017. [Editorial]
- APActa Physiol (Oxf) 2016 Oct 11
- My tailor suggests I should dress for the body I have, not for the body I want. Conversely, Acta Physiologica's lean and muscular build calls for streamlining her appearance. Over the latest years, A...
My tailor suggests I should dress for the body I have, not for the body I want. Conversely, Acta Physiologica's lean and muscular build calls for streamlining her appearance. Over the latest years, Acta Physiologica has been ranked highly among the physiology journals.(1,2) Our readers have increasingly downloaded our articles, and many more manuscripts have been submitted year-by-year.(3-5) Reflecting these changes, more persons read Acta Physiologica out of general interest, and not only to stay on top of their fields. To meet these new demands, starting last year, figures and artwork are being enhanced visually. Often, we have had the submitted artwork and schemes redrawn professionally. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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- The chitin synthase FgChs2 and other FgChss co-regulate vegetative development and virulence in F. graminearum. [Journal Article]
- SRSci Rep 2016 Oct 11; 6:34975
- Fusarium graminearum contains eight chitin synthase (Chs) genes belonging to seven classes. Previous studies have found that deletion of FgChs3b is lethal to F. graminearum, and deletion of FgChs1, F...
Fusarium graminearum contains eight chitin synthase (Chs) genes belonging to seven classes. Previous studies have found that deletion of FgChs3b is lethal to F. graminearum, and deletion of FgChs1, FgChs2, FgChs7 and FgChs5 caused diverse defects in chitin content, mycelial growth, conidiation, virulence or stress responses. However, little is known about the functional relationships among these FgChss. In this study, FgChs2 deletion mutant ΔFgChs2 exhibited reduced mycelial growth and virulence as reported previously. In addition, we found that the mutant produced thickened and "wavy" septa. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays showed that the expression levels of FgChs1, FgChs3a, FgChs4, FgChs7, FgChs5 and FgChs6 in ΔFgChs2 were significantly higher than those in the wild type. Therefore, we generated six double deletion mutants of FgChs2 and each of the above six FgChss, and found that FgChs2 shares a function with FgChs1 in regulating mycelial growth, and co-regulates conidiation with FgChs1, FgChs4, FgChs7 and FgChs5. Furthermore, FgChs2 and other six FgChss have overlapped functions in virulence, DON production and septum formation. Taken together, these results indicate that although each chitin synthase of F. graminearum plays certain roles, FgChss may co-regualte various cellular processes in F. graminearum.