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vegetative function [keywords]
- [Clinical picture, diagnostics and prophylaxis of a syndrome in conditions of the Far North]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Voen Med Zh 2014 Oct; 335(10):14-8.
The analysis of a clinical picture barometeosensitivity in a seaside zone of the Far North is carried out in the article. A diagnostic test included the following laboratory assessments: complete blood count, complete urinary analysis, biomedical measurement assessment, immunology blood research and functional renal test; analysis of the level of an electrolyte in the blood and hormone receptor status; and the following instrumental diagnostics: The auscultatory Korotkov's method of determining blood pressure, electrocardiography, variational pulsometry, chest X-ray, mechanocardiography, echocardiography and abdominal ultrasound; and also consultation of ophthalmologist and neuropathologist. Every patient should keep a diary "weather - health" before and after the treatment. Peculiarities of cardiovascular system, vegetative systems and neuroendocrine system of servicemen, coming to the Far North and mechanisms of development of barometeosensivity were revealed. It has been established that atmospheric pressure variation affects systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, systolic discharge, Kerdo index, effectiveness of myocardial function, end-diastolic and end-systolic volume, level of cholesterol, triglycerides, kalium, adrenalin, triiodothyronine, blood plasma and plasma renin activity in barometeosensetiv servicemen. The criteria of diagnostics of barometeosensivity in conditions of the Far North are suggested. The influence of baromemteosensivity on the combat capability of serviceman is researched.
- A Rootstock Provides Water Conservation for a Grafted Commercial Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) Line in Response to Mild-Drought Conditions: A Focus on Vegetative Growth and Photosynthetic Parameters. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(12):e115380.
The development of water stress resistant lines of commercial tomato by breeding or genetic engineering is possible, but will take considerable time before commercial varieties are available for production. However, grafting commercial tomato lines on drought resistant rootstock may produce drought tolerant commercial tomato lines much more rapidly. Due to changing climates and the need for commercial production of vegetables in low quality fields there is an urgent need for stress tolerant commercial lines of vegetables such as tomato. In previous observations we identified a scion root stock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Jjak Kkung' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Jjak) that had a qualitative drought-tolerance phenotype when compared to the non-grafted line. Based on this initial observation, we studied photosynthesis and vegetative above-ground growth during mild-drought for the 602/Jjak compared with another scion-rootstock combination ('BHN 602' scion grafted onto 'Cheong Gang' rootstock hereafter identified as 602/Cheong) and a non-grafted control. Overall above ground vegetative growth was significantly lower for 602/Jjak in comparison to the other plant lines. Moreover, water potential reduction in response to mild drought was significantly less for 602/Jjak, yet stomatal conductance of all plant-lines were equally inhibited by mild-drought. Light saturated photosynthesis of 602/Jjak was less affected by low water potential than the other two lines as was the % reduction in mesophyll conductance. Therefore, the Jjak Kkung rootstock caused aboveground growth reduction, water conservation and increased photosynthetic tolerance of mild drought. These data show that different rootstocks can change the photosynthetic responses to drought of a high yielding, commercial tomato line. Also, this rapid discovery of one scion-rootstock combination that provided mild-drought tolerance suggests that screening more scion-rootstock combination for stress tolerance may rapidly yield commercially viable, stress tolerant lines of tomato.
- The ULT trxG factors play a role in Arabidopsis fertilization. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Plant Signal Behav 2014 Dec 22.:0.
Abstract Trithorax group (trxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are epigenetic modifiers that play key roles in eukaryotic development by promoting active or repressive gene expression states, respectively. Although PcG proteins have well-defined roles in controlling developmental transitions, cell fate decisions and cellular differentiation in plants, relatively little is known about the functions of plant trxG factors. We recently determined the biological roles for the ULT1 and ULT2 trxG genes during Arabidopsis vegetative and reproductive development. Our study revealed that ULT1 and ULT2 genes have overlapping activities in regulating Arabidopsis shoot and floral stem cell activity, and that they have a redundant function in establishing the apical-basal polarity axis of the gynoecium. Here we present data that ult1 and ult1 ult2 siliques contain a significant proportion of aborted ovules, supporting an additional role for ULT1 in Arabidopsis fertility. Our results add to the number of plant developmental processes that are regulated by trxG activity.
- SUMOylation is Developmentally Regulated and Required for Cell Pairing during Conjugation in Tetrahymena. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Eukaryot Cell 2014 Dec 19.
The covalent attachment of Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier (SUMO) to target proteins regulates numerous nuclear events in eukaryotes including transcription, mitosis and meiosis and DNA repair. Despite extensive interest in nuclear pathways within the field of ciliate molecular biology, there have been no investigations of the SUMO pathway in Tetrahymena. The developmental program of sexual reproduction of this organism includes cell pairing, micronuclear meiosis, and the formation of a new somatic macronucleus. We identified the Tetrahymena thermophila SMT3 (SUMO) and UBA2 (SUMO activating enzyme) genes and demonstrated the corresponding GFP transgenes are found predominantly in the somatic macronucleus during vegetative growth. Using an anti-Smt3p antibody to perform immunoblots of whole cell lysates during conjugation revealed a large increase in SUMOylation that peaked during formation of the new macronucleus. Immunofluorescence using the same antibody showed the increase was localized primarily within the new macronucleus. To initiate functional analysis of the SUMO pathway we created germ-line knockout cell lines for both the SMT3 and UBA2 genes and found both are essential for cell viability. Conditional Smt3p and Uba2p cell lines were constructed by incorporation of the cadmium-inducible metallothionein promoter. Withdrawal of cadmium resulted in reduced cell growth and increased sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Interestingly, Smt3p and Uba2p conditional cell lines were unable to pair during sexual reproduction in the absence of cadmium consistent with a function early in conjugation. Our studies are consistent with multiple roles for SUMOylation in Tetrahymena, including a dynamic regulation associated with the sexual life cycle.
- [Features of vegetative dysfunction development in patients with cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Eksp Klin Gastroenterol 2014; (2):21-4.
The aim of the present study was a comprehensive study of the features autonomic nervous system in cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy.88 patients aged 40 to 60 years. 55 patients with cholelithiasis before and after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CE). Control group consisted of 33 patients of similar age and gender. To investigate the function of the autonomic nervous system were evaluated themes complaint history, physical examination data, and used less Tod mathematical analysis of cardiac rhythm by Baevsky RM using the author's computer-related programs "Korveg" with the definition of heart rate variability and table--Solovevoj Wayne.The study of autonomic provision in rest and during exercise were increased sympathetic activity, exceeding those in the control group. Studies indicate a tendency to sympathicotonia patients with gall stones before and after cholecystectomy, which is enhanced adaptive compensatory mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the body. Identify logical connections between clinical and autonomic indicators will predict flow pattern cholelithiasis before and after cholecystectomy, as well as pick individual therapy for each patient taking into account the autonomic features that can be widely used in practical medicine--not.
- Regulation of Three Nitrogenase Gene Clusters in the Cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413. [Journal Article, Review]
- Life (Basel) 2014; 4(4):944-67.
The filamentous cyanobacterium Anabaena variabilis ATCC 29413 fixes nitrogen under aerobic conditions in specialized cells called heterocysts that form in response to an environmental deficiency in combined nitrogen. Nitrogen fixation is mediated by the enzyme nitrogenase, which is very sensitive to oxygen. Heterocysts are microxic cells that allow nitrogenase to function in a filament comprised primarily of vegetative cells that produce oxygen by photosynthesis. A. variabilis is unique among well-characterized cyanobacteria in that it has three nitrogenase gene clusters that encode different nitrogenases, which function under different environmental conditions. The nif1 genes encode a Mo-nitrogenase that functions only in heterocysts, even in filaments grown anaerobically. The nif2 genes encode a different Mo-nitrogenase that functions in vegetative cells, but only in filaments grown under anoxic conditions. An alternative V-nitrogenase is encoded by vnf genes that are expressed only in heterocysts in an environment that is deficient in Mo. Thus, these three nitrogenases are expressed differentially in response to environmental conditions. The entire nif1 gene cluster, comprising at least 15 genes, is primarily under the control of the promoter for the first gene, nifB1. Transcriptional control of many of the downstream nif1 genes occurs by a combination of weak promoters within the coding regions of some downstream genes and by RNA processing, which is associated with increased transcript stability. The vnf genes show a similar pattern of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of expression suggesting that the complex pattern of regulation of the nif1 cluster is conserved in other cyanobacterial nitrogenase gene clusters.
- Kv1.5 blockers preferentially inhibit TASK-1 channels: TASK-1 as a target against atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea? [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Pflugers Arch 2014 Dec 17.
Atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. There is a high medical need for novel drugs against both diseases, and here, Kv1.5 channels have emerged as promising drug targets. In humans, TASK-1 has an atrium-specific expression and TASK-1 is also abundantly expressed in the hypoglossal motor nucleus. We asked whether known Kv1.5 channel blockers, effective against atrial fibrillation and/or obstructive sleep apnea, modulate TASK-1 channels. Therefore, we tested Kv1.5 blockers with different chemical structures for their TASK-1 affinity, utilizing two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) recordings in Xenopus oocytes. Despite the low structural conservation of Kv1.5 and TASK-1 channels, we found all Kv1.5 blockers analyzed to be even more effective on TASK-1 than on Kv1.5. For instance, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of AVE0118 and AVE1231 (A293) were 10- and 43-fold lower on TASK-1. Also for MSD-D, ICAGEN-4, S20951 (A1899), and S9947, the IC50 values were 1.4- to 70-fold lower than for Kv1.5. To describe this phenomenon on a molecular level, we used in silico models and identified unexpected structural similarities between the two drug binding sites. Kv1.5 blockers, like AVE0118 and AVE1231, which are promising drugs against atrial fibrillation or obstructive sleep apnea, are in fact potent TASK-1 blockers. Accordingly, block of TASK-1 channels by these compounds might contribute to the clinical effectiveness of these drugs. The higher affinity of these blockers for TASK-1 channels suggests that TASK-1 might be an unrecognized molecular target of Kv1.5 blockers effective in atrial fibrillation or obstructive sleep apnea.
- Alterations in circadian/seasonal rhythms and vegetative functions are related to suicidality in DSM-5 PTSD. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Psychiatry 2014 Dec 12; 14(1):352.
BackgroundAlterations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions have been reported as correlates of suicidality, particularly in patients with mood disorders. No investigation has addressed their impact on patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Aim of the present study was to fulfill this gap.MethodsSixty-five out- and inpatients with DSM-5 PTSD were assessed by using the Mood Spectrum-Self Report-Lifetime Version (MOODS-SR), a questionnaire for lifetime mood spectrum symptomatology including alterations in circadian/seasonal rhythms and vegetative functions. Six items of the MOODS-SR were combined and dichotomized to assess suicidal ideation and/or attempts.ResultsSignificant and positive associations were found between symptoms of lifetime dysregulations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions and suicidal ideation and/or attempts. All MOODS-SR sub-domains (rhythmicity, sleep, appetite/weight, sexual function, physical symptoms) were associated with an increased likelihood of suicidal ideation, but only changes in appetite/weight were associated with greater odd ratios of suicide attempts (OR¿=¿2.099 95% CI 1.148-3.841).ConclusionsOur results suggest that lifetime dysregulations in rhythmicity and vegetative functions may represent correlates of suicidality in patients with DSM-5 PTSD.
- Genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase gene family in Gossypium raimondii and the function of their corresponding orthologs in tetraploid cultivated cotton. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- BMC Plant Biol 2014 Dec 10; 14(1):345.
BackgroundMitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play a crucial role in plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. Knowledge about the MAPK gene family in cotton is limited, and systematic investigation of MAPK family proteins has not been reported.ResultsBy performing a bioinformatics homology search, we identified 28 putative MAPK genes in the Gossypium raimondii genome. These MAPK members were anchored onto 11 chromosomes in G. raimondii, with uneven distribution. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the MAPK candidates could be classified into the four known A, B, C and D groups, with more MAPKs containing the TEY phosphorylation site (18 members) than the TDY motif (10 members). Furthermore, 21 cDNA sequences of MAPKs with complete open reading frames (ORFs) were identified in G. hirsutum via PCR-based approaches, including 13 novel MAPKs and eight with homologs reported previously in tetraploid cotton. The expression patterns of 23 MAPK genes reveal their important roles in diverse functions in cotton, in both various developmental stages of vegetative and reproductive growth and in the stress response. Using a reverse genetics approach based on tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (TRV-VIGS), we further verified that MPK9, MPK13 and MPK25 confer resistance to defoliating isolates of Verticillium dahliae in cotton. Silencing of MPK9, MPK13 and MPK25 can significantly enhance cotton susceptibility to this pathogen.ConclusionsThis study presents a comprehensive identification of 28 mitogen-activated protein kinase genes in G. raimondii. Their phylogenetic relationships, transcript expression patterns and responses to various stressors were verified. This study provides the first systematic analysis of MAPKs in cotton, improving our understanding of defense responses in general and laying the foundation for future crop improvement using MAPKs.
- Genetic analysis reveals identity of the photoreceptor for phototaxis in hormogonium filaments of Nostoc punctiforme. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Bacteriol 2014 Dec 8.
In cyanobacteria Nostoc species, substratum-dependent gliding motility is confined to specialized non-growing filaments called hormogonia, which differentiate from vegetative filaments as part of a conditional life cycle and function as dispersal units. Here we confirm that hormogonia of Nostoc punctiforme are positively phototactic to white light over a wide range of intensities. N. punctiforme contains two gene clusters (2 and 2i), each of which encode modular cyanobacteriochrome-methyl accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCP) and other proteins that putatively constitute a basic chemotaxis-like signal transduction complex. Transcriptional analysis established that all genes in clusters 2 and 2i, plus two additional clusters (1 and 3) with genes encoding MCPs lacking cyanobacteriochrome sensory domains, are up-regulated during differentiation of hormogonia. Mutational analysis determined that only genes in cluster 2i are essential for positive phototaxis in N. punctiforme hormogonia and are designated here as ptx for phototaxis. The cluster is unusual in containing complete or partial duplicates of genes encoding proteins homologous to the well described chemotaxis elements CheY, CheW, MCP and CheA. The cyanobacteriochrome-MCP (ptxD) lacks transmembrane domains and has 7 potential binding sites for bilins. The transcriptional start site of the ptx genes does not resemble a sigma 70 consensus recognition sequence; moreover, it is upstream of two genes encoding gas vesicle proteins (gvpA and gvpC), which also are expressed only in hormogonium filaments of N. punctiforme.