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whispered voice test [keywords]
- The effect of experience on the sensitivity and specificity of the whispered voice test: a diagnostic accuracy study. [Journal Article]
- BMJ Open 2013; 3(4)
To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the whispered voice test (WVT) in detecting hearing loss when administered by practitioners with different levels of experience.Diagnostic accuracy study of WVT, through acoustic analysis of whispers of experienced and inexperienced practitioners (experiment 1) and behavioural validation of these recordings (experiment 2).Research institute with a pool of patients sourced from local clinics in the Greater Glasgow area.22 people had their whispers recorded and analysed in experiment 1; 4 older experienced (OE), 4 older inexperienced (OI) and 14 younger inexperienced (YI). In experiment 2, 73 people (112 individual ears) took part in a digit recognition task using 2 OE and 2 YI whisperers from experiment 1.Average level (dB sound pressure level) across frequency, average level across all utterances (dB A) and within/across-digit deviation (dB A) for experiment 1. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of WVT for experiment 2.In experiment 1, OE whisperers were 8-10 dB more intense than inexperienced whisperers across all whispered utterances. Variability was low and comparable regardless of age or experience. In experiment 2, at an optimum threshold of 40 dB HL, sensitivity and specificity were 63% (95% CI of 58% to 68%) and 93% (92% to 94%), respectively, for OE whisperers. PPV was 56% (51% to 61%), NPV was 95% (94% to 96%). For YI whisperers at an optimum threshold of 29 dB HL, sensitivity and specificity were 80% (78% to 82%) and 52% (50% to 55%), respectively. PPV was 65% (63% to 67%) and NPV was 70% (67% to 72%).WVT is an effective screening test, providing the level of the whisperer is considered when setting the test's hearing-loss criterion. Possible implications are voice measurement while training for inexperienced whisperers.
- Stability of physical assessment of older drivers over 1 year. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Accid Anal Prev 2013 Feb 13.
Older adults represent the fastest-growing population of drivers with a valid driver's licence. Also common in this age group are multiple chronic medical conditions that may have an effect on physical function and driving ability. Determining the reliability of physical measures used to assess older drivers' functional ability is important to identifying those who are safe to continue driving. Most previous reliability studies of clinical physical measures of health used test-retest intervals shorter than those between patient visits with a clinician. In the present study we examined a more clinically representative interval of 1 year to determine the stability of commonly used physical measures collected during the Candrive II prospective cohort study of older drivers. Reliability statistics indicate that the sequential finger-thumb opposition, rapid pace walk and the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity tests have adequate stability over 1 year. Poor stability was observed for the one-legged stance and Snellen visual acuity test. Several assessments with nominal data (Marottoli method [functional neck range of motion], whispered voice test, range of motion and strength testing) lacked sufficient variability to conduct reliability analyses; however, a lack of variability between test days suggests consistency over a 1-year time frame. Our results provide evidence that specific physical measures are stable in monitoring functional ability over the course of a year.
- Hearing loss in older adults. [Journal Article, Review]
- Am Fam Physician 2012 Jun 15; 85(12):1150-6.
Hearing loss affects approximately one-third of adults 61 to 70 years of age and more than 80 percent of those older than 85 years. Men usually experience greater hearing loss and have earlier onset compared with women. The most common type is age-related hearing loss; however, many conditions can interfere with the conduction of sound vibrations to the inner ear and their conversion to electrical impulses for conduction to the brain. Screening for hearing loss is recommended in adults older than 50 to 60 years. Office screening tests include the whispered voice test and audioscopy. Older patients who admit to having difficulty hearing may be referred directly for audiometry. The history can identify risk factors for hearing loss, especially noise exposure and use of ototoxic medications. Examination of the auditory canal and tympanic membrane can identify causes of conductive hearing loss. Audiometric testing is required to confirm hearing loss. Adults presenting with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss should be referred for urgent assessment. Management of hearing loss is based on addressing underlying causes, especially obstructions (including cerumen) and ototoxic medications. Residual hearing should be optimized by use of hearing aids, assistive listening devices, and rehabilitation programs. Surgical implants are indicated for selected patients. Major barriers to improved hearing in older adults include lack of recognition of hearing loss; perception that hearing loss is a normal part of aging or is not amenable to treatment; and patient nonadherence with hearing aids because of stigma, cost, inconvenience, disappointing initial results, or other factors.
- Preliminary findings on the relation between the personality trait of stress reaction and the central neural control of human vocalization. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int J Speech Lang Pathol 2012 Aug; 14(4):377-89.
The objectives of this study were to examine whether the personality trait of stress reaction (SR), as assessed with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire-Brief Form (MPQ-BF), (1) influences prefrontal and limbic area activity during overt sentence reading and if (2) SR and associated individual differences in prefrontal and limbic activations correlate with sensorimotor cortical activity during overt sentence reading. Ten vocally healthy adults (22-57 years) participated in a functional MRI study using an event-related sparse sampling design to acquire brain activation data during sentence production tasks (covert, whispered, overt). The outcome measure was the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal change in prefrontal, limbic, and primary somatosensory (S1) and motor cortices (M1). Significant positive correlations were found between SR scores and S1, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (both r =.73, p <.05), and periaqueductal gray (r =.88, p <.01) activity. M1 activity was positively correlated with SR (r =.64, p <.05) and negatively with social potency (r = -.70, p <.05). Our findings suggest that motor cortical control subserving voice and speech production varies with expression of selected personality traits. Future studies should investigate the functional significance of personality differences in the central neural control of vocalization.
- [Proposal for presbycusis screening in a primary care clinic]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Aten Primaria 2007 Jan; 39(1):35-40.
Presbycusis is one of the causes of deafness that has increased most in our society. To show the levels of presbycusis in people over 60 who attend our health centre for other reasons and to assess the utility of certain tests employed in primary care to detect hearing problems.One-hundred and ten people. Exclusion criteria: prior specialist diagnosis, lack of consent or impossibility of running the tests. Assessment of auditory invalidity: otoscopy, Weber, Rinne, whispered voice, auditory disability test. Audiological validation by audiometry assessed by ORL. Results analysed with SPSS statistical packet.Mean age 714 (6.1). Otoscopy was normal in 81.8%. Weber's test had no significant relationship with the otoscopy, but did with the Rinne. Presbycusis was seen in 68.2% of the audiometries. Everyone (100%) who had worked in a noisy environment had audiometric deficit.There were high figures (87%) for hypoacusis in our population of elderly people. In 68.2%, this was due to presbycusis. The sensitivity and negative predictive value (Vp-) of most of the tests used in primary care to detect auditory disorders are low.
- Review: Self report of hearing loss and the whispered voice test are useful for screening for hearing impairment. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Evid Based Med 2006 Aug; 11(4):116.
- Review: self report of hearing loss and the whispered voice test are useful for screening for hearing impairment. [Comment, Journal Article]
- Evid Based Nurs 2006 Oct; 9(4):120.
- Acoustic analysis of consonants in whispered speech. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- J Voice 2008 May; 22(3):263-74.
An acoustic analysis of whispered consonants in comparison to normally phonated consonants was conducted in time and intensity domains. Consonant duration and average root mean square intensity were measured for six speakers in both articulation modes. Each of 25 Serbian consonants (C) was sited between the vowel /a/ forming a syllable of /aCa/ type. Such a syllable was placed in initial, medial, and final position in the carrier sentence. Results showed that whispered consonants have a prolonged duration of about 10% on average (statistically significant, ANOVA test), and that the unvoiced consonants have a smaller time dimension extension (5.8%) than voiced ones (15.3%). Examination at subphonemic level showed that there is no difference in voice-onset-time and affrication duration in unvoiced plosives and affricates, in both whispered and phonated mode of articulation, but the difference is significant for voiced ones. Analysis of consonant duration versus place of articulation showed that palatal place is most sensitive in the process of whispering. In all experiments, the results are very consistent with respect to the subjects and test material (Pearson's correlation was between 0.6 and 0.9). In intensity domain, all unvoiced consonants in whispered mode of articulation have almost unchanged intensity in comparison to phonated mode (the difference is maximum 3.5 dB). On the contrary, voiced consonants in the whispered mode were reduced in intensity by as much as 25 dB, as nasals and semivowels. Average intensity of whispered consonants is lowered by 12d B in comparison to phonated ones, and does not depend on syllabic position inside the sentences.
- Laryngeal hyperfunction during whispering: reality or myth? [Journal Article]
- J Voice 2006 Mar; 20(1):121-7.
For years, otolaryngologists and voice therapists have warned voice patients that whispering causes more trauma to the larynx than normal speech. However, no large series of patients has ever been examined fiberoptically during whispering to test this hypothesis. As part of our routine examination, patients are asked to count from 1 to 10 in a normal voice and in a whispered voice. We reviewed recorded fiberoptic examinations of 100 patients who had voice complaints. We compared supraglottic hyperfunction and vocal fold closure during the normal and whispered phonation of each patient. Sixty-nine percent of the patients demonstrated increased supraglottic hyperfunction with whispered voice. Eighteen percent had no change, and 13% had less severe hyperfunction. The most common glottal configuration during whisper was an inverted Y, which resulted from compression of the anterior and middle thirds of the true vocal folds. However, 12 patients had no true vocal fold contact during whispered voice, despite having adequate glottic closure with normal voice. Although whispering involves more severe hyperfunction in most patients, it does not seem to do so in all patients. In some patients, it may be less traumatic than normal voice.