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wool fat [keywords]
- Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes. [Journal Article]
- Trop Anim Health Prod 2012 Dec; 45(1):167-76.
Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P < 0.001). The digestibility and intake of dry matter, organic matter, and crude protein was higher (P < 0.05) in T(2). The N intake, absorption, and balance showed a similar trend. Increase (P < 0.05) in total N, trichloroacetic acid precipitable N, and ammonia N was observed with extension of realimentation period. Blood metabolic profile also showed improvement (P < 0.05) from an undernourished state to normal after alimentation. Animals in T(2) accumulated higher LW with minimal expenditure of metabolizable energy (73.4 vs 79.1 MJ) and higher efficiency of feed conversion during 68 to 90 days of realimentation. Linear improvement (P < 0.01) in carcass traits (preslaughter weight, empty live weight, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, and amount of subcutaneous and intramuscular fat) and composition of longissimus dorsi muscle was observed. Ad lib concentrate supplementation for a period of 90 days may thus be considered appropriate for achieving desired efficiency of gain and improvement in body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.
- Six fatal cases of classical rabies virus without biting incidents, Iran 1990-2010. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Clin Virol 2012 Jul; 54(3):251-4.
Rabies is an endemic fatal zoonotic disease, commonly transmitted to humans through contact (bites and scratches) with infected animals.During the years 1990-2010, six patients with the clinical symptoms of rabies (fever, tinnitus, buzzing, delirium and hydrophobia), with no history of a bite, were diagnosed by physicians in Iran. To obtain laboratory confirmation of rabies infection, different clinical specimens from each patient were sent to the World Health Organisation (WHO) Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Rabies, Pasteur Institute of Iran. The first case was a 39-year-old male veterinary technician who entered his uncovered scratched hand into the mouth of a rabid bovine and became infected. Two years later, a herd of sheep being tended by a shepherd and his two sons were attacked by a rabid wolf. All three individuals were infected when they applied burnt thorny wool to the sheep's wounds as a bandage. Their hands were scratched and then infected through contact with the remaining saliva of the rabid wolf on the sheep's wounds. In 1994, two other human cases occurred through corneal transplantation from the same donor who had died with the clinical signs of food poisoning (according to his hospital record), which probably was a misdiagnosis of rabies infection.This is a case series study that describes human rabies cases without biting incidents. According to the WHO recommendation, human rabies cases are notifiable, therefore, in Iran, a rabies surveillance system has been established to follow these cases. During the last decade, six patients with no 'history of a bite' were hospitalised with growing symptoms of rabies. The data were collected from each patient by the physicians and transferred to the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of Iran, and to the WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Rabies, Pasteur Institute of Iran as the only testing laboratory. Thus, they came to the attention of the surveillance system. Ante-mortem diagnosis was performed on saliva, cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples that were collected from the first patient by the physicians. Fresh brain specimens from all patients were kept in a mixture of 50% glycerol in phosphate-buffered saline and transported on ice to the WHO Collaborating Center for Reference and Research on Rabies.For the first patient, rabies virus was investigated in saliva using the rapid tissue cell inoculation test (RTCIT) and the mouse inoculation test (MIT). Anti-rabies antibodies in this patient's serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were examined using the mouse neutralisation test (MNT). Fresh brain specimens from all patients were examined using the fluorescence antibody test (FAT) as recommended by the WHO laboratory manual in rabies as the post-mortem diagnostic test for rabies. Rabies infection was confirmed in all of the deceased patients. Anti-rabies antibodies were identified only in one patient's serum specimen. Testing also showed that the rabies virus isolated was the classic rabies virus (serotype 1), which is widespread in Iran.Prevention and control of this fatal disease require a sensitive surveillance system to follow 'suspected' animal and human rabies cases thoroughly through the improved reporting system, which contains the history of exposure, clinical examinations, symptoms and laboratory results. This study describes some notable human rabies infections and their transmission modes to prevent occupational accidents.
- Re-alimentation strategy to manoeuvre body condition and carcass characteristics in cull ewes. [Journal Article]
- Animal 2012 Jan; 6(1):61-9.
Improvement in body condition and carcass traits through nutritional intervention was studied in cull ewes. Sixty-eight adult non-productive Malpura ewes (average body weight 26.7 ± 0.33 kg) were randomly divided into four equal groups: G0 maintained on free grazing for 8 h on protected natural rangeland with ad libitum guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) straw (GS) after grazing; G1, G2 and G3 fed with supplemental concentrate at the rate of 250 g, 2.5% of live weight (LW) and ad libitum, respectively. The experiment was continued for 90 days and daily feed intake, weekly LW and body condition score (BCS) were recorded. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were assessed by indicator method. Rumen fermentation attributes and blood biochemical profile were studied to assess the dietary effects and animals were slaughtered at the end of experiment for evaluation of carcass characteristics. Higher dry matter (DM) intake and improvement in plane of nutrition was observed in G2 and G3 with a higher LW gain (LWG) and improvement in BCS than in G0. The digestibility of DM, organic matter, CP, ADF and cellulose was higher (P < 0.05) in G2 and G3 than in G0. A lower ruminal pH and ammonia N but higher total N and trichloroacetic acid-precipitable N, an increase in holotrichs, spirotrichs and total protozoa population, increase in haemoglobin but decrease in serum total cholesterol and non-esterified fatty acids were observed in high-concentrate-fed groups. Carcass attributes revealed increase (P < 0.05) in empty LW, dressing yield, eye muscle area, subcutaneous and intramuscular fat, decrease in shear force value and higher (P < 0.05) protein content in Longissimus dorsi muscle in test groups than in the control. Above all, the G2 animals had better rumen environment and blood biochemical attributes and consumed more feed with enhanced digestibility that supported higher LWG at better feed conversion efficiency, improvement in BCS and carcass quality. Thus, re-alimentation of cull ewes with challenged feeding of concentrate at 2.5% of LW on a basal roughage diet for a period of 3 months may have promise for better economic return to the farmers with possibly meeting quality mutton for human consumption.
- A comparison between slaughter traits and meat quality of various sheep breeds: wool, dual-purpose and mutton. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Meat Sci 2012 Jul; 91(3):318-24.
The slaughter and meat quality traits of 20-month-old wool (Merino), dual-purpose (Dohne Merino and South African Mutton Merino [SAMM]) and mutton (Dormer) type sheep were compared. Average live weights of SAMM and Dormer sheep were 23% heavier than those of Dohne Merinos which were 28% heavier than Merinos. Fat depths at the thirteenth rib and lumbar regions of Merino and Dohne Merino sheep were lower than those of SAMM and Dormer sheep. The cooking loss, drip loss and shearing value from the M. longissimus dorsi did not differ between breeds. The initial juiciness and sustained juiciness of meat from Merinos were rated significantly lower by sensory analysis. Meat from Dohne Merino was rated significantly more tender for the attribute first bite. It was demonstrated that Dormer and SAMM sheep had heavier but fatter carcasses than Merinos and Dohne Merinos, with differences in meat quality between breeds.
- Basal and hormone-stimulated metabolism in lambs varies with breed and diet quality. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Domest Anim Endocrinol 2012 Feb; 42(2):94-102.
The present study investigated the effects of breed and diet quality on basal and hormone-stimulated energy metabolism in lambs. Twenty-four 7-mo-old merino (MM; n = 12) and second-cross (2X; n = 12) lambs were maintained indoors and fed ad libitum either a low-quality (7.8% crude protein [CP] and 8.1 MJ metabolizable energy [ME]/kg dry matter [DM]) or a moderate-quality (17.6% CP and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM) diet in a crossover design. After 3 wk of feeding, lambs were injected intravenously with insulin (10 μg/kg body weight [BW]) and epinephrine (0.8 μg/kg BW) on consecutive days and blood samples were collected at -30, -15, -1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min relative to time of injection. Lambs fed the low-quality diet had lower DM (P < 0.001), CP (P < 0.01), and ME (P < 0.001) intakes than lambs fed the moderate-quality diet. Baseline nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentrations were higher (P < 0.001) in lambs fed a low-quality diet than in those fed a moderate-quality diet but there were no breed differences. Second-cross lambs had higher basal plasma concentrations of glucose (P < 0.001), lactate (P < 0.001), and cortisol (P < 0.02) than the MM lambs, although there was no effect of diet on any of these plasma variables. Insulin injection caused a rapid hypoglycemic response in all lambs but the response was more pronounced (P < 0.01) in MM lambs compared with 2X lambs. The cortisol response to insulin was twice as great (P < 0.05) in MM lambs compared with 2X lambs. There was a rebound in plasma NEFA concentrations after approximately 30 min postinjection that was most pronounced (P < 0.01) in MM lambs. Epinephrine injection caused a rapid increase in plasma NEFA, which tended to be lower in lambs fed the moderate-quality diet (P = 0.07) than in those fed the low-quality diet, but did not differ between breeds. Epinephrine injection caused rapid hyperglycemia, with the response being lower (P < 0.006) in lambs fed the moderate-quality diet compared with those fed the low-quality diet and greater (P < 0.050) in 2X than in MM lambs. Epinephrine injection caused a rapid increase in plasma lactate that tended to be greater (P = 0.07) in 2X lambs compared with MM lambs. The present study demonstrated clear breed differences in basal and hormone-stimulated metabolism, such that the 2X lambs appeared to be less sensitive to insulin and more sensitive to epinephrine than the MM lambs. These metabolic differences may be related to the fundamental differences in physiology that are associated with meat and wool production from 2X and MM breeds, respectively. They may also be related to adaptation of the MM breed to harsh environments through the ability of the body to metabolize fat resources, which are an efficient source of energy for survival.
- Human herpesvirus 6-associated uveitis with optic neuritis diagnosed by multiplex PCR. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Jpn J Ophthalmol 2011 Sep; 55(5):502-5.
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6), which is usually responsible for exanthem subitum in children, can be reactivated from its latent state. We report a case of unilateral optic disc edema and retinal vasculitis associated with HHV-6 infection.A healthy 63-year-old man noted a decrease in the vision of his left eye. On examination, his left eye had moderate mutton-fat keratic precipitates, vitreous opacities, significant optic disc edema surrounded by yellowish-white swelling in the inner retina, retinal arteritis, and cotton-wool-like exudates. He was started on corticosteroid therapy and aspirin. After 1 month, the disc edema was reduced, the cotton wool-like exudates had decreased, and his visual acuity had improved to 10/20 OS. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of an aqueous humor sample revealed the presence of genomic DNA of HHV-6 but not of the other HHVs.The HHVs are known to infect the ocular tissues, but the differential diagnostic signs of HHV-6 are still not well known. We recommend that multiplex PCR of the aqueous humor be performed to search for the genomic DNA of HHV-6 in suspected cases of herpesviral infection.
- [Purtscher-like retinopathy in acute alcoholic pancreatitis: fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography findings]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Cesk Slov Oftalmol 2010 Oct; 66(4):165-9.
27 year old patient with a history of alcohol abuse after consumption of fat meal and wine following epigastric pain noticed sudden bilateral visual loss: right eye logMAR 0, 94, left eye logMAR 1, 22. Retinal examination revealed massive edema in the central part of the retina, multiple cotton wool spots in the posterior pole peripapillary and flame-shaped hemorrhages. On the OCT, there was edema most of all in the inner part of the retina, but also subretinal, hyperreflectivity in the nerve fibre layers corresponding to massive cotton wool spots. Fluorescein angiography in the early phases showed hypofluorescent ischemic areas of the retina subsequently leakage developed in the late phases. Immediately after antibiotic and spasmoanalgetic treatment of the pancreatitis visual acuity improved and 2 months after beginning of the therapy visual acuity is logMAR 0 bilateraly. We proposed that the most suspected cause of Purtscher-like retinopathy in this case is fat embolism.
- Comparative permeation studies of nondiluted and diluted betamethasone-17-valerate semisolid formulations through isolated human stratum corneum and artificial skin construct. [Comparative Study, In Vitro, Journal Article]
- Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22(3):142-50.
This article deals with a comparative study of the permeation of the halogenated corticosteroid betamethasone-17-valerate (BM-17-V) through isolated human stratum corneum (SC) and artificial skin constructs (ASC) from different semisolid formulations described in the German Pharmacopoeia, i.e. wool fat alcohol ointment (WO), basis cream DAC (German Drug Code) and commercial products containing BM-17-V 0.1% weight such as Celestan-V cream, Celestan-V ointment, and Soderm ointment. In this study, pharmacopoeial ointment and cream were loaded in each case with BM-17-V.In vitropermeation experiments of BM-17-V were carried out in Franz diffusion cells using isolated human SC and ASC. Permeation data from both systems were compared statistically and those data were linearly correlated to each other. The saturation concentrations of BM-17-V within the formulations were calculated based on microscopical examination. The BM-17-V was metabolized via BM-21-V into betamethasone (BM) as its hydrolization product during the permeation experiments across SC. Since ASC has a higher enzymatic activity and less barrier qualities than SC, furthering the course of the permeation experiment, not only BM permeates besides the noncatabolized drug BM-17-V, but also 9alpha-fluoro-prednisolone as another decomposition product. The detection of BM-17-V and its degradation product was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography.It was observed that the permeation of BM across ASC from all the formulations tested was higher by factors 9.7-27.7 than that from the same formulations permeating through SC, while the permeation sequence of the tested formulations was almost the same for SC and ASC. Afterwards the effect of the dilution of the semisolid formulations containing BM-17-V 0.1% weight on their permeation through SC was examined by mixing them with different ointments and a cream base. The permeation rate of BM from the dilution of Soderm ointment with WO and from WO diluted with different formulations from the German Pharmacopoeia were very similar.
- Polymorphisms in GDF9 and BMP15 associated with fertility and ovulation rate in Moghani and Ghezel sheep in Iran. [Journal Article]
- Reprod Domest Anim 2010 Aug; 45(4):666-9.
The genetic base of fertility and ovulation rate in Moghani and Ghezel sheep in northwestern Iran and northeastern Turkey is important because of their fat-tailed meat and carpet quality wool. The genes encoding bone morphogenetic (BM) protein 15 and growth differentiation (GD) factor 9, respectively BMP15 and GDF9 have been shown to affect female productivity in domesticated sheep. Recently, numerous investigations have been performed on a variety of breeds to determine the association between mutations in these genes and fertility. Thus, in this study, we assessed such mutations in the Moghani and Ghezel breeds using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with appropriate enzymes. Our data were similar to those of the previous studies showing that the genotypes were heterozygous for GD (G -->A) and BM (C -->T) mutations. These heterozygous genotypes resulted in higher ovulation rates, illustrating that one copy of each of the BMP15 and GDF9 mutations had equivalent effects on the ovulation rate. We demonstrate for the first time that the BM variant may not be sufficient on its own for infertility. In addition, although the previous studies have shown no notable relationship between the GD variant, known as the non-effecting mutation and sterility, we report that this mutation has an important role in the Moghani and Ghezel breeds.
- Stable isotopes to discriminate lambs fed herbage or concentrate both obtained from C(3) plants. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2008 Dec; 22(23):3701-5.
This study was aimed at determining whether isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) enables us to discriminate between lambs fed herbage or concentrate, both obtained from C(3) plants, and those fed a concentrate obtained from C(4) plants. Thirty-four Comisana male lambs (age 45 days) were assigned to three feeding treatments. Fourteen lambs were fed vetch (Vicia sativa) ad libitum. Another fourteen lambs received a barley-based concentrate. The remaining six lambs were fed a maize-based concentrate. After 60 days of experimental treatment the animals were slaughtered and the wool, perirenal fat and muscle longissimus dorsi were sampled. The delta(13)C and delta(15)N values of the muscle, wool and feed were measured by continuous flow elemental analysis (CF-EA)-IRMS. The delta(13)C of the fat was determined likewise. The isotopic composition of the tissues reflected that of the three diets. For the lambs which were fed herbage the muscle delta(13)C values were higher (P < 0.0005) and delta(15)N values were lower (P < 0.0005) than those of the lambs receiving concentrates. The delta(15)N and delta(13)C values in the muscle and delta(13)C values in the adipose tissue allowed perfect discrimination between the lambs fed the three different diets. The regression between the delta(13)C values measured in muscle and in wool of lambs was linear (R(2) = 0.99; P < 0.0005). This result shows that delta(13)C measured in the wool can predict muscle delta(13)C distribution, suggesting that wool is a valuable matrix for meat authentication.