woven bone [keywords]
- In vivo erosion of orthopedic screws prepared from nacre (mother of pearl). [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Orthop Traumatol Surg Res 2016 Aug 20.
Biodegradable biomaterials have been proposed to prepare orthopedic devices. Nacre is a natural aragonitic material made of calcium carbonate and is bioerodible.We postulated that nacre is biodegradable without provoking bone erosion and favors bone apposition.We prepared orthopedic screws from nacre of the giant oyster Pinctada maxima. Threaded screws (3.5mm diameter) were implanted in 6 ewes in the upper tibial metaphysis (3 to 4 screws per animal). Their trajectory was transcortical and intramedullary to the opposite cortex. Animals were kept for 3months (n=2) and 6 months (n=4). They did not develop local inflammation. Before euthanasia, they received a double calcein labeling. Bone samples were analyzed by X-ray nanotomography and histology after embedding in poly(methyl methacrylate). The fractal dimension of the screw profiles (measured by the box-counting method) was used to quantify surface erosion.3D nanotomography showed a gradual erosion of the threads, which was confirmed by a decreased fractal dimension. Histologically, multinucleated cells (non-osteoclastic appearance) were visible at the surface of the screws. No ruffled border was seen in these cells but they had extensions creeping in the organic matter between the aragonite tablets. Bone apposition was noted in the transcortical path of the screws with limited osteoconduction at the endosteum. Mineralization rate was increased in these zones composed of woven bone in contact with the nacre.Screws prepared from nacre have the advantage of an in vivo resorbability by macrophage-derived cells and an osteoconductive apposition in contact with the material without triggering a local inflammatory reaction.
- Effect of combined treatment with zoledronic acid and parathyroid hormone on mouse bone callus structure and composition. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Bone 2016 Aug 16.
In recent years, great interest in combined treatment of parathyroid hormone (PTH) with anti-resorptive therapy has emerged. PTH has been suggested to aid bridging of atrophic fractures and improve strength in closed fracture models. Bisphosphonate treatments typically result in a larger woven bone callus that is slower to remodel. The combination of both drugs has been demonstrated to be effective for the treatment of osteoporotic bone loss in many preclinical studies. However, the effect of combined treatment on fracture repair is still largely unexplored. In this study, we aimed to compare these drugs as single-agent and in combination in a murine closed fracture model. We wanted to assess potential differences in material properties, morphometry and in the development of the lacuno-canalicular network. A total of 40 female, 11-week-old wild type mice underwent a closed fracture on the midshaft of the tibia and were assigned to four groups (n=8-10 per group). Beginning on post-operative day 8, animals received different subcutaneous injections. Group 1 received a single injection of saline solution and Group 2 of zoledronic acid (ZA). Group 3 received daily dosing of PTH. Group 4 received a dual treatment, starting with a single dose of ZA followed by daily injection of PTH. Three weeks after fracture, all animals were euthanized and tibiae were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), high-resolution micro-CT (HR micro-CT), Raman spectroscopy, quantitative histomorphometry, and deconvolution microscopy (DV microscopy). Combined treatment showed a significant increase of 41% in bone volume fraction and a significant decrease of 61% in the standard deviation of the trabecular spacing compared to vehicle, both known to be strong predictors of callus strength. An analysis via HR micro-CT showed similar results on all groups for lacunar numerical density, whereas mean lacuna volume was found to be higher compared to vehicle in treated groups, but only PTH mono-treatment showed a significant increase compared to vehicle (+45%). Raman spectroscopy did not reveal detectable changes in material properties of the bone calluses. Sclerostin staining, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and canalicular analysis with DV microscopy on a subset of samples did not display distinctive difference in any of the treatments. We therefore consider PTH+ZA treatment beneficial for bone healing. No clear negative effect on bone quality was detected during this study.
- Histomorphological and Histomorphometric Analyses of Grade IV Commercially Pure Titanium and Grade V Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy Implant Substrates: An In Vivo Study in Dogs. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Implant Dent 2016 Aug 18.
To evaluate the bone response to grade IV commercially pure titanium (G4) relative to Ti-6Al-4V (G5).Implant surface topography was characterized by optical interferometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thirty-six implants (Signo Vinces, n = 18 per group) were installed in the radius of 18 dogs. The animals were killed at 1, 3, and 6 weeks, resulting in 6 implants per group and time in vivo for bone morphology, bone-to-implant contact (BIC), and bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO) evaluation.SEM depicted a more uniform topography of G4 than G5. Surfaces were statistically homogeneous for Sa, Sq, and Sdr. At 1 week, new bone formation was observed within the healing connective tissue in contact with the implant surface. At 3 weeks, new bone in direct contact with the implant surface was observed at all bone regions. At 6 weeks, the healing chambers filled with woven bone depicted an onset of replacement by lamellar bone. No significant effect of substrate was detected. Time presented an effect on BIC and BAFO (P < 0.001).Both titanium substrates were biocompatible and osseoconductive at the bone tissue level.
- Osthole Promotes Endochondral Ossification and Accelerates Fracture Healing in Mice. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Calcif Tissue Int 2016 Aug 18.
Osthole has been found to restore bone mass in preclinical osteoporotic models. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osthole on bone fracture repair in mice. Adult C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse femoral fractures and administrated orally with 20 mg/kg osthole and vehicle solvent daily from week 1 post-operation. Fracture callus were analyzed by plain radiography, micro-computed tomography, histology, molecular imaging and immunohistochemistry and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Results demonstrated that osthole treatment enhanced removal of cartilage and bony union during reparative stage without significant interfering on remodeling process. In vivo molecular imaging showed bone formation rate of the treatment group was almost twofold of control group at week 2 post-operation. Osthole augmented the expression of alkaline phosphatase and collagen type X in hypertrophic chondrocytes as well as expression of bone morphogenetic protein-2, osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase in osteoblastic cells, indicating it promoted mineralization of hypertrophic cartilage and woven bone growth simultaneously during endochondral healing. In summary, osthole promotes endochondral ossification via upregulation of maturation osteogenic marker genes in chondrocytes and subsequently accelerates fracture repair and bony fusion.
- Malignant transformation of aggressive osteoblastoma to ostesarcoma. [Journal Article]
- Eklem Hastalik Cerrahisi 2016 Aug; 27(2):108-12.
Osteoblastoma is a rare, bone-forming tumor, characterized by osteoid and woven bone production. A 13-year-old boy patient presented to our clinic with complaint of pain in his left proximal tibia. We performed curettage and bone grafting for the lesion diagnosed as osteoblastoma. Two years later, the patient admitted to the hospital with a mass in the same region which was diagnosed by biopsy to be osteosarcoma. Patient was performed reconstruction operation with local resection and mega prosthesis. Fourteen months after termination of chemotherapy, lung metastasis developed and the patient died consequently. In this article, we reported a patient with aggressive osteoblastoma of the left proximal tibia which recurred as an osteosarcoma and discussed the difficulties in the histopathological diagnosis and management of these patients. As some other cases in the literature, our case indicates that osteoblastomas may undergo malignant transformation.
- Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone: Craniofacial and Dental Implications. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Oral Dis 2016 Aug 5.
Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a rare bone disease caused by postzygotic somatic activating mutations in the GNAS gene, which lead to constitutive activation of adenylyl cyclase, and elevated levels of cyclic AMP, which act on downstream signaling pathways, and cause normal bone to be replaced with fibrous tissue and abnormal (woven) bone. The bone disease may occur in one bone (monostotic), multiple bones (polyostotic), or in combination with hyperfunctioning endocrinopathies and hyperpigmented skin lesions (in the setting of McCune-Albright Syndrome). FD is common in the craniofacial skeleton, causing significant dysmorphic features, bone pain, and dental anomalies. This review summarizes the pathophysiology, clinical findings and treatment of FD, with an emphasis on the craniofacial and oral manifestations of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
- Systemic and Local Administration of Antimicrobial and Cell Therapies to Prevent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis-Induced Femoral Nonunions in a Rat Model. [Journal Article]
- Mediators Inflamm 2016.:9595706.
S. epidermidis is responsible for biofilm-related nonunions. This study compares the response to S. epidermidis-infected fractures in rats systemically or locally injected with vancomycin or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in preventing the nonunion establishment. The 50% of rats receiving BMSCs intravenously (s-rBMSCs) died after treatment. A higher cytokine trend was measured in BMSCs locally injected rats (l-rBMSCs) at day 3 and in vancomycin systemically injected rats (l-VANC) at day 7 compared to the other groups. At day 14, the highest cytokine values were measured in l-VANC and in l-rBMSCs for IL-10. µCT showed a good bony bridging in s-VANC and excellent both in l-VANC and in l-rBMSCs. The bacterial growth was lower in s-VANC and l-VANC than in l-rBMSCs. Histology demonstrated the presence of new woven bone in s-VANC and a more mature bony bridging was found in l-VANC. The l-rBMSCs showed a poor bony bridging of fibrovascular tissue. Our results could suggest the synergic use of systemic and local injection of vancomycin as an effective treatment to prevent septic nonunions. This study cannot sustain the systemic injection of BMSCs due to high risks, while a deeper insight into local BMSCs immunomodulatory effects is mandatory before developing cell therapies in clinics.
- Osteoprotective Effects of Polysaccharide-Enriched Hizikia fusiforme Processing Byproduct In Vitro and In Vivo Models. [Journal Article]
- J Med Food 2016 Aug; 19(8):805-14.
The traditional manufacturing method used to produce goods from Hizikia fusiforme, utilizes extraction steps with hot water. The byproduct (of hot water extraction) is rich in polysaccharide and is considered a waste. To evaluate the osteogenic effects of the byproduct of H. fusiforme (HFB), osteogenic cells and animal models were used to test it effects on osteogenesis. The HFB-treated mouse myoblast C2C12 cells exhibited significant dose dependently elevated alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and slightly increased bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). HFB also suppressed the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and TRAP staining in the bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) cells that had been stimulated with the receptor activator of the nuclear factor kB ligand/macrophage colony-stimulating factor kB ligand. In addition, HFB also increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK) level. Finally, osteogenic effects of HFB were clearly confirmed in the three in vivo models: zebrafish, ovariectomized mice, and mouse calvarial bones. HFB accelerated the rate of skeletal development in zebrafish and prevented much of the mouse femoral bone density loss of ovariectomized mice. Moreover, HFB enhanced woven bone formation over the periosteum of mouse calvarial bones. Our result showed that HFB functions as a bone resorption inhibitor as well as an activator of bone formation in vivo and in osteogenic in vitro cell systems.
- High-frequency pulsed low-level diode laser therapy accelerates wound healing of tooth extraction socket: An in vivo study. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Lasers Surg Med 2016 Jul 25.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of high-frequency pulsed (HiFP) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on early wound healing of tooth extraction sockets in rats.Bilateral maxillary first molars were extracted from 6-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Sockets on the right were treated by HiFP low-level diode laser irradiation (904-910 nm); the left sides served as unirradiated controls. LLLT (0.28 W, 30 kHz, 200-ns pulse, 0.6% duty cycle, 61.2 J/cm(2) total power density) was employed immediately after extraction and every 24 hours thereafter. The maxillae including the sockets were resected 3 or 7 days after extraction. Soft-tissue healing was evaluated on days 0, 3, and 7. The bone mineral content (BMC), bone volume (BV), and bone mineral density (BMD) of the extraction sockets were evaluated by microcomputed tomography, and histomorphometric analysis was carried out on day 7. Real-time PCR analysis of osteogenic marker expression and immunohistochemical detection of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were performed on day 3.Compared with control sites, the un-epithelialized areas of the extracted sites were significantly reduced by irradiation (P = 0.04), and the BMC, BV, and BMD of laser-treated sites were significantly increased (P = 0.004, 0.006, and 0.009, respectively). On day 7, the mean height of newly formed immature woven bone was higher in laser-treated sites (P = 0.24). On day 3, laser-treated sites showed significantly higher osteocalcin mRNA expression (P = 0.04) and PCNA-positive cell numbers (P = 0.01).HiFP low-level diode laser irradiation enhanced soft- and hard-tissue healing of tooth extraction sockets. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
- Elastic properties of woven bone: effect of mineral content and collagen fibrils orientation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Biomech Model Mechanobiol 2016 Jul 8.
Woven bone is a type of tissue that forms mainly during fracture healing or fetal bone development. Its microstructure can be modeled as a composite with a matrix of mineral (hydroxyapatite) and inclusions of collagen fibrils with a more or less random orientation. In the present study, its elastic properties were estimated as a function of composition (degree of mineralization) and fibril orientation. A self-consistent homogenization scheme considering randomness of inclusions' orientation was used for this purpose. Lacuno-canalicular porosity in the form of periodically distributed void inclusions was also considered. Assuming collagen fibrils to be uniformly oriented in all directions led to an isotropic tissue with a Young's modulus [Formula: see text] GPa, which is of the same order of magnitude as that of woven bone in fracture calluses. By contrast, assuming fibrils to have a preferential orientation resulted in a Young's modulus in the preferential direction of 9-16 GPa depending on the mineral content of the tissue. These results are consistent with experimental evidence for woven bone in foetuses, where collagen fibrils are aligned to a certain extent.