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xylometazoline hydrochloride [keywords]
- [Nasal drops addiction--the case report]. [Case Reports, English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Przegl Lek 2012; 69(10):1168-9.
The article describes the case of 34-years old man, who has used nasal drops with xylomethazoline for three years. Health consequence of uncontrolled use of the drops and treatment were prescribed. Described problem confirms the need of physicians and pharmacists cooperation to limit the problem of drug-addiction.
- Reversible cardiomyopathy due to chronic use of xylometazoline topical nasal spray. [Letter]
- Int J Cardiol 2013 Apr 5; 164(2):e17-8.
- The development and application of a system for simultaneously determining anti-infectives and nasal decongestants using on-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't, Validation Studies]
- J Pharm Biomed Anal 2012 Jul.:24-32.
A method for the simultaneous analysis of antibiotics, antiviral and nasal decongestants in treated sewage effluent and surface water has been developed and validated. The method uses on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) of injected high-volume samples in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This method includes a range of antibiotics (Trimethoprim, Oxytetracycline, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Doxycycline, Sulfamethoxazole, Erythromycin and Clarithromycin), an antiviral (Oseltamivir) and nasal decongestants (Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline and Xylometazoline). The method's detection limits (MDLs) ranged from (0.2 ng L(-1)) to (3.1 ng L(-1)), based on a 1 mL extraction volume. Its intra-day precision was determined by performing nine runs with 200 ng L(-1) samples; the intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1% to 19%. Inter-day precision was determined by analyzing samples in triplicate over the course of three days, yielding relative standard deviations ranging from <5% to <26%. The linearity (R(2)) for all compounds tested was >0.90. Spike relative recoveries ranged from 40% to 157% and 40% to 152% for STP effluent and surface water samples, respectively. Finally, the method was used to analyze real effluent and surface water.
- Preparation of nose for nasal endoscopy: cotton pledget packing versus topical spray. A prospective randomized blinded study. [Journal Article]
- Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Jan; 270(1):117-21.
During nasal endoscopy it is essential to have proper visualization of structures with minimal discomfort to patient and surgeon. For this it is essential that the nose is well prepared before the procedure. The main objective of the study is to compare and evaluate the efficacy of cotton pledget packing versus topical sprays in preparation of nose for nasal endoscopy. The method includes prospective randomized blinded study on 100 patients. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In first group the nose was packed with 4% lignocaine with xylometazoline nasal drops and in the other group it was prepared with 10% lignocaine topical spray and xylometazoline nose drops. Following the procedure, patient and the surgeon were asked a pre-formed questionnaire to know their experience during endoscopy. It was observed the packing group required more preparatory time as compared to the spray group. The group which was packed had less discomfort, less pain while endoscopy. The visualization of structures was significantly better in the packed group. Eight patients in the packed group did have some mucosal bleed during the process of packing which was not seen in the spray group. Both methods of preparation have merits and demerits but in terms of discomfort, pain during procedure and visualization of structure, packing of nasal cavity with 4% lignocaine and xylometazoline drops is better than spraying of nose with 10% lignocaine and xylometazoline drops.
- Topical glucocorticoid reduces the topical decongestant-induced histologic changes in an animal model nasal mucosa. [Comparative Study, Journal Article]
- Laryngoscope 2012 Apr; 122(4):741-6.
To investigate the histologic consequences of simultaneous nasal glucocorticosteroid and xylometazoline HCl administration in the rabbit nasal mucosa.Prospective randomized study.Twenty New Zealand male rabbits were randomly placed into three groups: group I, control (n = 6); group II, xylometazoline HCl (n = 8); or group III, xylometazoline HCl-fluticasone furoate (n = 6). Group I received no treatment. Groups II and III received two intranasal puffs of xylometazoline HCl 0.5 mg/mL twice daily or two puffs of xylometazoline HCl 0.5 mg/mL twice daily plus one puff of 27.5 μg fluticasone furoate twice daily to each nostril (110 μg), respectively. At the end of 3 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed. The mucosa of the nasal cavities was excised. Specimen sections (5 μm) were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, mucicarmine, and Gomori one-step trichrome and were examined under a light microscope. The presence of edema, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, nasociliary loss, epithelial and nerve-ending degeneration, and goblet cell increase were evaluated semiquantitatively (grades 0-3).Statistically significant differences were detected between groups II and III in terms of edema, congestion, inflammatory cell infiltration, nasociliary loss, and epithelial degeneration (P = .006, P = .049, P = .015, P = .014, and P = .049, respectively). Nerve-ending degeneration, goblet cell increase, and quantitative goblet and neutrophil cell counts did not yield statistically significant differences between groups II and III (P = .137, P = .580, P = .770, and P = .616, respectively).The combined simultaneous intranasal administration of xylometazoline HCl and fluticasone furoate appears to be beneficial in minimizing the long-term usage-associated congestion, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration, epithelial degeneration, and nasociliary loss in the rabbit model nasal mucosa.
- Nasal inspiratory flow: at rest and sniffing. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2011 Mar-Apr; 1(2):128-35.
This study quantifies the time-varying flow rate during inspiration at rest and in sniffing, both predecongestion and postdecongestion. It aims to provide a better understanding of nasal airflow mechanics, for application to the physiological modeling of nasal respiration and to therapeutic drug delivery.The temporal profiles of nasal inspiration were measured at high fidelity in 14 healthy individuals using simultaneous bilateral hot-wire anemometry. Peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) rate, acoustic rhinometry (AR), and the sinonasal outcome test (SNOT) provided complementary clinical measurements. The impact of decongestion was also investigated.In the initial phase of inspiration, a rapid rise in flow rate was observed. Flow first exceeded 150 mL/second in either passage within a median time of approximately 120 ms for inspiration at rest and approximately 60 ms in sniffing (∼20 ms in the fastest sniffs). The mean sustained flow rate attained and the overall period of each measured inspiratory profile were analyzed. AR showed a significant change in nasal volume with decongestion, although these change were not manifest in the temporal profiles of inspiratory flow (barring a weak effect associated with the most vigorous sniffs).Novel methods were applied to investigate the temporal profiles of nasal inspiration. Characteristic features of the profile were identified and found to be significantly different between inspiration at rest and sniffing. Decongestion was found to have little effect on the temporal profiles for the flow regimes studied.
- The role of rhinomanometry after nasal decongestant test in the assessment of adenoid hypertrophy in children. [Controlled Clinical Trial, Journal Article]
- Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2012 Mar; 76(3):352-6.
Nasal respiratory obstruction is a very common otolaryngologic problem, often caused by adenoid hypertrophy (AH). Nasal fiberoptic endoscopy (NFE) represents the gold standard method to diagnose AH. Rhinomanometry represents a valid diagnostic support.The aim of our study was to analyze the diagnostic value of rhinomanometry after nasal decongestant (ND) test for the evaluation of adenoid hypertrophy in children.Seventy-one of 97 collaborative children, aged 6-12 years, affected by upper airways obstructive symptoms and diagnosed as 'chronic oral breathers' by a standardized questionnaire were included in the study. The first evaluation included a complete physical examination, anterior rhinoscopy and anterior active rhinomanometry. Patients with a positive rhinomanometry underwent a second rhinomanometry after the administration of the nasal decongestant (ND) xylometazoline. All children were evaluated using nasal fiberoptic endoscopy (NFE).At rhinomanometry a normal nasal airflow was found in 19 (26.8%) of children while nasal obstruction was underlined in 52 (73.2%). These patients were tested also with rhinomanometry after ND which confirmed the presence of nasal obstruction in 29 (55.7%) of patients. All patients included in the study underwent a NFE: 34 (47.8%) of them presented severe AH with an occlusion >75% of the choanal opening (grade ≥ 3) and 37 (52.2%) presented no or a mild form of AH (grade < 3). When compared to NFE, rhinomanometry test after ND had 82.7% sensitivity and 82.6% specificity. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 85.7% and 79.2%, respectively. Two receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were derived using data related to rhinomanometry vs NFE, and to rhinomanometry after ND vs NFE.Rhinomanometry after ND, compared to rhinomanometry, is more specific and useful to evaluate nasal obstruction due to AH in children, and it may be helpful to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures in children with temporary nasal obstruction.
- Sinusitis (acute). [Journal Article]
- Clin Evid (Online) 2011.
Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1% to 5% of the adult population each year in Europe. METHODS AND OUTCOMES: We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and in people with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid [co-amoxiclav], doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides; different doses, long-course regimens), antihistamines, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intranasal).
- ["Of snakes and crocodiles": central side effects of nose drops and facts about rhinitis medicamentosa]. [Journal Article]
- Kinderkrankenschwester 2011 Oct; 30(10):406-8.
- Study and development of reversed-phase HPLC systems for the determination of 2-imidazolines in the presence of preservatives in pharmaceutical preparations. [Journal Article]
- J AOAC Int 2011 May-Jun; 94(3):703-12.
Different HPLC chromatographic systems were investigated on a C18 ACE 5 pm, 150 x 4.6 mm id column for the determination of tymazoline, tramazoline, and antazoline, with either naphazoline or xylometazoline, in commercial preparations. For the development and optimization of the systems, a Response Surface Method (r=0.925-0.980) was used to illustrate the changes in k as a function of pH values and different salt concentrations. The simultaneous separation of 2-imidazolines was accomplished at 40 degrees C with 0.01 M ammonium acetate-methanol (50+50, v/v, pH 6.0) mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.2 mL/min. In order to deal with the usual coexistence of 2-imidazolines with benzethonium and benzalkonium chloride preservatives, it was necessary to use another chromatographic system, 0.01 M ammonium acetate-methanol (50+50, v/v) mobile phase on a cyano ACE 5 pm, 150 x 4.6 mm id column. As part of a more thorough theoretical investigation, a partial least-squares (PLS) technique was used for modeling the RP-HPLC retention data. The model was based on molecular structure descriptors of the analytes' X variables and on their retention time (Log K) Y. The goodness of fit was estimated by the PLS correlation coefficient (r2) and root mean square error of estimation values, which were 0.994 and 0.0479, respectively.