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xylometazoline hydrochloride [keywords]
- Intra- and Inter-Pandemic Variations of Antiviral, Antibiotics and Decongestants in Wastewater Treatment Plants and Receiving Rivers. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(9):e108621.
The concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), were measured weekly at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England during the month of November 2009, the autumnal peak of the influenza A[H1N1]pdm09 pandemic. The aim was to quantify the pharmaceutical response to the pandemic and compare this to drug use during the late pandemic (March 2010) and the inter-pandemic periods (May 2011). A large and small wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were sampled in November 2009 to understand the differential fate of the analytes in the two WWTPs prior to their entry in the receiving river and to estimate drug users using a wastewater epidemiology approach. Mean hourly OC concentrations in the small and large WWTP's influent were 208 and 350 ng/L (max, 2070 and 550 ng/L, respectively). Erythromycin was the most concentrated antibiotic measured in Benson and Oxford WWTPs influent (max = 6,870 and 2,930 ng/L, respectively). Napthazoline and oxymetazoline were the most frequently detected and concentrated decongestant in the Benson WWTP influent (1650 and 67 ng/L) and effluent (696 and 307 ng/L), respectively, but were below detection in the Oxford WWTP. OC was found in 73% of November 2009's weekly river samples (max = 193 ng/L), but only in 5% and 0% of the late- and inter-pandemic river samples, respectively. The mean river concentration of each antibiotic during the pandemic largely fell between 17-74 ng/L, with clarithromycin (max = 292 ng/L) and erythromycin (max = 448 ng/L) yielding the highest single measure. In general, the concentration and frequency of detecting antibiotics in the river increased during the pandemic. OC was uniquely well-suited for the wastewater epidemiology approach owing to its nature as a prodrug, recalcitrance and temporally- and spatially-resolved prescription statistics.
- Examination versus subjective nasal obstruction in the evaluation of the nasal septal deviation. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Rhinology 2014 Jun 1; 52(2):122-126.
- Xylometazoline poisoning: A 40-fold nasal overdose caused by a compounding error in 3 children. [Journal Article]
- Forensic Sci Int 2014 May.:e3-5.
The imidazoline derivative xylometazoline, an alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, is used as non-prescription nasal preparation due to its vasoconstrictive and decongestive properties. Especially in children, an overdose can quickly cause severe central nervous system depression and cardiovascular adverse effects. In three 3-year-old boys (triplets) a xylometazoline intoxication was diagnosed by toxicological analysis. On admission to an emergency unit all three children were still unresponsive. One triplet showed respiration of 15-20breaths/min and required oxygen support (3L/min) via face mask; his electrocardiogram revealed sinus bradycardia of 64beats/min with supraventricular extrasystoles. However, no interventions were necessary except fluid management via intravenous lines. Eleven hours after the event, two of the triplets were awake but still not fully oriented. The third triplet woke up 20h after instillation of nose drops. Intoxication was caused by a compounding error in a pharmacy resulting in a concentration 40 times above the adequate dosage for children. In general, physicians, pharmacists and the public should be educated about the toxicity of over-the-counter preparations.
- Treatment with a topical glucocorticoid, budesonide, reduced the variability of rhinomanometric nasal airway resistance. [Journal Article]
- Rhinology 2014 Mar; 52(1):19-24.
Previous rhinomanometry studies have shown significant long-term variability of the nasal airway resistance and questioned the clinical validity of rhinomanometry. Research question: Could treatment with a topical glucocorticoid, budesonide, influence the long-term variability of active anterior rhinomanometry?Eight healthy volunteers participated in an unblinded controlled trial without, and later with, nasal budesonide once a day for 5 months. Their nasal airway resistance was measured every two weeks with active anterior rhinomanometry before and after decongestion with xylometazoline hydrochloride. In addition, subjective nasal obstruction was evaluated on a Visual Analogue Scale before each measurement. The participants had a year earlier been investigated with rhinomanometry every two weeks during 5 months but without budesonide treatment. We compared the variability of nasal airway resistance during the two periods with and without treatment with topical budesonide.Budesonide significantly reduced mean nasal airway resistance and the standard deviation of the mean after decongestion for 6 of 8 participants. The mean reduction of the nasal airway resistance was 40% for the decongested nasal cavity compared to the period without treatment with nasal budesonide. Subjective nasal obstruction assessed by Visual Analogue Scale was reduced in 3 of the 8 participants.The variability of nasal airway resistance was significantly reduced by treatment with topical budesonide for 6 out of 8 healthy volunteers participating in an unblinded repeated 5 month trial where the participants served as their own controls.
- Comparison of nasal hyperosmolar xylitol and xylometazoline solutions on quality of life in patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy secondary to nonallergic rhinitis. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2014 Feb 26.
The purpose of this study was to objectively determine and compare the efficacy and effectiveness of xylitol solution (Xlear Nasal Sprey®) compared with xylometazoline and physiological saline with respect to quality of life (QoL) in patients with nasal congestion.A prospective, randomized study was performed in 42 patients who had nasal obstruction and hypertrophied turbinate mucosa that was refractory to medical treatment. The study population was randomized into 3 groups according to the application of xylometazoline, physiological saline, and xylitol hyperosmolar solution. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated objectively (4-phase rhinomanometry) and subjectively (visual analogue scale VAS.) before and after the application of the nasal solutions. QoL was evaluated by means of Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ).VAS scores and 4-phase rhinomanometry scores were better in the group treated with xylometazoline compared to those treated with xylitol or saline. The xylitol procedure yielded better results than the saline procedure, but differences were not statistically significant in both objective and subjective evaluation methods. For overall QoL, there was a significant improvement from baseline for the xylometazoline and xylitol groups. However, the improvement in the xylometazoline group was significantly greater than that obtained in the xylitol group.Xlear Nasal Spray® is an effective modality in the treatment of nasal congestion and has positive effect on the QoL of patients. Further studies are needed in order to plan an ongoing treatment of Xlear Nasal Sprey® at certain intervals for continuous relief of symptoms and a better and longstanding QoL.
- The evaluation of adenoid hypertrophy and obstruction grading based on rhinomanometry after nasal decongestant test in children. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Observational Study]
- Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2013 Nov; 17(21):2962-7.
Adenoid hypertrophy (AH) is a very common problem in children. Nasal Fiberoptic Endoscopy (NFE) represents the gold standard method to diagnose AH. Rhinomanometry represents a valid diagnostic support. The aim of our study was to analyze the grade of nasal obstruction caused by AH, in a group of children, with rhinomanometry standard and after ND test versus NFE.Two hundred and eighty-four of 300 collaborative children, diagnosed as chronic oral breathers, were enrolled. All children underwent a complete physical examination, anterior active rhinomanometry and a second rhinomanometry after the administration of the nasal decongestant (ND) xylometazoline. All children were evaluated using Nasal Fiberoptic Endoscopy (NFE).At rhinomanometry nasal obstrucion was found of grade 1 in 102 (35.9%) children, of grade 2 in 41 (14.4%), of grade 3 in 52 (18.3%), of grade 4 in 37 (13%) and of grade 5 in 52 (18.3%). Those patients were tested also with rhinomanometry after ND: grade 1 in 108 (38%) children, grade 2 in 52 (18.3%), grade 3 in 56 (19.7%), grade 4 in 23 (8.1%) and grade 5 in 45 (15.8%). At NFE: 83 (29.2%) patients presented a grade 0, 73 (28.7%) a grade 1, 51 (17.9%), 34 (11.9%) a grade 3 and 43 (15.1%) a grade 4. Comparing the grade of nasal obstruction in NFE and in RM after ND we found a great correlation for grade 1 and grade 5 (respectively 84.3% and 79,1%, p < 0.001) and low correlation for the others grades of obstruction. When compared to NFE, rhinomanometry test after ND had 81.1% sensitivity and 84.3% specificity. Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were derived using data related to rhinomanometry vs NFE, and to Rhinomanometry after ND vs NFE.Rhinomanometry after ND, compared to rmhinomanometry, is more specific and useful to evaluate nasal obstruction due to AH in children. RM after ND is a great tool to assess the severity of nasal obstruction. In fact, the minimum and maximum degrees of obstruction to the RM after ND correlate significantly (p < 0.01) with those of NFE.
- Intranasal topical local anesthetic and decongestant for flexible nasendoscopy in children: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. [Comparative Study, Journal Article, Randomized Controlled Trial]
- JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2013 Dec; 139(12):1301-5.
To our knowledge, the present study is the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial in children to compare nasal preparation sprays administered before flexible nasendoscopy with placebo.To compare the degree of pain experienced by children undergoing flexible nasendoscopy after 1 of 3 intranasal sprays: placebo, decongestant with topical local anesthetic (TLA), or decongestant without TLA.A randomized placebo-controlled trial with blinding of participants, caregivers, observers, and otolaryngologists was conducted in a tertiary pediatric otolaryngology ambulatory clinic. Participants included a consecutive sample of children aged 3 to 12 years requiring flexible nasendoscopy. Exclusion criteria included concomitant respiratory tract infection, known allergy to a trial agent, or previous flexible nasendoscopy. One hundred fifty-one children were assessed for eligibility; 24 eligible children refused participation and 69 were included and block-randomized. All completed the study, and there were no adverse events.Nasal spray administration of placebo (normal saline); xylometazoline hydrochloride, 0.05% (decongestant); or lidocaine hydrochloride, 1%, with xylometazoline hydrochloride, 0.05% (TLA with decongestant) was performed 10 minutes before flexible nasendoscopy.Primary outcome measure was the child-reported Wong-Baker Faces Pain (WBFP) scale. Secondary outcomes included the caregiver-proxy WBFP scale; the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability (FLACC) scale; and the physician-reported Difficulty of Procedure Visual Analog Scale (DPVAS).Twenty-three children were recruited in each of the intervention arms. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. The mean child-rated WBFP scale scores were 2.4, 1.8, and 2.2 for the placebo, decongestant, and TLA with decongestant groups, respectively (P = .45). Although the finding was statistically nonsignificant, decongestant had the lowest mean caregiver-proxy WBFP scale score, lowest observer-rated FLACC scale score, and highest physician-rated DPVAS score. Subgroup analysis did not demonstrate any correlation between the outcomes and age or sex.This study revealed no statistically significant difference in the discomfort experienced by children undergoing flexible nasendoscopy after placebo, decongestant, or TLA with decongestant. Decongestant was associated with the least discomfort (on child, caregiver, and observer-rated pain scale scores) and the lowest rating for difficulty of procedure. With these findings, the study suggests that there is no significant benefit of topical decongestant with or without TLA compared with placebo in reducing pain associated with pediatric flexible nasendoscopy. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01351298.
- Internal nasal dimensions of adults with nasal obstruction. [Journal Article]
- Braz J Otorhinolaryngol 2013 Sep-Oct; 79(5):575-81.
Nasal septum deviation (SD) and turbinate hypertrophy (TH) increase the resistance to respiratory airflow and may impair nasal patency.To characterize the nasal geometry of individuals with nasal obstruction secondary to SD and/or TH by means of acoustic rhinometry.This prospective study included 30 adults with complaints of nasal obstruction (NO) and SD + TH (n = 24), SD (n = 5) or TH (n = 1) seen by clinical examination. The cross-sectional areas of the three main dips of the rhinogram (CSA1, CSA2, CSA3), the distance between them and the nostrils (dCSA1, dCSA2, dCSA3), and the volumes of segments 1.0-3.2 cm (V1), 3.3-6.4 cm (V2), and 7.0-12.0 cm (V3) were measured before and after nasal decongestion (DN). For analysis, right and left cross-sectional areas and volumes were added and mean dCSA was calculated.Mean values (standard deviation) before ND were: 0.83 ± 0.23 (CSA1), 1.66 ± 0.52 (CSA2), and 2.36 ± 0.77 (CSA3) cm2; 2.19 ± 0.20 (dCSA1), 4.01 ± 0.33 (dCSA2), and 5.85 ± 0.37 (dCSA3) cm; 2.77 ± 0.51 (V1), 6.52 ± 1.99 (V2), and 26.00 ± 9.62 (V3) cm3; all values were lower than laboratory reference values (p < 0.05). ND led to proportionally greater increases of sectional areas and volumes in the NO group, suggesting an associated functional component. Individual analysis revealed 12 cases with normal results despite nasal obstruction.Most patients with structural nasal obstruction had results suggestive of nasal patency impairment in acoustic rhinometry.
- Community-based antiretroviral therapy programs can overcome barriers to retention of patients and decongest health services in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. [Journal Article]
- Int Health 2013 Sep; 5(3):169-79.
In sub-Saharan Africa models of care need to adapt to support continued scale up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and retain millions in care. Task shifting, coupled with community participation has the potential to address the workforce gap, decongest health services, improve ART coverage, and to sustain retention of patients on ART over the long-term. The evidence supporting different models of community participation for ART care, or community-based ART, in sub-Saharan Africa, was reviewed. In Uganda and Kenya community health workers or volunteers delivered ART at home. In Mozambique people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) self-formed community-based ART groups to deliver ART in the community. These examples of community ART programs made treatment more accessible and affordable. However, to achieve success some major challenges need to be overcome: first, community programs need to be driven, owned by and embedded in the communities. Second, an enabling and supportive environment is needed to ensure that task shifting to lay staff and PLWHA is effective and quality services are provided. Finally, a long term vision and commitment from national governments and international donors is required. Exploration of the cost, effectiveness, and sustainability of the different community-based ART models in different contexts will be needed.
- The effect of xylometazoline spray for expansion of nasal cavity. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Anesthesiol 2013 Aug; 65(2):132-5.
During nasotracheal intubation it is important to have proper pretreatment for nasal mucosa constriction and nasal cavity expanding. Nasal packing of epinephrine gauze is widely used as well as xylometazoline. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic intranasal spray of xylometazoline against epinephrine gauze packing in expanding the nasal cavity.Volunteers (n = 32) in their twenties without nasal disease such as septal deviation or rhinitis were enrolled in the study. The more patent nostril in each subject was measured by acoustic rhinometry as the base value. After intranasal spray of xylometazoline, the same nostril was remeasured by same method. Twenty four hours later, intranasal packing of epinephrine gauze was done and the same treatment was done. Subject preferences about the procedures were asked.THERE WERE SIGNIFICANT DIFFERENCE AMONG TREATMENTS (BASE VALUE: 0.582 ± 0.164 cm(2), xylometazoline spray: 0.793 ± 0.165 cm(2), epinephrine gauze packing: 0.990 ± 0.290 cm(2)) in acoustic rhinometry. While the epinephrine gauze packing showed more efficient mucosa constriction, subjects preferred xylometazoline spray.Even though xylometazoline spray was less effective than epinephrine gauze packing, the simplicity and convenience compensated. In patients undergoing nasotracheal intubation, xylometazoline spray can be an alternative to epinephrine gauze packing.