- Paradoxical increase in nasal airway resistance after topical nasal decongestion - does it really exist? A retro- and prospective study. [Journal Article]
- COClin Otolaryngol 2016; 41(6):689-693
- CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate the existence and reproducibility of paradoxically increased nasal airway resistance.
- Nasal decongestants in monotherapy for the common cold. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 Oct 17; 10:CD009612
- CONCLUSIONS: We were unable to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of single-dose nasal decongestants due to the limited evidence available. For multiple doses of nasal decongestants, the current evidence suggests that these may have a small positive effect on subjective measures of nasal congestion in adults with the common cold. However, the clinical relevance of this small effect is unknown and there is insufficient good-quality evidence to draw any firm conclusions. Due to the small number of studies that used a topical nasal decongestant, we were also unable to draw conclusions on the effectiveness of oral versus topical decongestants. Nasal decongestants do not seem to increase the risk of adverse events in adults in the short term. The effectiveness and safety of nasal decongestants in children and the clinical relevance of their small effect in adults is yet to be determined.
- Targeted analysis of 116 drugs in hair by UHPLC-MS/MS and its application to forensic cases. [Journal Article]
- DTDrug Test Anal 2016 Oct 29
- A multi-target method that can detect a broad range of drugs of abuse in human hair, such as hypnotics, anxiolytics, analgesics, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and ...
A multi-target method that can detect a broad range of drugs of abuse in human hair, such as hypnotics, anxiolytics, analgesics, benzodiazepines, antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anticonvulsants, was developed based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The drugs were extracted from 10 mg of washed hair by incubation for 18 h in a 25:25:50 (v/v/v) mixture of methanol/acetonitrile/2 mM ammonium formate (8% acetonitrile, pH 5.3). For 51% of the basic drugs, the lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were in the range of 0.05-0.5 pg/mg, and the majority (98%) were ≤ 5 pg/mg. Linearity ranged from LLOQs to 100-500 pg/mg for all of the basic drugs. For acid and neutral drugs, the LLOQs ranged from 0.4 to 500 pg/mg, and linearity ranged from LLOQs to 80-40,000 pg/mg. According to published reports on concentrations attained in single dose control studies, the present method is sensitive enough to detect single dose drug exposure for many of the drugs. The accuracy was within 75-125% for the majority of drugs. Good precision was observed (relative standard deviations [RSD%] < 25%) for most of the compounds, including the prepared quality control (QC) hair samples. The method was applied to forensic cases and concentrations of rarely reported drugs in hair in 25 postmortem forensic cases were presented. Hair concentrations of amisulpride, gabapentin, mianserin, mepyramine, orphenadrine, and xylometazoline have not been previously reported.
- Nasal patency in Poles in the light of research as part of the project on Epidemiology of Allergic Diseases in Poland. [Journal Article]
- AAAnn Agric Environ Med 2016; 23(3):487-90
- CONCLUSIONS: Any attempt to determine reference values for a given study population should include a number of variables, such as age, height, body weight, which can noticeably affect study results.
- Simultaneous Determination of Cromolyn Sodium Combined Dosage Forms Using Isocratic HPLC Method. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Chromatogr Sci 2016 Sep 12
- A simple and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of cromolyn sodium (CRM) with either oxymetazoline hydrochloride (OMZ) or xylometa...
A simple and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the estimation of cromolyn sodium (CRM) with either oxymetazoline hydrochloride (OMZ) or xylometazoline hydrochloride (XMZ) in their binary mixtures. The method is based on the simultaneous separation of each drug in a reversed-phase Waters symmetry(®) C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm intradermally, 5-µm particle size) at 25°C. Elution was performed with a mobile phase consisting of methanol : 0.1 M phosphate buffer (60:40, v/v, pH 4.0). Quantitation was achieved with ultraviolet detection at 220 nm. The method could determine the three drugs, with linearity, in the range of 2.0-100.0 µg/mL for CRM and 0.8-8.0 µg/mL for OMZ and for XMZ. Aspirin was used as internal standard. Optimization of the separation in terms of mobile phase composition is critical to the method development, which is discussed in detail. The suggested procedure was successfully applied to the analysis of the studied drugs in their nasal preparations. Statistical evaluation of the data obtained by the proposed and comparison methods revealed good accuracy of the proposed method.
- Cloud-point extraction is compatible with liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry for the determination of antazoline in human plasma. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 Sep 05; 128:294-301
- Cloud-point extraction (CPE) is attracting increasing interest in a number of analytical fields, including bioanalysis, as it provides a simple, safe and environmentally-friendly sample preparation t...
Cloud-point extraction (CPE) is attracting increasing interest in a number of analytical fields, including bioanalysis, as it provides a simple, safe and environmentally-friendly sample preparation technique. However, there are only few reports on the application of this extraction technique in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) analysis. In this study, CPE was used for the isolation of antazoline from human plasma. To date, only one method of antazoline isolation from plasma exists-liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). The aim of this study was to prove the compatibility of CPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS and the applicability of CPE to the determination of antazoline in spiked human plasma and clinical samples. Antazoline was isolated from human plasma using Triton X-114 as a surfactant. Xylometazoline was used as an internal standard. NaOH concentration, temperature and Triton X-114 concentration were optimized. The absolute matrix effect was carefully investigated. All validation experiments met international acceptance criteria and no significant relative matrix effect was observed. The compatibility of CPE and LC-ESI-MS/MS was confirmed using clinical plasma samples. The determination of antazoline concentration in human plasma in the range 10-2500ngmL(-1) by the CPE method led to results which are equivalent to those obtained by the widely used liquid-liquid extraction method.
- Application of a novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of antazoline in human plasma: Result of ELEPHANT-I [ELEctrophysiological, pharmacokinetic and hemodynamic effects of PHenazolinum (ANTazoline mesylate)] human pharmacokinetic study. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Pharm Biomed Anal 2016 May 10; 123:113-9
- Antazoline is a first-generation antihistaminic agent with antiarrhythmic quinidine-like properties. In some countries, it is widely used for termination of cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fib...
Antazoline is a first-generation antihistaminic agent with antiarrhythmic quinidine-like properties. In some countries, it is widely used for termination of cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation (AF). However, no human pharmacokinetic studies have been conducted with intravenous antazoline. The aim of our study was to develop and validate a novel liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of antazoline in human plasma: the ELEPHANT-I [ELEctrophysiological, pharmacokinetic and hemodynamic effects of PHenazolinum (ANTazoline mesylate)] human pharmacokinetic study. Antazoline was extracted from plasma using liquid-liquid extraction. The concentration of the analyte was measured by LC-MS/MS with xylometazoline as an internal standard. The method was validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, stability (freeze/thaw stability, stability in autosampler, short and long term stability), dilution integrity and matrix effect. The analyzed validation criteria were fulfilled. The method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study involving 10 healthy volunteers. Following a single intravenous dose of antazoline mesylate (100 mg), the plasma concentration profile showed a relative fast elimination with a terminal elimination half-life of 2.29 h. A relatively high volume of distribution was observed (Vss=315 L). The values of mean residence time (MRT∞), area under the curve (AUC∞) and clearance were 3.45 h, 0.91 mg h L(-1) and 80.5 L h(-1), respectively. One volunteer showed significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters. In conclusion, the proposed new LC-MS/MS method was successfully used for the first time for the determination of antazoline in human plasma.
- Assessment of maternal drug intake by urinary bio monitoring during pregnancy and postpartally until the third perinatal year. [Journal Article]
- PDPharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2016; 25(4):431-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Bio monitoring was applied for detection of drug intake revealing a lack of information about OTC products and their health risks. Hence, information about health risks for certain drugs and patient groups must be improved for and by pharmacists, to avoid (i) usage of contraindicated drugs and (ii) abuse of OTC drugs.
- [Local anesthesia in the children undergoing the fibroendoscopic study of the nasal cavity, nasopharynx, and larynx: are topical anesthetics needed?]. [Randomized Controlled Trial]
- VOVestn Otorinolaringol 2015; 80(5):51-5
- This prospective randomized study with double blind control was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various anesthetic techniques employed prior to fibroendoscopy of the nose, nasopharynx, and ...
This prospective randomized study with double blind control was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of various anesthetic techniques employed prior to fibroendoscopy of the nose, nasopharynx, and larynx of the children. The study included 160 children at the age varying from 3 to 14 (mean 7.4±2.96) years randomly allocated to four statistically comparable groups matched for age and sex. The following preparations were used to treat the children prior to fibroendoscopy: physiological solution (group 1), a 0.05% xylometazoline solution (group 2), a 10% lidocaine solution (group 3), and a mixture of 0.05% xylometazoline and 10% lidocaine solutions (group 4). The evaluation of the tolerance to the pretreatment of the nasal cavity with lidocaine and lidocaine plus xylometazoline (groups 3 and 4) showed that it was significantly (p<0.05) worse than in groups 1 and 2. The subjective tolerance to fibroendoscopy as reported by the patients was on the average similar in the children of all four groups (p>0.05). The doctors found the tolerance of fibroendoscopy to be the worst following pretreatment with the physiological solution (group 1) and the best after pretreatment with a mixture of lidocaine and xylometazoline (group 4) (p=0.03). The children comprising groups 2 and 3 were not significantly different in terms of the tolerance to fibroendoscopy (p>0.05). It is concluded that the pretreatment of the nasal cavity of the children with a 10% lidocaine solution before fibroendoscopy has no advantage over the pretreatment with a 0.05% xylometazoline solution; at the same time, insuflation of lidocaine as an anesthetic induces more pronounced negative emotions compared with the application of 0.05% xylometazoline.
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- Four-phase rhinomanometry: a multicentric retrospective analysis of 36,563 clinical measurements. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016; 273(5):1185-98
- Rhinomanometry can still be considered as the standard technique for the objective assessment of the ventilatory function of the nose. Reliable technical requirements are given by fast digital sensor...
Rhinomanometry can still be considered as the standard technique for the objective assessment of the ventilatory function of the nose. Reliable technical requirements are given by fast digital sensors and modern information technology. However, the xyimaging of the pressure-flow relation typically shows loops as a sign of hysteresis, with the need for resolution of the breath in four phases. The three pillars of 4-phase rhinomanometry (4PR) are the replacement of estimations by measurements, the introduction of parameters related to the subjective sensing of obstruction, and the graphical information regarding the disturbed function of the nasal valve. In a meta-analysis of 36,563 clinical measurements, we analyze the errors of the "classic" parameters (flow in 150 Pa) and reject the further use of these parameters as obsolete, because they correspond to an inaccurate estimation rather than proper measurement. In a pre-study of 1580 measurements, the logarithmic effective resistance (Reff) was found to have the highest correlation with values obtained from a visual analog scale. Next, we classify the inspiratory effective resistance in 20,069 measurements without treatment and 16,494 measurements after decongestion with xylometazoline 0.1 % spray in 20 % percentiles. The gradation of obstruction delivers not only "normal" values but also indications for the severity of the obstruction in adult Caucasian noses. Adoption of the distribution for the growing nose and analysis of the total nasal resistance is addressed, and typical findings of nasal valve phenomena are outlined.