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- Sudden death of calves related to anticipation of feeding. [Journal Article]
- Vet Rec 2014 Apr 12; 174(15):374-7.
Acute heart failure in milk-fed dairy calves Hemlock poisoning causes death in dairy heifers Yersiniosis in weaned lambs causes diarrhoea and deaths Unexplained mass mortality in housed broilers These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for January from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
- A two-tube multiplex reverse transcription PCR assay for simultaneous detection of viral and bacterial pathogens of infectious diarrhea. [Journal Article]
- Biomed Res Int 2014.:648520.
Diarrhea caused by viral and bacterial infections is a major health problem in developing countries. The purpose of this study is to develop a two-tube multiplex PCR assay using automatic electrophoresis for simultaneous detection of 13 diarrhea-causative viruses or bacteria, with an intended application in provincial Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, China. The assay was designed to detect rotavirus A, norovirus genogroups GI and GII, human astrovirus, enteric adenoviruses, and human bocavirus (tube 1), and Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella, Yersinia, and Vibrio cholera (tube 2). The analytical specificity was examined with positive controls for each pathogen. The analytical sensitivity was evaluated by performing the assay on serial tenfold dilutions of in vitro transcribed RNA, recombinant plasmids, or bacterial culture. A total of 122 stool samples were tested by this two-tube assay and the results were compared with those obtained from reference methods. The two-tube assay achieved a sensitivity of 20-200 copies for a single virus and 10(2)-10(3) CFU/mL for bacteria. The clinical performance demonstrated that the two-tube assay had comparable sensitivity and specificity to those of reference methods. In conclusion, the two-tube assay is a rapid, cost-effective, sensitive, specific, and high throughput method for the simultaneous detection of enteric bacteria and virus.
- A multiplex PCR/LDR assay for simultaneous detection and identification of the NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2014 Mar 12.
Enteric pathogens that cause gastroenteritis remain a major global health concern. The goal of this study was to develop a multiplex PCR/ligation detection reaction (LDR) assay for the detection of all NIAID category B bacterial food and water-borne pathogens directly from stool specimens. To validate the PCR/LDR assay, clinical isolates of Campylobacter spp., Vibrio spp., Shigella spp., Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Yersinia enterocolitica, and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli were tested. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay were assessed using a large number of seeded culture-negative stool specimens and a smaller set of clinical specimens from Haiti. The overall sensitivity ranged from 91% to 100% (median 100%) depending on the species. For the majority of organisms, the sensitivity was 100%. The overall specificity based on initial testing ranged from 98% to 100% depending on the species. After additional testing of discordant samples, the lowest specificity was 99.4%. PCR/LDR detected additional category B agents (particularly diarrheagenic E. coli) in 11/40 specimens from Haiti that were culture-positive for V. cholerae and in approximately 1% of routine culture-negative stool specimens from a hospital in New York. This study demonstrated the ability of the PCR/LDR assay to detect a large comprehensive panel of category B enteric bacterial pathogens as well as mixed infections. This type of assay has the potential to provide earlier warnings of possible public health threats and more accurate surveillance of food and water-borne pathogens.
- Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia species isolates in ducks and geese. [Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't]
- Poult Sci 2014 Apr; 93(4):1023-30.
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. isolated from duck and goose intestinal contents. A total of 471 samples, including 291 duck and 180 goose intestinal contents, were purchased from wet markets between November 2008 and July 2010. Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp. were isolated from 58 (12.3%), 107 (22.7%), and 80 (17%) of the samples, respectively. It was concluded that Listeria ivanovii, Salmonella Thompson, and Yersinia enterocolitica were the predominant serovars among Listeria, Salmonella, and Yersinia spp., respectively. Moreover, resistance to tetracycline was common in Listeria (48.3%) and Salmonella spp. (63.6%), whereas 51.3% of the Yersinia spp. isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Therefore, continued surveillance of the prevalence of the pathogens and also of emerging antibiotic resistance is needed to render possible the recognition of foods that may represent risks and also ensure the effective treatment of listeriosis, salmonellosis, and yersiniosis.
- Comprehensive logic based analyses of toll-like receptor 4 signal transduction pathway. [Journal Article]
- PLoS One 2014; 9(4):e92481.
Among the 13 TLRs in the vertebrate systems, only TLR4 utilizes both Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adapter interferon-β-inducing Factor (TRIF) adaptors to transduce signals triggering host-protective immune responses. Earlier studies on the pathway combined various experimental data in the form of one comprehensive map of TLR signaling. But in the absence of adequate kinetic parameters quantitative mathematical models that reveal emerging systems level properties and dynamic inter-regulation among the kinases/phosphatases of the TLR4 network are not yet available. So, here we used reaction stoichiometry-based and parameter independent logical modeling formalism to build the TLR4 signaling network model that captured the feedback regulations, interdependencies between signaling kinases and phosphatases and the outcome of simulated infections. The analyses of the TLR4 signaling network revealed 360 feedback loops, 157 negative and 203 positive; of which, 334 loops had the phosphatase PP1 as an essential component. The network elements' interdependency (positive or negative dependencies) in perturbation conditions such as the phosphatase knockout conditions revealed interdependencies between the dual-specific phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 and the kinases in MAPK modules and the role of PP2A in the auto-regulation of Calmodulin kinase-II. Our simulations under the specific kinase or phosphatase gene-deficiency or inhibition conditions corroborated with several previously reported experimental data. The simulations to mimic Yersinia pestis and E. coli infections identified the key perturbation in the network and potential drug targets. Thus, our analyses of TLR4 signaling highlights the role of phosphatases as key regulatory factors in determining the global interdependencies among the network elements; uncovers novel signaling connections; identifies potential drug targets for infections.
- Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 isolated from hunted wild boars in Italy. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Vet Microbiol 2014 Mar 18.
Atypical Yersinia pseudotuberculosis serotype O:3 was isolated from rectal contents of two wild boars hunted in Italy within a regional wildlife management program. No outbreak of yersiniosis was reported in this area in the same period and no lesions were found by the veterinarian at post-mortem inspection. Nevertheless, after histological examination, granulomatous lesions were detected in submandibular lymph nodes of one of the two wild boars. Microbiological and bio molecular characterization of the isolates revealed a melibiose-negative, biotype 2, wbyK+O:3 genotype, carrying inv, yop (yopH and yopB), virF, and R-HPI. Strains showing the same profile, matching to the criteria of genetic group 5, have been recently reported in fatal cases of yersiniosis in cynomolgus macaques and in farmed deer and atypical O:3 serotype has been suggested as a pathogenic subtype of O:3. This is the third report of an atypical O:3 Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, the first outside the American continent and the first one not associated to fatal yersiniosis. Wild boars could be a possible reservoir of this emerging pathogen.
- [Clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of ocular manifestations of generalized and secondary focal yersiniosis]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Vestn Oftalmol 2014 Jan-Feb; 130(1):79-84.
The article describes possible clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of ocular manifestations of generalized and secondary focal yersiniosis. Treatment experience of 32 patients (60 eyes) with episcleritis, scleritis, chorioretinitis, and anterior and posterior uveitis associated with generalized and secondary focal yersiniosis is reviewed. In order to clarify disease etiopathogenisis conventional ophthalmic assessment as well as clinical and immunological laboratory tests, including HLA typing, were performed. All patients also consulted an infectiologist, rheumatologist, urologist, gynecologist, etc. Treatment strategy implied the use of anti-infectious and anti-inflammatory agents, antisensitizers, and drugs capable of improving intracellular immunity, therapy staging, and providing a comprehensive effect on different components of the pathologic process. Due to polymorphism of yersiniosis, all patients with autoimmune eye diseases are to be tested for specific antibodies to Yersiniae.
- Genome Sequence of Yersinia similis Y228T, a Member of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Complex. [Journal Article]
- Genome Announc 2014; 2(2)
We report here on the genome sequence of Yersinia similis 228(T) isolated in Germany. The genome has a size of 4.9 Mb and a G+C content of 47% and is predicted to contain 4,135 coding sequences. Annotation of the 60,687-bp extrachromosomal element predicted 67 coding sequences and a G+C content of 47.8%.
- Typing and clustering of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by IS-RFLP. [JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- J Clin Microbiol 2014 Mar 26.
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is an enteropathogen that has an animal reservoir and causes human infections, mostly in temperate and cold countries. Most of the methods previously used to subdivide Y. pseudotuberculosis were performed on small numbers of isolates from a specific geographical area. One aim of this study was to evaluate the typing efficiency of IS-RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism of insertion sequence hybridization patterns), as compared to other typing methods such as serotyping, ribotyping and MLST (multi locus sequence typing) on the same set of 80 strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis of global origin. We found that IS100 was not adequate for IS-RFLP, but that both IS285 and IS1541 could efficiently sub-type Y. pseudotuberculosis. The discriminatory index (DI) of IS1541-RFLP (0.980) was superior to those of IS285-RFLP (0.939), ribotyping (0.944), MLST (0.861) and serotyping (0.857). The combination of the two IS (2IS-RFLP) further increased the DI to 0.998. IS-RFLP is thus a powerful tool for molecular typing of Y. pseudotuberculosis and has the advantage of exhibiting well-resolved banding patterns that allow reliable comparison of strains of worldwide origin. The other aim of this study was to assess the clustering power of IS-RFLP. We found that 2IS-RFLP had a remarkable capacity to group strains with similar genotypic and phenotypic markers, thus identifying robust populations within Y. pseudotuberculosis. Our study thus demonstrates that 2IS- and even IS1541-RFLP alone could be valuable tools both for molecular typing of global isolates of Y. pseudotuberculosis, and for the analysis of the population structure of this species.
- Granulomatous enterocolitis secondary to Yersinia in an 11-year-old boy from Puerto Rico, confirmed by PCR: a case report. [Journal Article]
- P R Health Sci J 2014 Mar; 33(1):27-30.
We report the case of an 11-year-old boy without any history of systemic illness and who developed fever and chills and experienced a 10 lbs. weight loss 3 weeks prior to admission. Two days before admission, he experienced abdominal pain that became localized to the right lower quadrant within 24 hours. A non-enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan revealed a 5 mm, amorphous, hyperdense, right lower quadrant calcification associated with a 9 mm fluid-filled structure. An exploratory laparotomy revealed thickening of the proximal vermiform appendix extending to the cecum, with mesenteric adenopathy. An en-bloc excision of the distal ileum, cecum, mesocolon, and vermiform appendix with an end-to-end ileo-ascending colon anastomosis was performed because of a suspected neoplasm. Pathologic examination of the specimen revealed granulomatous enterocolitis with associated acute suppurative appendicitis and a cecum abscess. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of a paraffin-embedded tissue block confirmed Yersinia enterocolitica DNA in the tissue, pointing to Yersinia as being the etiologic microbe. To our knowledge, this is the first case of yersiniosis to be reported in Puerto Rico.