zoster sine herpete [keywords]
- Issues in the Treatment of Neurological Conditions Caused by Reactivation of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV). [REVIEW, JOURNAL ARTICLE]
- Neurotherapeutics 2016 Mar 31.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous neurotropic human herpesvirus. Primary infection usually causes varicella (chicken pox), after which virus becomes latent in ganglia along the entire neuraxis. Decades later, virus reactivates to produce herpes zoster (shingles), a painful dermatomally distributed vesicular eruption. Zoster may be further complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, VZV vasculopathy, myelitis, and segmental motor weakness. VZV reactivation has also been associated with giant cell arteritis. This overview discusses treatment of various conditions that often require both corticosteroids and antiviral drugs. Treatment for VZV-associated disease is often based on case reports and small studies rather than large-scale clinical trials. Issues that require resolution include the optimal duration of such combined therapy, more effective treatment for postherpetic neuralgia, whether some treatments should be given orally or intravenously, the widening spectrum of zoster sine herpete, and the role of antiviral therapy in giant cell arteritis.
- [Successful treatment with acyclovir and a corticosteroid for lower cranial polyneuropathy in zoster sine herpete: a case report]. [English Abstract, Journal Article]
- Rinsho Shinkeigaku 2015; 55(12):932-5.
A 62-year-old woman developed meningitis as well as acute paralysis of glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves on the right side and also had dysfunction of the left hypoglossal nerve. Although there was no evidence of a typical cutaneous or mucosal herpetic lesion, PCR detection of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-DNA in cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the clinical diagnosis of polyneuritis cranialis due to VZV infection and zoster sine herpete. After starting intravenous acyclovir and methylprednisolone, her hypoglossal nerve palsy disappeared within a day and all other symptoms and signs dramatically improved. A rapid improvement observed in our patient suggests that the right cranial polyneuropathy could be caused by inflammation associated with epineurial edema (where the ninth, tenth, and eleventh cranial nerves pass through the right jugular foramen), whereas the exact mechanism of the twelfth cranial nerve involvement on the contralateral side is unknown. Our clinical findings indicate that acute lower cranial polyneuropathy in patients with zoster sine herpete should be treated immediately with combined administration of acyclovir and an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid.
- Burning pain from chest to back · allodynia and hyperesthesia · extreme sensitivity at the left T5 dermatome · Dx? [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Fam Pract 2015 Jun; 64(6):E1-2.
A 27-year-old woman in the 21st week of her first pregnancy came to our clinic complaining of a constant burning pain that spread around her left chest wall to her back. She graded the pain as a 10 on a 0 to 10 visual analog scale. The pain, which began 3 months earlier, became worse when she took a deep breath, ate, or walked, but was alleviated by applying warm compresses. Our patient hadn't slept well since the pain began. Her medical history was noteworthy for chickenpox at age 5.
- Use of Saliva to Identify Varicella Zoster Virus Infection of the Gut. [Evaluation Studies, Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Clin Infect Dis 2015 Aug 15; 61(4):536-44.
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) establishes latency in dorsal root, cranial nerve, and enteric ganglia and can reactivate to cause zoster. Serious gastrointestinal dysfunction can result from VZV reactivation in enteric neurons (enteric zoster), but an absence of rash makes diagnosis difficult. We thus determined whether detecting VZV DNA in saliva facilitates identification of enteric zoster.Nested and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to validate salivary VZV DNA as a surrogate marker of VZV reactivation and then to determine the utility of that marker for the identification of those individuals within a population defined by abdominal pain that might have enteric zoster.Salivary VZV DNA was detected in 0 of 20 healthy negative controls, 11 of 16 positive controls with zoster or varicella (P < .0001), 2 of 2 patients with zoster sine herpete (P < .01), 6 of 11 patients with unexplained abdominal pain (P < .001), and 0 of 8 patients with unrelated gastrointestinal disorders. Salivary VZV DNA disappeared after recovery in 9 of 9 tested subjects with zoster, 2 of 2 with zoster sine herpete, and 5 of 5 with abdominal pain. One patient with abdominal pain and salivary VZV DNA had perforated gastric ulcers, necessitating a wedge gastrectomy. VZV DNA (vaccine type) was found in the resected stomach; immediate early (ORF63p) and late (gE) VZV proteins were immunocytochemically detected in gastric epithelium. After recovery, VZV DNA and proteins were not detected in gastric biopsies or saliva.Detection of salivary VZV DNA in patients with abdominal pain helps to identify putative enteric zoster for investigation and treatment.
- Atypical Presentation of a Common Disease: Shingles of the Larynx. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- J Voice 2015 Sep; 29(5):600-2.
Herpes zoster is a neurocutaneous disease resulting from the reactivation of endogenous varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in dorsal sensory or cranial nerve ganglia. Rarely, this infection manifests without the characteristic dermatomal rash, a condition termed zoster sine herpete. Viral spreading of herpes zoster in the head and neck may manifest as various signs and symptoms because of the multiple possible combinations of cranial neuropathies. With only six cases reported in the English literature up to now, isolated neuropathies of the vagus nerve in the absence of cutaneous lesions tend to be misdiagnosed as idiopathic laryngeal paralysis.We report a case of herpes zoster of the larynx in an 80-year-old man presenting with sore throat, dysphagia, and hoarseness.Endoscopic examination revealed unilateral vocal fold paralysis, pooling of secretions, and mucosal vesicles of the hemilarynx. After the diagnosis of VZV infection with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, the patient was treated with valacyclovir and corticosteroids, leading to complete recovery after 2 months.Herpes zoster of the larynx is an uncommon condition that should be included in the differential diagnosis of laryngeal paralysis of idiopathic cause. We recommend performing a thorough examination of the pharyngolaryngeal structures and ordering PCR testing as the diagnostic method of choice.
- Varicella zoster virus-associated anterior uveitis in a seronegative adult without a history of chickenpox. [Journal Article]
- Clin Ophthalmol 2015.:399-402.
The aim of this report was to present a case of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-associated anterior uveitis, which developed in an adult who was seronegative for anti-VZV antibodies.A 66-year-old male patient was referred to the National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa City, Japan with iridocyclitis in his right eye. On examination, intraocular pressure was 30 mmHg in the right eye, and biomicroscopy revealed ciliary injection, corneal epithelial edema, mutton fat keratic precipitates, flare, and infiltrating cells in the anterior chamber. Serological tests were negative for anti-VZV antibodies, but VZV-DNA copies of 1.28×10(7) copies/mL were detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using the aqueous humor obtained from the right eye. Iridocyclitis was reduced by administration of oral valaciclovir in addition to corticosteroid eye drops, and serum anti-VZV antibodies were first detected after 4 months' administration. When ocular inflammation was resolved after 6 months, VZV-DNA could not be detected in the aqueous humor any more.VZV-associated uveitis may develop in an adult with undetectable serum anti-VZV antibodies. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous humor is the key investigation necessary for the diagnosis in such cases.
- Management of ramsay hunt syndrome in an acute palliative care setting. [Journal Article]
- Indian J Palliat Care 2015 Jan-Apr; 21(1):79-81.
The Ramsay Hunt syndrome is characterized by combination of herpes infection and lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy. The disease is caused by a reactivation of Varicella Zoster virus and can be unrepresentative since the herpetic lesions may not be always be present (zoster sine herpete) and might mimic other severe neurological illnesses.A 63-year-old man known case of carcinoma of gall bladder with liver metastases, post surgery and chemotherapy with no scope for further disease modifying treatment, was referred to palliative care unit for best supportive care. He was on regular analgesics and other supportive treatment. He presented to Palliative Medicine outpatient with 3 days history of ipsilateral facial pain of neuropathic character, otalgia, diffuse vesciculo-papular rash over ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of left trigeminal nerve distribution of face and ear, and was associated with secondary bacterial infection and unilateral facial edema. He was clinically diagnosed to have Herpes Zoster with superadded bacterial infection. He was treated with tablet Valacyclovir 500 mg four times a day, Acyclovir cream for local application, Acyclovir eye ointment for prophylactic treatment of Herpetic Keratitis, low dose of Prednisolone, oral Amoxicillin and Clindamycin for 7 days, and Pregabalin 150 mg per day. After 7 days of treatment, the rash and vesicles had completely resolved and good improvement of pain and other symptoms were noted.Management of acute infections and its associated complications in an acute palliative care setting improves both quality and length of life.
- The association of Varicella zoster virus reactivation with Bell's palsy in children. [Journal Article]
- Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Mar; 79(3):328-31.
Bell's palsy is considered the most common cause of facial nerve paralysis in children. Although different theories have been postulated for its diagnosis, reactivation of the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) has been implicated as one of the causes of Bell's palsy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of Varicella-zoster virus infection with Bell's palsy and its outcome in children.A total of 30 children with Bell's palsy were recruited and were assayed for evidence of VZV infection. The severity of facial nerve dysfunction and the recovery rate were evaluated according to House-Brackmann Facial Nerve Grading Scale (HB FGS). Paired whole blood samples from all patients were obtained at their initial visit and 3 weeks later, and serum samples were analyzed for VZV IgG and IgM antibodies using ELISA.A significantly higher percentage of Bell's palsy patients were seropositive for VZV IgM antibodies than controls (36.6% of patients vs 10% of controls) while for VZV IgG antibodies the difference was statistically nonsignificant. HB FGS in Bell's palsy patients with serologic evidence of VZV recent infection or reactivation showed a statistiacally significant less cure rate than other patients.VZV reactivation may be an important cause of acute peripheral facial paralysis in children. The appropriate diagnosis of VZV reactivation should be done to improve the outcome and the cure rate by the early use of antiviral treatment.
- Varicella-zoster virus and virus DNA in the blood and oropharynx of people with latent or active varicella-zoster virus infections. [Journal Article, Review]
- J Clin Virol 2014 Dec; 61(4):487-95.
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can be detected in the blood from approximately 5 days before to 4 days after varicella. VZV DNA, primarily in T-lymphocytes, is detected as early as 8-10 days prior to rash and can persist for a week. The duration and magnitude of VZV DNAemia correlates with immune status and the efficacy of antiviral therapy. VZV DNA is also readily detected in the oropharynx just prior to rash and for 1-2 weeks thereafter. Detection of VZV DNA in blood and saliva has been useful for diagnosis and prognosis in atypical cases of varicella. Herpes zoster (HZ) is also characterized by VZV DNAemia at onset and for many weeks thereafter, and VZV DNA is present in the oropharynx shortly after HZ onset. Detection of VZV DNA in blood and saliva facilitates the diagnosis of zoster sine herpete and other atypical manifestations of VZV reactivation, such as neurologic syndromes when cerebrospinal fluid is not available, Bell's palsy, and atypical pain syndromes. VZV DNA is sometimes present in the blood and saliva of asymptomatic individuals. In total these observations extend understanding of the pathophysiology and epidemiology of VZV, and increasingly contribute to the clinical management of VZV infections.
- Persistent hiccups and vomiting with multiple cranial nerve palsy in a case of zoster sine herpete. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2014; 53(20):2373-6.
A 76-year-old man came to our hospital complaining of hiccups and vomiting lasting for five days. A neurological examination showed dysfunction of cranial nerves V, VII, VIII, IX and X on the left side. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction for varicella zoster virus-DNA was positive. The patient responded well to treatment with intravenous acyclovir and steroids. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of zoster sine herpete presenting with persistent hiccups and vomiting. It is important to keep in mind that herpes zoster can present with symptoms that closely resemble those of intractable hiccups and nausea of neuromyelitis optica. Early detection of the virus is critical for making appropriate treatment decisions.