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zoster sine herpete [keywords]
- Utility of real-time PCR analysis for appropriate diagnosis for keratitis. [Journal Article]
- Cornea 2013 Nov.:S71-6.
Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a quantitative method to measure the amount of amplified PCR product in real time with high sensitivity. We have applied this method to detect pathogens in cases of keratitis with an unknown cause. The scraped corneal epithelium for epithelial keratitis or aqueous humor for stromal or endothelial keratitis was obtained and DNA was extracted. The DNA from specific pathogens was amplified using specific primers and TaqMan probe, and assessed quantitatively. Here, we review previously reported noteworthy examples of keratitis diagnosed by our real-time PCR system as follows: cases with Acanthamoeba keratitis whose causative pathogen was only detected by real-time PCR despite not being detected by histological examination and culture; zoster sine herpete with atypical pseudodendrite; acyclovir-resistant herpetic keratitis estimated by changes in viral DNA copy numbers before and after treatment; and corneal endotheliitis positive for cytomegalovirus, human herpes virus-7, or human herpes virus-8. Real-time PCR helps ophthalmologists to make an early diagnosis and provide appropriate treatment for keratitis with complex clinical appearances.
- Pathogenesis and current approaches to control of varicella-zoster virus infections. [Journal Article, Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural]
- Clin Microbiol Rev 2013 Oct; 26(4):728-43.
Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was once thought to be a fairly innocuous pathogen. That view is no longer tenable. The morbidity and mortality due to the primary and secondary diseases that VZV causes, varicella and herpes zoster (HZ), are significant. Fortunately, modern advances, including an available vaccine to prevent varicella, a therapeutic vaccine to diminish the incidence and ameliorate sequelae of HZ, effective antiviral drugs, a better understanding of VZV pathogenesis, and advances in diagnostic virology have made it possible to control VZV in the United States. Occult forms of VZV-induced disease have been recognized, including zoster sine herpete and enteric zoster, which have expanded the field. Future progress should include development of more effective vaccines to prevent HZ and a more complete understanding of the consequences of VZV latency in the enteric nervous system.
- Infectious neuropathies. [Journal Article]
- Curr Opin Neurol 2013 Oct; 26(5):510-5.
Infectious neuropathies are heterogeneous neuropathies with multiple causes. They still represent an important world health burden and some of them have no current available therapy.Leprosy incidence has decreased by 50% during the last years, but leprosy-related neuropathies still cause severe disability. The pure neuritic leprosy is a diagnostic challenge that may require nerve biopsy or nerve aspiration cytology. The treatment itself may lead to a 'reversal reaction', which further causes injuries to the nerve. HCV-related neuropathies may be related or not to the presence of cryoglobulins. The absence of vasculitis, the most frequent form is a peripheral sensory neuropathy involving small nerve fibers, and more accurately diagnosed by pain-related evoked potentials. HIV-related neuropathy has become the major neurological complication of HIV infection. Both HIV-induced neuropathy and antiretroviral toxic neuropathy are clinically indistinguishable. The existence of an isolated chronic polyneuropathy due to Borrelia burgdorferi remains highly controversial. Lastly, an active infectious ganglioneuritis caused by varicella zoster virus, producing shingles, is the most frequent infectious neuropathy in the world and may cause various neurological complications. Zoster sine herpete remains frequently undiagnosed.Recent data have improved our knowledge and diagnostic tools of infectious neuropathies. Treatment of the injured nerves is not yet available, and prevention and rapid diagnosis remain the main priorities for the clinician.
- Unusual trigeminal autonomic pain heralding hemichorea due to zoster sine Herpete vasculopathy. [Journal Article]
- Pediatr Neurol 2013 Sep; 49(3):205-8.
Varicella zoster virus primary infection is responsible for chickenpox, whereas secondary infection or reactivation can lead to a variety of clinical scenarios. If latent infection is established in trigeminal ganglion, the reactivation can determine viral migration to cerebral arteries, which causes a cerebral vasculopathy and subsequently an ischemic stroke.Here we report on a child experiencing recurrent episodes of headache mimicking a trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, in the absence of any skin rash, which were followed by the occurrence of an ipsilateral hemiparesis associated with a choreic movement disorder a month later.Magnetic resonance angiography showed evidence of a right-sided infarction of basal ganglia and anterior limb of the internal capsule, corresponding to the vascular territory of the recurrent artery of Heubner, as a consequence of a focal varicella zoster virus arteriopathy.We suggest that the recognition of this prodromal manifestation, which can be interpreted as a zoster sine herpete, could provide clinicians an extremely useful time window to start promptly with a prophylactic treatment.
- Varicella-zoster meningoencephaloradiculoneuropathy in an immunocompetent young woman. [Journal Article]
- J Clin Virol 2013 Aug; 57(4):361-2.
The clinical manifestations of varicella-zoster virus infections can be divided into primary infection with chickenpox and reactivated infection with dermatomal shingles, disseminated herpes zoster, zoster sine herpete and varicella-zoster virus encephalitis, meningitis and vasculopathy. We present a case of zoster sine herpete leading to meningitis with cranial and peripheral nerve palsies. A 17-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with intermittent fever, drowsiness, slowness and subsequent frontal headache and horizontal diplopia. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed lymphocytic pleocytosis and PCR amplified varicella-zoster virus DNA. Laboratory and clinical findings were suggestive of meningoencephaloradiculoneuropathy, stemming from varicella-zoster virus and affecting cranial and peripheral nerves. Only 5% of patients with zoster develop cranial and peripheral nerve palsies. Diagnosis is imperative in order to initiate prompt antiviral therapy so as to minimize morbidity and the risk of death.
- Spinal arteriovenous malformation masquerating zoster sine herpete. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Pain 2013 Jan; 26(1):72-5.
Zoster sine herpete (ZSH) is difficult to diagnosis during an acute period due to the absence of the characteristic zosteriform dermatomal rash; therefore, progression to postherpetic neuralgia is more common than typical zoster. In addition, misdiagnosis of other neuropathic pain as ZSH is common in clinical situations. Here, we report a case of spinal arteriovenous malformation that mimics ZSH. This is a rare condition; therefore, high clinical suspicion for a correct diagnosis and proper examination are not easy. However, early diagnosis and definitive treatment are essential to prevent neurologic deficit and mortality.
- Survey on the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia in Korea; multicenter study of 1,414 patients. [Journal Article]
- Korean J Pain 2013 Jan; 26(1):21-6.
Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is a serious complication resulting from herpes zoster infections, and it can impair the quality of life. In order to relieve pain from PHN, various treatments, including pharmacological and interventional methods have been used. However, little information on the recommendations for the interventional treatment of PHN, along with a lack of nation-wide surveys on the current status of PHN treatment exists. This multicenter study is the first survey on the treatment status of PHN in Korea.Retrospective chart reviews were conducted on the entire patients who visited the pain clinics of 11 teaching hospitals from January to December of 2011. Co-morbid disease, affected site of PHN, routes to pain clinic visits, parenteral/topical medications for treatment, drugs used for nerve block, types and frequency of nerve blocks were investigated.A total of 1,414 patients' medical records were reviewed. The most commonly affected site was the thoracic area. The anticonvulsants and interlaminar epidural blocks were the most frequently used pharmacological and interventional methods for PHN treatment. For the interval of epidural block, intervals of 5 or more-weeks were the most popular. The proportion of PHN patients who get information from the mass media or the internet was only 0.8%.The incidence of suspected zoster sine herpete was only 0.1%.The treatment methods for PHN vary among hospitals. The establishment of treatment recommendation for PHN treatment is necessary. In addition, public relations activities are required in order to inform the patients of PHN treatments by pain clinicians.
- A pox upon your house. [Journal Article]
- Surv Ophthalmol 2013 Nov-Dec; 58(6):640-3.
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) is a common viral infectious disorder affecting the ophthalmic division of the trigeminal nerve. A small subset of HZO patients present with the ophthalmic symptoms, but without an accompanied rash, a condition described as Herpes zoster sine herpete. Although HZO is well known to be associated with other central nervous system abnormalities, encephalitis and cerebral infarction are atypical and uncommon. We report an unusual case of presumed unilateral Herpes zoster ophthalmicus sine herpete that presented with trigeminal pain and uveitis and then progressed to encephalitis and bilateral cerebral infarctions despite treatment with acyclovir and corticosteroids. The diagnosis of HZV was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing on the cerebrospinal fluid.
- Fatal wild-type varicella-zoster virus encephalitis without a rash in a vaccinated child. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 Feb; 32(2):183-5.
Encephalitis associated with varicella-zoster virus, rare among children in the varicella vaccine era, has generally been associated with a rash. We report fatal wild-type varicella-zoster virus encephalitis without a rash in a child who had received 1 dose of varicella vaccine. Varicella-zoster virus encephalitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis for children presenting with acute neurologic symptoms, even vaccine recipients.
- Varicella-zoster virus infection and nummular headache: a possible association with epicranial neuralgia. [Case Reports, Journal Article]
- Intern Med 2012; 51(17):2439-41.
A nummular headache (NH) is a type of primary headache that results from cranial neuralgia without a known cause. We herein report the case of a woman who suffered two episodes of focal headache in the left parietal area with identical characteristics that were compatible with NH. During the recovery phase of the second NH episode, the pain resurged with shingles coinciding with the painful area. The patient's NH subsided in parallel with resolution of the shingles. These findings support a diagnosis of peripheral neuralgia with NH. Latent virus infections, such as Varicella-zoster virus, that frequently cause distal nerve damage in patients with zoster sine herpete may be associated with epicranial neuralgia and NH.