Absorption: Well absorbed from PO dosage forms; absorption from extended-release dosage forms is slow but complete.
Distribution: Widely distributed; crosses the placenta and into breast milk; does not distribute into adipose tissue.
Metabolism and Excretion: 90% metabolized by the liver to several metabolites (including the active metabolites, caffeine, and 3methylxanthine); metabolites are renally excreted; 10% excreted unchanged by the kidneys.
Half-life: TheophyllinePremature infants: 2030 hr; Term infants: 1125 hr; Children 14 yr: 3.4 hr; Children 617 yr: 3.7 hr; Adults: 910 hr (↑ in patients >60 yr, patients with HF or liver disease; ↓ in cigarette smokers ).
TIME/ACTION PROFILE (bronchodilation)
|PO||rapid||12 hr||6 hr|
|PO-ER||delayed||48 hr||824 hr|
|IV||rapid||end of infusion||68 hr|
Provided that a loading dose has been given and steady-state blood levels exist
theophylline has been found in Davis's Drug Guide
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