Red Book 28e
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Borrelia Infections

Clinical Manifestations

(Relapsing Fever)

Relapsing fever is characterized by the sudden onset of high fever, shaking chills, sweats, headache, muscle and joint pains, and nausea. A fleeting macular rash of the trunk and petechiae of the skin and mucous membranes sometimes occur. Complications include hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, thrombocytopenia, iridocyclitis, cough with pleuritic pain, pneumonitis, meningitis, and myocarditis. Mortality rates are 10% to 70% in untreated louseborne relapsing fever (possibly related to comorbidities in refugee-type settings where this disease typically is found) and 4% to 10% in untreated tickborne relapsing fever, and death occurs predominantly in people with underlying illnesses, infants, and the elderly. Early Treatment reduces mortality to less than 5%. Untreated, an initial febrile period of 2 to 7 days terminates spontaneously by crisis. The initial febrile episode is followed by an afebrile period of several days to weeks, then by one relapse or more. Relapses typically become shorter and milder progressively as afebrile periods lengthen. Relapse is associated with expression of new borrelial antigens, and resolution of symptoms is associated with production of antibody specific to those new antigenic determinants. Infection during pregnancy often is severe and can result in preterm birth, abortion, stillbirth, or neonatal infection.

Borrelia Infections has been found in Red Book 28e

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