Influenza typically begins with the sudden onset of fever, often accompanied by chills or rigors, headache, malaise, diffuse myalgia, and nonproductive cough. Subsequently, respiratory tract signs including sore throat, nasal congestion, rhinitis, and cough become more prominent. Conjunctival injection, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea less commonly are associated with influenza illness. In some children, influenza can appear as an upper respiratory tract infection or as a febrile illness with few respiratory tract signs. Influenza is an important cause of otitis media. Acute myositis characterized by calf tenderness and refusal to walk has been described. In infants, influenza can produce a sepsis-like picture and occasionally can cause croup, bronchiolitis, or pneumonia. Although the large majority of children with influenza recover fully after 3 to 7 days, previously healthy children can have severe symptoms and complications. Neurologic complications associated with influenza range from febrile seizures to severe encephalopathy and encephalitis with status epilepticus, with resulting neurologic sequelae or death. Reye syndrome has been associated with influenza infection. Death from influenza-associated myocarditis has been reported. Invasive secondary infections or coinfections with group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S aureus [MRSA]), Streptococcus pneumoniae , or other bacterial pathogens can result in severe disease and death.
Influenza has been found in Red Book 28e
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