Opioid Use Disorder

Opioid Use Disorder is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Clinical Consult.

To view the entire topic, please or .

5-Minute Clinical Consult (5MCC) app and website powered by Unbound Medicine helps you diagnose and manage 900+ medical conditions. Exclusive bonus features include Diagnosaurus DDx, 200 pediatrics topics, and medical news feeds. Explore these free sample topics:

-- The first section of this topic is shown below --

Basics

Description

Opioids are a class of medication that are commonly used for analgesia or pain relief with the concurrent potential for central nervous system (CNS) depression and/or feelings of euphoria. The diagnosis of opioid use disorder (OUD) refers to the misuse of prescription opioids or use of illicit opioids, such as heroin that may result in self-harm including death. OUD is considered a chronic illness.

Epidemiology

Prevalence

In 2018, an estimated 10,250,000 people reported opioid misuse (3.7% of population ≥12 years old)

  • 2,028,000 of those reported a diagnosis of OUD (0.7% of population ≥12 years old) (1)

Risk Factors

  • Prior history of substance use disorder
  • More severe reported pain
  • Co-occurring mental disorders (2)

General Prevention

  • Opioid prescriptions have been reduced by 29% between 2006 and 2018, which reduces access to prescription opioids.
  • Harm reduction practices can prevent complications from OUD such as clean needle exchanges and safe injection sites.
  • Access to intranasal naloxone can prevent opioid-related deaths.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Mood disorders
  • Personality disorders
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Other substance use disorders
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Hepatitis A, B, C
  • HIV

-- To view the remaining sections of this topic, please or --

Basics

Description

Opioids are a class of medication that are commonly used for analgesia or pain relief with the concurrent potential for central nervous system (CNS) depression and/or feelings of euphoria. The diagnosis of opioid use disorder (OUD) refers to the misuse of prescription opioids or use of illicit opioids, such as heroin that may result in self-harm including death. OUD is considered a chronic illness.

Epidemiology

Prevalence

In 2018, an estimated 10,250,000 people reported opioid misuse (3.7% of population ≥12 years old)

  • 2,028,000 of those reported a diagnosis of OUD (0.7% of population ≥12 years old) (1)

Risk Factors

  • Prior history of substance use disorder
  • More severe reported pain
  • Co-occurring mental disorders (2)

General Prevention

  • Opioid prescriptions have been reduced by 29% between 2006 and 2018, which reduces access to prescription opioids.
  • Harm reduction practices can prevent complications from OUD such as clean needle exchanges and safe injection sites.
  • Access to intranasal naloxone can prevent opioid-related deaths.

Commonly Associated Conditions

  • Mood disorders
  • Personality disorders
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  • Other substance use disorders
  • Sexually transmitted infections
  • Hepatitis A, B, C
  • HIV

There's more to see -- the rest of this entry is available only to subscribers.