- A grossly visible collection of blood in the anterior chamber of the eye
- Microhyphema refers to red blood cells in the anterior chamber which do not layer out and are not grossly visible.
- Traumatic hyphema is a common complication of blunt or penetrating trauma to the eye that can result in permanent vision loss.
Annual incidence of 20 cases per 100,000 population (1)
- Up to 70% occur in children with a peak incidence at 10 to 20 years of age.
- Males are affected 3 to 5 times more often than females (1).
Etiology and Pathophysiology
- Blunt trauma is the most common cause, and assault is the most common mechanism.
- Penetrating trauma
- Postoperatively following intraocular surgery
- Neoplasm (retinoblastoma or iris melanoma)
- Clotting disorders (von Willebrand disease or juvenile xanthogranuloma)
- Pathophysiology: Posterior displacement of tissue stretches the limbal vessels resulting in a tear and lead to bleeding; red blood cells obstruct outflow of aqueous humor and remain in the anterior chamber.
- Congenital bleeding disorders (sickle cell trait or disease)
- Intraocular surgery
Commonly Associated Conditions
Blood dyscrasias such as sickle cell disease
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Domino, Frank J., et al., editors. "Hyphema." 5-Minute Clinical Consult, 27th ed., Wolters Kluwer, 2020. www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688459/all/Hyphema.
Hyphema. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, et al, eds. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688459/all/Hyphema. Accessed June 1, 2023.
Hyphema. (2020). In Domino, F. J., Baldor, R. A., Golding, J., & Stephens, M. B. (Eds.), 5-Minute Clinical Consult (27th ed.). Wolters Kluwer. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688459/all/Hyphema
Hyphema [Internet]. In: Domino FJF, Baldor RAR, Golding JJ, Stephens MBM, editors. 5-Minute Clinical Consult. Wolters Kluwer; 2020. [cited 2023 June 01]. Available from: https://www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688459/all/Hyphema.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - ELEC T1 - Hyphema ID - 1688459 ED - Domino,Frank J, ED - Baldor,Robert A, ED - Golding,Jeremy, ED - Stephens,Mark B, BT - 5-Minute Clinical Consult, Updating UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/5minute/view/5-Minute-Clinical-Consult/1688459/all/Hyphema PB - Wolters Kluwer ET - 27 DB - 5-Minute Clinical Consult DP - Unbound Medicine ER -