Hypocalcemia

Hypocalcemia is a topic covered in the Diagnosaurus.

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Etiology

Decreased intake or absorption

  • Malabsorption or small bowel bypass
  • Vitamin D deficiency (25-hydroxyvitamin D or 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D)
Increased loss
  • Alcoholism
  • Chronic renal insufficiency
  • Diuretic therapy
Endocrine disease
  • Hypoparathyroidism (including hypomagnesemia) or pseudohypoparathyroidism
  • Sepsis
  • Calcitonin secretion with thyroid medullary carcinoma
  • Familial hypocalcemia
Physiologic causes
  • Decreased serum albumin (normal ionized calcium ion)
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Decreased end-organ response to vitamin D
Drugs
  • Loop diuretics, aminoglycosides, foscarnet

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Last updated: December 1, 2014