Coma

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Etiology

Intracranial causes

  • Anoxic brain injury or head trauma
  • Ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Meningitis or encephalitis
  • Brainstem hemorrhage, infarct, or mass
  • Mass lesion causing brainstem compression
  • Subdural hematoma
  • Seizure
Metabolic causes
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state
  • Drugs, eg, alcohol, opioids, sedatives, antidepressants, salicylates
  • Uremic or hepatic encephalopathy
  • Hypernatremia or hyponatremia
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hypothermia
  • Heat stroke
  • Myxedema
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning

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Etiology

Intracranial causes

  • Anoxic brain injury or head trauma
  • Ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  • Meningitis or encephalitis
  • Brainstem hemorrhage, infarct, or mass
  • Mass lesion causing brainstem compression
  • Subdural hematoma
  • Seizure
Metabolic causes
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state
  • Drugs, eg, alcohol, opioids, sedatives, antidepressants, salicylates
  • Uremic or hepatic encephalopathy
  • Hypernatremia or hyponatremia
  • Hypercalcemia
  • Hypothermia
  • Heat stroke
  • Myxedema
  • Carbon monoxide poisoning

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Last updated: December 1, 2014