Microscopic inflammation of mucosa of stomach


  • Most common cause of upper GI tract hemorrhage in older children
  • 8 out of every 1,000 people are estimated to have gastritis.
  • >2% of ICU patients have heavy bleeding secondary to gastritis.


  • Physiologic stress (e.g., chronic disease, CNS disease, overwhelming sepsis, ICU patients)
  • Peptic disease
  • Drug-induced (e.g., NSAIDs, steroids, valproate; more rarely, iron, calcium salts, potassium chloride, antibiotics)
  • Infection (e.g., tuberculosis, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus, parasites)
  • H. pylori (children more likely to have more severe gastritis, specifically located in antrum of stomach)
  • Celiac disease: lymphocytic gastritis
  • Major surgery; severe burns; renal, liver, respiratory failure; severe trauma
  • Caustic ingestions (e.g., lye, strong acids, pine oil)
  • Protein sensitivity (e.g., cow’s milk-protein allergy), allergic enteropathy
  • Eosinophilic gastroenteritis
  • Crohn disease: Up to 40% of Crohn patients have gastroduodenal involvement.
  • Gastric Crohn disease may manifest itself as highly focal, non–H. pylori, nongranulomatous gastritis.
  • Direct trauma (nasogastric tubes)
  • Ethanol
  • Idiopathic
  • Less common causes:
    • Radiation
    • Hypertrophic gastritis (Ménétrier disease)
    • Autoimmune gastritis
    • Collagenous gastritis
    • Zollinger-Ellison syndrome
    • Vascular injury

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