TABLE 27.1: REFERENCE VALUES

TABLE 27.1

REFERENCE VALUES

Conventional UnitsSI Units
ALANINE AMINOTRANSFERASE (ALT) 1,2 *
(Major sources: Liver, skeletal muscle, and myocardium)
Infant aged <12 mo13–45 U/L13–45 U/L
1–3 yr5–45 U/L5–45 U/L
4–6 yr10–25 U/L10–25 U/L
7–9 yr10–35 U/L10–35 U/L
10–11 yr
Female10–30 U/L10–30 U/L
Male10–35 U/L10–35 U/L
12–13 yr
Female10–30 U/L10–30 U/L
Male10–55 U/L10–55 U/L
14–15 yr
Female5–30 U/L5–30 U/L
Male10–45 U/L10–45 U/L
>16 yr
Female5–35 U/L5–35 U/L
Male10–40 U/L10–40 U/L
ALBUMIN
(See Proteins)
ALDOLASE 3
(Major sources: Skeletal muscle and myocardium)
10–24 mo3.4–11.8 U/L3.4–11.8 U/L
2–16 yr1.2–8.8 U/L1.2–8.8 U/L
Adult1.7–4.9 U/L1.7–4.9 U/L
ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE 4
(Major sources: Liver, bone, intestinal mucosa, placenta, and kidney)
Infant150–420 U/L150–420 U/L
2–10 yr100–320 U/L100–320 U/L
Adolescent male100–390 U/L100–390 U/L
Adolescent female100–320 U/L100–320 U/L
Adult30–120 U/L30–120 U/L
AMMONIA 2
(Heparinized venous specimens on ice, analyzed within 30 min)
Newborn90–150 mcg/dL64–107 µmol/L
0–2 wk79–129 mcg/dL56–92 µmol/L
Infant/child29–70 mcg/dL21–50 µmol/L
Adult15–45 mcg/dL11–32 µmol/L
AMYLASE 5
(Major sources: Pancreas, salivary glands, and ovaries)
0–14 days3–10 U/L3–10 U/L
15 days–13 wk2–22 U/L2–22 U/L
13 wk–1 yr3–50 U/L3–50 U/L
>1 yr25–101 U/L25–101 U/L
ANTINUCLEAR ANTIBODY (ANA) 2 IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE ASSAY (IFA)
Negative<1:40
Patterns with clinical correlation:
Centromere: CREST
Nucleolar: Scleroderma
Homogeneous: Systemic lupus erythematosus
ANTISTREPTOLYSIN O TITER 6
(Fourfold rise in paired serial specimens is significant.)
NewbornSimilar to mother's value
6–24 mo≤50 Todd units/mL
2–4 yr≤160 Todd units/mL
≥5 yr≤330 Todd units/mL
ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (AST) 2
(Major sources: Liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, myocardium, and erythrocytes)
0–10 days47–150 U/L47–150 U/L
10 days–24 mo9–80 U/L9–80 U/L
>24 mo
Female13–35 U/L13–35 U/L
Male15–40 U/L15–40 U/L
BICARBONATE 2,4
Newborn17–24 mEq/L17–24 mmol/L
Infant19–24 mEq/L19–24 mmol/L
2 mo–2 yr16–24 mEq/L16–24 mmol/L
>2 yr22–26 mEq/L22–26 mmol/L
BILIRUBIN (TOTAL) 4,7
Please see Chapter 18 for more complete information about neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acceptable bilirubin values.
Cord:
Term and preterm<2 mg/dL<34 µmol/L
0–1 days:
Term and preterm<8 mg/dL<137 µmol/L
1–2 days:
Preterm<12 mg/dL<205 µmol/L
Term<11.5 mg/dL<197 µmol/L
3–5 days:
Preterm<16 mg/dL<274 µmol/L
Term<12 mg/dL<205 µmol/L
Older infant:
Preterm<2 mg/dL<34 µmol/L
Term<1.2 mg/dL<21 µmol/L
Adult<1.5 mg/dL<20.5 µmol/L
BILIRUBIN (CONJUGATED) 2-4
Neonate<0.6 mg/dL<10 µmol/L
Infants/children<0.2 mg/dL<3.4 µmol/L
BLOOD GAS, ARTERIAL (BREATHING ROOM AIR) 2
pHPao2 (mmHg)Paco2 (mmHg)HCO3− (mEq/L)
Cord blood7.28 ± 0.0518.0 ± 6.249.2 ± 8.414–22
Newborn (birth)7.11–7.368–2427–4013–22
5–10 min7.09–7.3033–7527–4013–22
30 min7.21–7.3831–8527–4013–22
60 min7.26–7.4955–8027–4013–22
1 day7.29–7.4554–9527–4013–22
Child/adult7.35–7.4583–10832–4820–28
NOTE: Venous blood gases can be used to assess acid-base status, not oxygenation. Pco2 averages 6–8 mm Hg higher than Paco2, and pH is slightly lower. Peripheral venous samples are strongly affected by the local circulatory and metabolic environment. Capillary blood gases correlate best with arterial pH and moderately well with Paco2.
Conventional UnitsSI Units
C-REACTIVE PROTEIN 4 0–0.5 mg/dL
CALCIUM (TOTAL) 2
Premature neonate6.2–11 mg/dL1.55–2.75 mmol/L
0–10 days7.6–10.4 mg/dL1.9–2.6 mmol/L
10 days–24 mo9–11 mg/dL2.25–2.75 mmol/L
24 mo–12 yr8.8–10.8 mg/dL2.2–2.7 mmol/L
12–18 yr8.4–10.2 mg/dL2.1–2.55 mmol/L
CALCIUM (IONIZED) 3
0–1 mo3.9–6.0 mg/dL1.0–1.5 mmol/L
1–6 mo3.7–5.9 mg/dL0.95–1.5 mmol/L
1–18 yr4.9–5.5 mg/dL1.22–1.37 mmol/L
Adult4.75–5.3 mg/dL1.18–1.32 mmol/L
CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2 CONTENT) 2
(See Blood Gas, Arterial)
CARBON MONOXIDE (CARBOXYHEMOGLOBIN)
Nonsmoker0.5%–1.5% of total hemoglobin
Smoker4%–9% of total hemoglobin
Toxic20%–50% of total hemoglobin
Lethal>50% of total hemoglobin
Conventional Units SI Units
CHLORIDE (SERUM) 3
0–6 mo97–108 mEq/L97–108 mmol/L
6–12 mo97–106 mEq/L97–106 mmol/L
Child/adult97–107 mEq/L97–107 mmol/L
CHOLESTEROL
(See Lipids)
CREATINE KINASE (CREATINE PHOSPHOKINASE) 2
(Major sources: Myocardium, skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and brain)
Newborn145–1578 U/L145–1578 U/L
>6 wk–adult male20–200 U/L20–200 U/L
>6 wk–adult female20–180 U/L20–180 U/L
CREATININE (SERUM) 2 (Enzymatic)
Cord0.6–1.2 mg/dL53–106 µmol/L
Newborn0.3–1.0 mg/dL27–88 µmol/L
Infant0.2–0.4 mg/dL18–35 µmol/L
Child0.3–0.7 mg/dL27–62 µmol/L
Adolescent0.5–1.0 mg/dL44–88 µmol/L
Adult male0.9–1.3 mg/dL80–115 µmol/L
Adult female0.6–1.1 mg/dL53–97 µmol/L
ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR) 2
Child0–10 mm/hr
Adult male0–15 mm/hr
Adult female0–20 mm/hr
FERRITIN 2
Newborn25–200 ng/mL56–450 pmol/L
1 mo200–600 ng/mL450–1350 pmol/L
2–5 mo50–200 ng/mL112–450 pmol/L
6 mo–15 yr7–140 ng/mL16–315 pmol/L
Adult male20–250 ng/mL45–562 pmol/L
Adult female10–120 ng/mL22–270 pmol/L
FIBRINOGEN
See Chapter 14 .
FOLATE (SERUM) 3
Newborn16–72 ng/mL16–72 nmol/L
Child4–20 ng/mL4–20 nmol/L
Adult10–63 ng/mL10–63 nmol/L
FOLATE (RBC) 2
Newborn150–200 ng/mL340–453 nmol/L
Infant74–995 ng/mL168–2254 nmol/L
2–16 yr>160 ng/mL>362 nmol/L
>16 yr140–628 ng/mL317–1422 nmol/L
GALACTOSE 2
Newborn0–20 mg/dL0–1.11 mmol/L
Older child<5 mg/dL<0.28 mmol/L
GAMMA-GLUTAMYL TRANSFERASE (GGT) 2,6
[Major sources: Liver (biliary tree) and kidney]
Cord37–193 U/L37–193 U/L
0–1 mo13–147 U/L13–147 U/L
1–2 mo12–123 U/L12–123 U/L
2–4 mo8–90 U/L8–90 U/L
4 mo–10 yr5–32 U/L5–32 U/L
10–15 yr5–24 U/L5–24 U/L
Adult male11–49 U/L11–49 U/L
Adult female7–32 U/L7–32 U/L
GLUCOSE (SERUM) 2,6
Preterm20–60 mg/dL1.1–3.3 mmol/L
Newborn, <1 day40–60 mg/dL2.2–3.3 mmol/L
Newborn, >1 day50–90 mg/dL2.8–5.0 mmol/L
Child60–100 mg/dL3.3–5.5 mmol/L
>16 yr70–105 mg/dL3.9–5.8 mmol/L
HAPTOGLOBIN 2
Newborn5–48 mg/dL50–480 mg/L
>30 days26–185 mg/dL260–1850 mg/L
HEMOGLOBIN A1C 8
Normal4.5%–5.6%
At risk for diabetes5.7%–6.4%
Diabetes mellitus≥6.5%
HEMOGLOBIN F, % TOTAL HEMOGLOBIN [MEAN (SD)] 2
1 day77.0 (7.3)
5 days76.8 (5.8)
3 wk70.0 (7.3)
6–9 wk52.9 (11)
3–4 mo23.2 (16)
6 mo4.7 (2.2)
8–11 mo1.6 (1.0)
Adult<2.0
Conventional UnitsSI Units
IRON 2
Newborn100–250 mcg/dL17.9–44.8 µmol/L
Infant40–100 mcg/dL7.2–17.9 µmol/L
Child50–120 mcg/dL9.0–21.5 µmol/L
Adult male65–175 mcg/dL11.6–31.3 µmol/L
Adult female50–170 mcg/dL9.0–30.4 µmol/L
LACTATE 2,3
Capillary blood:
0–90 days9–32 mg/dL1.1–3.5 mmol/L
3–24 mo9–30 mg/dL1.0–3.3 mmol/L
2–18 yr9–22 mg/dL1.0–2.4 mmol/L
Venous4.5–19.8 mg/dL0.5–2.2 mmol/L
Arterial4.5–14.4 mg/dL0.5–1.6 mmol/L
LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE (AT 37°C) 2
(Major sources: Myocardium, liver, skeletal muscle, erythrocytes, platelets, and lymph nodes)
0–4 days290–775 U/L290–775 U/L
4–10 days545–2000 U/L545–2000 U/L
10 days–24 mo180–430 U/L180–430 U/L
24 mo–12 yr110–295 U/L110–295 U/L
>12 yr100–190 U/L100–190 U/L
LEAD 9
Child<5 mcg/dL<0.24 µmol/L
LIPASE 3
0–30 days6–55 U/L6–55 U/L
1–6 mo4–29 U/L4–29 U/L
6–12 mo4–23 U/L4–23 U/L
>1 yr3–32 U/L3–32 U/L
Cholesterol (mg/dL)LDL (mg/dL)HDL (mg/dL)
Desir­ableBorderlineHighOptimalNear/Above OptimalBorder­lineHighDesirable
LIPIDS 10,11
Child/adoles­cent<170170–199>200<110-110–129≥130>35
Adult<200200–239≥240<100100–129130–159≥16040–60
Conventional Units SI Units
MAGNESIUM 2 1.6–2.4 mg/dL0.63–1.05 mmol/L
METHEMOGLOBIN 2 0.78% (±0.37%) of total hemoglobin
OSMOLALITY 2 275–295 mOsm/kg (neonates as low as 266)275–295 mmol/kg
PHENYLALANINE 2
Preterm2.0–7.5 mg/dL121–454 µmol/L
Newborn1.2–3.4 mg/dL73–206 µmol/L
Adult0.8–1.8 mg/dL48–109 µmol/L
PHOSPHORUS 2
0–9 days4.5–9.0 mg/dL1.45–2.91 mmol/L
10 days–24 mo4–6.5 mg/dL1.29–2.10 mmol/L
3–9 yr3.2–5.8 mg/dL1.03–1.87 mmol/L
10–15 yr3.3–5.4 mg/dL1.07–1.74 mmol/L
>15 yr2.4–4.4 mg/dL0.78–1.42 mmol/L
PORCELAIN 12 0.930–6.0 mg/dL1.2–10.15 mmol/L
POTASSIUM 2
Preterm3.0–6.0 mEq/L3.0–6.0 mmol/L
Newborn3.7–5.9 mEq/L3.7–5.9 mmol/L
Infant4.1–5.3 mEq/L4.1–5.3 mmol/L
Child3.4–4.7 mEq/L3.4–4.7 mmol/L
Adult3.5–5.1 mEq/L3.5–5.1 mmol/L
PREALBUMIN 3
Newborn7–39 mg/dL
1–6 mo8–34 mg/dL
6 mo–4 yr12–36 mg/dL
4–6 yr12–30 mg/dL
6–19 yr12–42 mg/dL
PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS (g/dL) 2
AgeTotal ProteinAlbuminα-1α-2βγ
Cord4.8–8.0
Premature3.6–6.0
Newborn4.6–7.0
0–15 day4.4–7.63.0–3.90.1–0.30.3–0.60.4–0.60.7–1.4
15 day–1 yr5.1–7.32.2–4.80.1–0.30.5–0.90.5–0.90.5–1.3
1–2 yr5.6–7.53.6–5.20.1–0.40.5–1.20.5–1.10.5–1.7
3–16 yr6.0–8.03.6–5.20.1–0.40.5–1.20.5–1.10.5–1.7
≥16 yr6.0–8.33.9–5.10.2–0.40.4–0.80.5–1.00.6–1.2
Conventional UnitsSI Units
PYRUVATE 3 0.7–1.32 mg/dL0.08–0.15 mmol/L
RHEUMATOID FACTOR 2 <30 U/mL
SODIUM 1
<1 yr130–145 mEq/L130–145 mmol/L
>1 yr135–147 mEq/L135–147 mmol/L
TOTAL IRON-BINDING CAPACITY (TIBC) 2
Infant100–400 mcg/dL17.9–71.6 µmol/L
Adult250–425 mcg/dL44.8–76.1 µmol/L
TOTAL PROTEIN
(See Proteins)
TRANSAMINASE (SGOT)
[See Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)]
TRANSAMINASE (SGPT)
[See Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]
TRANSFERRIN 2
Newborn130–275 mg/dL1.30–2.75 g/L
3 mo–16 yr203–360 mg/dL2.03–3.6 g/L
Adult215–380 mg/dL2.15–3.8 g/L
TOTAL TRIGLYCERIDE 3
Conventional Units (mg/dL)SI Units (mmol/L)
MaleFemaleMaleFemale
0–7 days21–18228–1660.24–2.060.32–1.88
8–30 days30–18430–1650.34–2.080.34–1.86
31–90 days40–17535–2820.45–1.980.4–3.19
91–180 days45–29150–3550.51–3.290.57–4.01
181–365 days45–50136–4310.51–5.660.41–4.87
1–3 yr27–12527–1250.31–1.410.31–1.41
4–6 yr32–11632–1160.36–1.310.36–1.31
7–9 yr28–12928–1290.32–1.460.32–1.46
10–19 yr24–14537–1400.27–1.640.42–1.58
Conventional UnitsSI Units
UREA NITROGEN 1,2
Premature (<1 wk)3–25 mg/dL1.1–8.9 mmol/L
Newborn2–19 mg/dL0.7–6.7 mmol/L
Infant/child5–18 mg/dL1.8–6.4 mmol/L
Adult6–20 mg/dL2.1–7.1 mmol/L
URIC ACID 3,6
0–30 days1.0–4.6 mg/dL0.059–0.271 mmol/L
1–12 mo1.1–5.6 mg/dL0.065–0.33 mmol/L
1–5 yr1.7–5.8 mg/dL0.1–0.35 mmol/L
6–11 yr2.2–6.6 mg/dL0.13–0.39 mmol/L
Male 12–19 yr3.0–7.7 mg/dL0.18–0.46 mmol/L
Female 12–19 yr2.7–5.7 mg/dL0.16–0.34 mmol/L
VITAMIN A (RETINOL) 2,3
Preterm13–46 mcg/dL0.46–1.61 µmol/L
Full term18–50 mcg/dL0.63–1.75 µmol/L
1–6 yr20–43 mcg/dL0.7–1.5 µmol/L
7–12 yr20–49 mcg/dL0.9–1.7 µmol/L
13–19 yr26–72 mcg/dL0.9–2.5 µmol/L
VITAMIN B1 (THIAMINE) 2 4.5–10.3 mcg/dL106–242 µmol/L
VITAMIN B2 (RIBOFLAVIN) 4–24 mcg/dL106–638 nmol/L
VITAMIN B12 (COBALAMIN) 2
Newborn160–1300 pg/mL118–959 pmol/L
Child/adult200–835 pg/mL148–616 pmol/L
VITAMIN C (ASCORBIC ACID) 2 0.4–2.0 mg/dL23–114 µmol/L
VITAMIN D (1,25-DIHYDROXY-VITAMIN D) 2 16–65 pg/mL42–169 pmol/L
VITAMIN D (25-HYDROXY-VITAMIN D) 13,14
Deficiency<12 ng/mL<30 mmol/L
Insufficiency12–20 ng/mL30–50 mmol/L
Sufficient≥20 ng/mL≥50 mmol/L
VITAMIN E 1-3
Preterm0.5–3.5 mg/L1–8 µmol/L
Full term1.0–3.5 mg/L2–8 µmol/L
1–12 yr3.0–9.0 mg/L7–21 µmol/L
13–19 yr6.0–10.0 mg/L14–23 µmol/L
ZINC 2 70–120 mcg/dL10.7–18.4 mmol/L

* There is evidence to suggest that these cutoffs may not be sensitive enough to detect pediatric chronic liver disease.15

CREST: C alcinosis, R aynaud syndrome, E sophageal dysmotility, S clerodactyly, T elangiectasia.

Controversy exists regarding optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D level. Some experts recommend a level ≥30 ng/mL as sufficient.16

TABLE 27.1: REFERENCE VALUES is a sample topic from the Harriet Lane Handbook.

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