Relationship between supersaturation and calcium oxalate crystallization in normals and idiopathic calcium oxalate stone formers.Kidney Int. 1999 Mar; 55(3):1041-50.KI
In an earlier study on recurrent CaOx stone formers with no detectable abnormalities, we found that the urine of these subjects had a lower tolerance to oxalate load than controls and that the removal of urinary macromolecules with a molecular weight greater than 10,000 D improved their tolerance to oxalate.
The effects on CaOx crystallization of reduced urinary supersaturation of calcium oxalate (CaOx), induced by night water load, were studied in 12 normal males and in 15 male OxCa stone formers who were free from urinary metabolic abnormalities. The effect of the macromolecules, purified and retrieved from the natural and diluted urine, were analyzed in a metastable solution of CaOx.
The water load caused an increase in urine volume (from 307 +/- 111 to 572 +/- 322 ml/8 hr, P = 0.014 in normal subjects, and from 266 +/- 92 to 518 +/- 208 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers) and a concomitant reduction of the relative CaOx supersaturation (from 8.7 +/- 2.5 to 5.1 +/- 2.5 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in normal subjects, and from 10.4 +/- 3.5 to 5.0 +/- 2.7 ml/8 hr, P = 0.001 in the stone formers). The decrease in CaOx supersaturation was accompanied by an increase of the permissible increment in oxalate, both in normal subjects (from 43.8 +/- 10.1 to 67.2 +/- 30. 3 mg/liter, P = 0.018) and in the stone formers (from 25.7 +/- 9.4 to 43.7 +/- 17.1 mg/liter, P = 0.0001), without any significant variations of the upper limit of metastability for CaOx (from 21.6 +/- 5.3 to 20.5 +/- 4.2 mg/liter in normal subjects, and from 18.7 +/- 4.5 to 17.1 +/- 3.7 mg/liter in the stone formers). The inhibitory effect of urinary macromolecules with molecular weight greater than 10,000 Daltons did not undergo any change when the latter were recovered from concentrated or diluted urine, either in normal subjects or in the stone formers.
Reduced CaOx supersaturation by means of water load has a protective effect with regards to CaOx crystallization in subjects who do not present any of the common urinary stone risk factors.