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High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the role of dietary composition in body weight regulation remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the acute effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on energy metabolism and voluntary food intake in obese subjects.

METHODS

Twelve obese teenage boys were evaluated on three separate occasions using a crossover study protocol. During each evaluation, subjects consumed identical test meals at breakfast and lunch that had a low, medium, or high GI. The high- and medium-GI meals were designed to have similar macronutrient composition, fiber content, and palatability, and all meals for each subject had equal energy content. After breakfast, plasma and serum concentrations of metabolic fuels and hormones were measured. Ad libitum food intake was determined in the 5-hour period after lunch.

RESULTS

Voluntary energy intake after the high-GI meal (5.8 megajoule [mJ]) was 53% greater than after the medium-GI meal (3.8 mJ), and 81% greater than after the low-GI meal (3.2 mJ). In addition, compared with the low-GI meal, the high-GI meal resulted in higher serum insulin levels, lower plasma glucagon levels, lower postabsorptive plasma glucose and serum fatty acids levels, and elevation in plasma epinephrine. The area under the glycemic response curve for each test meal accounted for 53% of the variance in food intake within subjects.

CONCLUSIONS

The rapid absorption of glucose after consumption of high-GI meals induces a sequence of hormonal and metabolic changes that promote excessive food intake in obese subjects. Additional studies are needed to examine the relationship between dietary GI and long-term body weight regulation.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital,Boston, 300 Longwood Ave, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    , , , ,

    Source

    Pediatrics 103:3 1999 Mar pg E26

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Area Under Curve
    Blood Glucose
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Sucrose
    Energy Intake
    Humans
    Hunger
    Insulin
    Male
    Obesity
    Regression Analysis

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Controlled Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    10049982

    Citation

    Ludwig, D S., et al. "High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, and Obesity." Pediatrics, vol. 103, no. 3, 1999, pp. E26.
    Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahrani A, et al. High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):E26.
    Ludwig, D. S., Majzoub, J. A., Al-Zahrani, A., Dallal, G. E., Blanco, I., & Roberts, S. B. (1999). High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Pediatrics, 103(3), pp. E26.
    Ludwig DS, et al. High Glycemic Index Foods, Overeating, and Obesity. Pediatrics. 1999;103(3):E26. PubMed PMID: 10049982.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. AU - Ludwig,D S, AU - Majzoub,J A, AU - Al-Zahrani,A, AU - Dallal,G E, AU - Blanco,I, AU - Roberts,S B, PY - 1999/3/2/pubmed PY - 1999/3/2/medline PY - 1999/3/2/entrez SP - E26 EP - E26 JF - Pediatrics JO - Pediatrics VL - 103 IS - 3 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically in recent years. However, the role of dietary composition in body weight regulation remains unclear. The purpose of this work was to investigate the acute effects of dietary glycemic index (GI) on energy metabolism and voluntary food intake in obese subjects. METHODS: Twelve obese teenage boys were evaluated on three separate occasions using a crossover study protocol. During each evaluation, subjects consumed identical test meals at breakfast and lunch that had a low, medium, or high GI. The high- and medium-GI meals were designed to have similar macronutrient composition, fiber content, and palatability, and all meals for each subject had equal energy content. After breakfast, plasma and serum concentrations of metabolic fuels and hormones were measured. Ad libitum food intake was determined in the 5-hour period after lunch. RESULTS: Voluntary energy intake after the high-GI meal (5.8 megajoule [mJ]) was 53% greater than after the medium-GI meal (3.8 mJ), and 81% greater than after the low-GI meal (3.2 mJ). In addition, compared with the low-GI meal, the high-GI meal resulted in higher serum insulin levels, lower plasma glucagon levels, lower postabsorptive plasma glucose and serum fatty acids levels, and elevation in plasma epinephrine. The area under the glycemic response curve for each test meal accounted for 53% of the variance in food intake within subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid absorption of glucose after consumption of high-GI meals induces a sequence of hormonal and metabolic changes that promote excessive food intake in obese subjects. Additional studies are needed to examine the relationship between dietary GI and long-term body weight regulation. SN - 1098-4275 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10049982/High_glycemic_index_foods_overeating_and_obesity_ L2 - http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10049982 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -