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Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature.
J Natl Cancer Inst 1999; 91(4):317-31JNCI

Abstract

The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. edward.giovannucci@channing.harvard.edu

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10050865

Citation

Giovannucci, E. "Tomatoes, Tomato-based Products, Lycopene, and Cancer: Review of the Epidemiologic Literature." Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol. 91, no. 4, 1999, pp. 317-31.
Giovannucci E. Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999;91(4):317-31.
Giovannucci, E. (1999). Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 91(4), pp. 317-31.
Giovannucci E. Tomatoes, Tomato-based Products, Lycopene, and Cancer: Review of the Epidemiologic Literature. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999 Feb 17;91(4):317-31. PubMed PMID: 10050865.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tomatoes, tomato-based products, lycopene, and cancer: review of the epidemiologic literature. A1 - Giovannucci,E, PY - 1999/3/2/pubmed PY - 2000/2/19/medline PY - 1999/3/2/entrez SP - 317 EP - 31 JF - Journal of the National Cancer Institute JO - J. Natl. Cancer Inst. VL - 91 IS - 4 N2 - The epidemiologic literature in the English language regarding intake of tomatoes and tomato-based products and blood lycopene (a compound derived predominantly from tomatoes) level in relation to the risk of various cancers was reviewed. Among 72 studies identified, 57 reported inverse associations between tomato intake or blood lycopene level and the risk of cancer at a defined anatomic site; 35 of these inverse associations were statistically significant. No study indicated that higher tomato consumption or blood lycopene level statistically significantly increased the risk of cancer at any of the investigated sites. About half of the relative risks for comparisons of high with low intakes or levels for tomatoes or lycopene were approximately 0.6 or lower. The evidence for a benefit was strongest for cancers of the prostate, lung, and stomach. Data were also suggestive of a benefit for cancers of the pancreas, colon and rectum, esophagus, oral cavity, breast, and cervix. Because the data are from observational studies, a cause-effect relationship cannot be established definitively. However, the consistency of the results across numerous studies in diverse populations, for case-control and prospective studies, and for dietary-based and blood-based investigations argues against bias or confounding as the explanation for these findings. Lycopene may account for or contribute to these benefits, but this possibility is not yet proven and requires further study. Numerous other potentially beneficial compounds are present in tomatoes, and, conceivably, complex interactions among multiple components may contribute to the anticancer properties of tomatoes. The consistently lower risk of cancer for a variety of anatomic sites that is associated with higher consumption of tomatoes and tomato-based products adds further support for current dietary recommendations to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. SN - 0027-8874 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10050865/Tomatoes_tomato_based_products_lycopene_and_cancer:_review_of_the_epidemiologic_literature_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jnci/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jnci/91.4.317 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -