[Effect of lisinopril on progression of retinopathy and microalbuminuria in normotensive subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus].Ugeskr Laeger 1999; 161(7):949-52UL
Effect of lisinopril on progression of retinopathy and microalbuminuria in normotensive subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Retinopathy and nephropathy are the most important microvascular complications in diabetes with hyperglycaemia and hypertension as important risk factors. Antihypertensive treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors has been shown to delay progression of nephropathy, but the effect on retinopathy has not been established. We, therefore, performed a trial of the effect of the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril on retinopathy and nephropathy in normotensive patients with IDDM. We performed a two year randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of the ACE-inhibitor lisinopril on 530 normotensive IDDM patients within the age group 20-59 years from 18 European centres. Patients were either normo- or microalbuminuric. Retinopathy was classified from retinal photographs into five levels (none to proliferative). The primary endpoint of the trial was progression of albuminuria. Mean albumin excretion rate (AER) was 8.0 micrograms/min at baseline in both treatment groups. After two years AER was 2.2. micrograms/min lower in the lisinopril than in the placebo group, a difference of 18.8% (p = 0.03). The difference in AER was 38.5 micrograms/min between treatment groups in patients with microalbuminuria at baseline (p = 0.001), and 0.23 microgram/min in patients with normoalbuminuria at baseline (p = 0.6). Retinopathy was a secondary endpoint. Patients treated with lisinopril had significantly lower Hb-A1c at baseline than the placebo group (6.9%-7.3%). Retinopathy progressed with at least one level in 13.2% of lisinopril treated and 23.4% of placebo treated patients (odds ratio 0.50, p = 0.02). Progression by two levels or progression to proliferative retinopathy were also significantly reduced in the lisinopril group compared to the placebo group (odds ratio 0.27 and 0.18, respectively). In conclusion, lisinopril delays progression of retinopathy and nephropathy in normotensive IDDM patients with micro- or normoalbuminuria.