The neuropsychopharmacology of phencyclidine: from NMDA receptor hypofunction to the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia.
Administration of noncompetitive NMDA/glutamate receptor antagonists, such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine, to humans induces a broad range of schizophrenic-like symptomatology, findings that have contributed to a hypoglutamatergic hypothesis of schizophrenia. Moreover, a history of experimental investigations of the effects of these drugs in animals suggests that NMDA receptor antagonists may model some behavioral symptoms of schizophrenia in nonhuman subjects. In this review, the usefulness of PCP administration as a potential animal model of schizophrenia is considered. To support the contention that NMDA receptor antagonist administration represents a viable model of schizophrenia, the behavioral and neurobiological effects of these drugs are discussed, especially with regard to differing profiles following single-dose and long-term exposure. The neurochemical effects of NMDA receptor antagonist administration are argued to support a neurobiological hypothesis of schizophrenia, which includes pathophysiology within several neurotransmitter systems, manifested in behavioral pathology. Future directions for the application of NMDA receptor antagonist models of schizophrenia to preclinical and pathophysiological research are offered.
Neuropsychopharmacology Research Unit, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 06520-8001, USA.
Disease Models, Animal
Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
Pub Type(s)Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.