Effect of repeated L-DOPA, bromocriptine, or lisuride administration on preproenkephalin-A and preproenkephalin-B mRNA levels in the striatum of the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rat.Exp Neurol. 1999 Feb; 155(2):204-20.EN
Abnormal involuntary movements, or dyskinesias, plague current symptomatic approaches to the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The neural mechanisms underlying the generation of dyskinesia following repeated l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) or dopamine agonist administration in Parkinson's disease remain unknown. However, de novo administration of bromocriptine or lisuride to either l-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned primates or patients can alleviate parkinsonian symptoms without the development of dyskinesia. In this study, we have investigated behavioral responses and alterations in the expression of opioid neuropeptide precursors preproenkephalin-A (PPE-A, encoding methionine- and leucine-enkephalin) and preproenkephalin-B (PPE-B), the precursor encoding dynorphins (dynorphin A1-17 and B1-13, leucine-enkephalin, and alpha-neoendorphin) in striatal output pathways of the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease. Expression was assessed following repeated L-DOPA, bromocriptine, or lisuride administration. Given the functional organization of basal ganglia circuitry into anatomically discrete parallel circuits, we investigated alterations in peptide expression with reference to the detailed topography of the striatum. Following repeated L-DOPA administration (6.5 mg/kg, b.d., 21 days) in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat a rotational response was observed. This became markedly enhanced with repeated treatment. We have previously characterized the pharmacology of this enhanced response and have suggested that it is a useful model for the elucidation of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying L-DOPA- and dopamine agonist-induced dyskinesia. In contrast to l-DOPA, de novo administration of bromocriptine (1 or 5 mg/kg, b.d., 21 days) or lisuride (0.01 or 0.1 mg/kg, b.d., 21 days) did not lead to an enhanced behavioral response. In vehicle-treated, 6-OHDA-lesioned animals, PPE-A expression was elevated rostrally and dorsally, while PPE-B expression was reduced in the striatum at all rostrocaudal levels. Repeated l-DOPA administration was accompanied by elevations in striatal PPE-B mRNA levels and a further elevation, above lesion-induced levels, in PPE-A expression. This further elevation was restricted to the dorsolateral striatum. However, following repeated bromocriptine or lisuride administration no increase in PPE-B expression was observed and the lesion-induced increase in PPE-A expression was normalized to prelesion levels. Increased PPE-A and PPE-B levels may, through decreasing GABA and glutamate release, respectively, in output nuclei of the basal ganglia, play a role in the development of L-DOPA- and dopamine-agonist induced dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease. These studies suggest that anti-parkinsonian treatments which are not associated with an elevation in PPE-B and/or normalize elevated PPE-A precursor expression, such as NMDA-receptor antagonists or long-acting dopamine D2 receptor agonists, e.g., cabergoline or ropinirole, may reduce dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease.