Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Exploring the kinetic requirements for enhancement of protein folding rates in the GroEL cavity.
J Mol Biol. 1999 Apr 02; 287(3):627-44.JM

Abstract

The chaperonin system, GroEL and GroES of Escherichia coli enable certain proteins to fold under conditions when spontaneous folding is prohibitively slow as to compete with other non-productive channels such as aggregation. We investigated the plausible mechanisms of GroEL-mediated folding using simple lattice models. In particular, we have investigated protein folding in a confined environment, such as those offered by the GroEL, to decipher whether rate and yield enhancement can occur when the substrate protein is allowed to fold within the cavity of the chaperonins. The GroEL cavity is modeled as a cubic box and a simple bead model is used to represent the substrate chain. We consider three distinct characteristic of the confining environment. First, the cavity is taken to be a passive Anfinsen cage in which the walls merely reduce the available conformation space. We find that at temperatures when the native conformation is stable, the folding rate is retarded in the Anfinsen cage. We then assumed that the interior of the wall is hydrophobic. In this case the folding times exhibit a complex behavior. When the strength of the interaction between the polypeptide chain and the cavity is too strong or too weak we find that the rates of folding are retarded compared to spontaneous folding. There is an optimum range of the interaction strength that enhances the rates. Thus, above this value there is an inverse correlation between the folding rates and the strength of the substrate-cavity interactions. The optimal hydrophobic walls essentially pull the kinetically trapped states which leads to a smoother the energy landscape. It is known that upon addition of ATP and GroES the interior cavity of GroEL offers a hydrophilic-like environment to the substrate protein. In order to mimic this within the context of the dynamic Anfinsen cage model, we allow for changes in the hydrophobicity of the walls of the cavity. The duration for which the walls remain hydrophobic during one cycle of ATP hydrolysis is allowed to vary. These calculations show that frequent cycling of the wall hydrophobicity can dramatically reduce the folding times and increase the yield as well under non-permissive conditions. Examination of the structures of the substrate proteins before and after the change in hydrophobicity indicates that there is global unfolding involved. In addition, it is found that a fraction of the molecules kinetically partition to the native state in accordabce with the iterative annealing mechanism. Thus, frequent "unfoldase" activity of chaperonins leading to global unfolding of the polypeptide chain results in enhancement of the folding rates and yield of the folded protein. We suggest that chaperonin efficiency can be greatly enhanced if the cycling time is reduced. The calculations are used to interpret a few experiments on chaperonin-mediated protein folding.

Authors+Show Affiliations

University of Maryland at College Park, College Park, MD 20742, USA.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10092464

Citation

Betancourt, M R., and D Thirumalai. "Exploring the Kinetic Requirements for Enhancement of Protein Folding Rates in the GroEL Cavity." Journal of Molecular Biology, vol. 287, no. 3, 1999, pp. 627-44.
Betancourt MR, Thirumalai D. Exploring the kinetic requirements for enhancement of protein folding rates in the GroEL cavity. J Mol Biol. 1999;287(3):627-44.
Betancourt, M. R., & Thirumalai, D. (1999). Exploring the kinetic requirements for enhancement of protein folding rates in the GroEL cavity. Journal of Molecular Biology, 287(3), 627-44.
Betancourt MR, Thirumalai D. Exploring the Kinetic Requirements for Enhancement of Protein Folding Rates in the GroEL Cavity. J Mol Biol. 1999 Apr 2;287(3):627-44. PubMed PMID: 10092464.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Exploring the kinetic requirements for enhancement of protein folding rates in the GroEL cavity. AU - Betancourt,M R, AU - Thirumalai,D, PY - 1999/3/27/pubmed PY - 1999/3/27/medline PY - 1999/3/27/entrez SP - 627 EP - 44 JF - Journal of molecular biology JO - J Mol Biol VL - 287 IS - 3 N2 - The chaperonin system, GroEL and GroES of Escherichia coli enable certain proteins to fold under conditions when spontaneous folding is prohibitively slow as to compete with other non-productive channels such as aggregation. We investigated the plausible mechanisms of GroEL-mediated folding using simple lattice models. In particular, we have investigated protein folding in a confined environment, such as those offered by the GroEL, to decipher whether rate and yield enhancement can occur when the substrate protein is allowed to fold within the cavity of the chaperonins. The GroEL cavity is modeled as a cubic box and a simple bead model is used to represent the substrate chain. We consider three distinct characteristic of the confining environment. First, the cavity is taken to be a passive Anfinsen cage in which the walls merely reduce the available conformation space. We find that at temperatures when the native conformation is stable, the folding rate is retarded in the Anfinsen cage. We then assumed that the interior of the wall is hydrophobic. In this case the folding times exhibit a complex behavior. When the strength of the interaction between the polypeptide chain and the cavity is too strong or too weak we find that the rates of folding are retarded compared to spontaneous folding. There is an optimum range of the interaction strength that enhances the rates. Thus, above this value there is an inverse correlation between the folding rates and the strength of the substrate-cavity interactions. The optimal hydrophobic walls essentially pull the kinetically trapped states which leads to a smoother the energy landscape. It is known that upon addition of ATP and GroES the interior cavity of GroEL offers a hydrophilic-like environment to the substrate protein. In order to mimic this within the context of the dynamic Anfinsen cage model, we allow for changes in the hydrophobicity of the walls of the cavity. The duration for which the walls remain hydrophobic during one cycle of ATP hydrolysis is allowed to vary. These calculations show that frequent cycling of the wall hydrophobicity can dramatically reduce the folding times and increase the yield as well under non-permissive conditions. Examination of the structures of the substrate proteins before and after the change in hydrophobicity indicates that there is global unfolding involved. In addition, it is found that a fraction of the molecules kinetically partition to the native state in accordabce with the iterative annealing mechanism. Thus, frequent "unfoldase" activity of chaperonins leading to global unfolding of the polypeptide chain results in enhancement of the folding rates and yield of the folded protein. We suggest that chaperonin efficiency can be greatly enhanced if the cycling time is reduced. The calculations are used to interpret a few experiments on chaperonin-mediated protein folding. SN - 0022-2836 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10092464/Exploring_the_kinetic_requirements_for_enhancement_of_protein_folding_rates_in_the_GroEL_cavity_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0022-2836(99)92591-3 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -