Dietary menhaden, seal, and corn oils differentially affect lipid and ex vivo eicosanoid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances generation in the guinea pig.Lipids 1999; 34(2):115-24L
This investigation was carried out to characterize the effects of specific dietary marine oils on tissue and plasma fatty acids and their capacity to generate metabolites (prostanoids, lipid peroxides). Young male guinea pigs were fed nonpurified diet (NP), or NP supplemented (10%, w/w) with menhaden fish oil (MO), harp seal oil (SLO), or corn oil (CO, control diet) for 23 to 28 d. Only the plasma showed significant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-induced reductions in triacylglycerol (TAG) or total cholesterol concentration. Proportions of total n-3 PUFA in organs and plasma were elevated significantly in both MO and SLO dietary groups (relative to CO), and in all TAG fractions levels were significantly higher in MO- than SLO-fed animals. The two marine oil groups differed in their patterns of incorporation of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). In guinea pigs fed MO, the highest levels of EPA were in the plasma TAG, whereas in SLO-fed animals, maximal incorporation of EPA was in the heart polar lipids (PL). In both marine oil groups, the greatest increases in both docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3, DHA) and docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-3, DPA), relative to the CO group, were in plasma TAG, although the highest proportions of DHA and DPA were in liver PL and heart TAG, respectively. In comparing the MO and SLO groups, the greatest difference in levels of DHA was in heart TAG (MO > SLO, P < 0.005), and in levels of DPA was in heart PL (SLO > MO, P < 0.0001). The only significant reduction in proportions of the major n-6 PUFA, arachidonic acid (AA), was in the heart PL of the SLO group (SLO > MO = CO, P < 0.005). Marine oil feeding altered ex vivo generation of several prostanoid metabolites of AA, significantly decreasing thromboxane A2 synthesis in homogenates of hearts and livers of guinea pigs fed MO and SLO, respectively (P < 0.04 for both, relative to CO). Lipid peroxides were elevated to similar levels in MO- and SLO-fed animals in plasma, liver, and adipose tissue, but not in heart preparations. This study has shown that guinea pigs respond to dietary marine oils with increased organ and plasma n-3 PUFA, and changes in potential synthesis of metabolites. They also appear to respond to n-3 PUFA-enriched diets in a manner that is different from that of rats.