Immunohistochemical evidence for an increased oxidative stress and carbonyl modification of proteins in diabetic glomerular lesions.J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10(4):822-32JA
Advanced glycation end products (AGE) include a variety of protein adducts whose accumulation has been implicated in tissue damage associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN). It was recently demonstrated that among AGE, glycoxidation products, whose formation is closely linked to oxidation, such as carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine, accumulate in expanded mesangial matrix and nodular lesions in DN, in colocalization with malondialdehyde-lysine (MDA-lysine), a lipoxidation product, whereas pyrraline, another AGE structure whose deposition is rather independent from oxidative stress, was not found within diabetic glomeruli. Because CML, pentosidine, and MDA-lysine are all formed under oxidative stress by carbonyl amine chemistry between protein amino group and carbonyl compounds, their colocalization suggests a local oxidative stress and increased protein carbonyl modification in diabetic glomerular lesions. To address this hypothesis, human renal tissues from patients with DN or IgA nephropathy were examined with specific antibodies to characterize most, if not all, carbonyl modifications of proteins by autoxidation products of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids: CML (derived from carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acid), pentosidine (derived from carbohydrates), MDA-lysine (derived from lipids), 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adduct (derived from lipids), and acrolein-protein adduct (derived from lipids and amino acid). All of the protein adducts were identified in expanded mesangial matrix and nodular lesions in DN. In IgA nephropathy, another primary glomerular disease leading to end-stage renal failure, despite positive staining for MDA-lysine and 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adduct in the expanded mesangial area, CML, pentosidine, and acrolein-protein adduct immunoreactivities were only faint in glomeruli. These data suggest a broad derangement in nonenzymatic biochemistry in diabetic glomerular lesions, and implicate an increased local oxidative stress and carbonyl modification of proteins in diabetic glomerular tissue damage ("carbonyl stress").