Load and strain during lateral condensation and vertical root fracture.J Endod. 1999 Feb; 25(2):99-104.JE
Vertical loads and root surface strains in extracted teeth during lateral condensation using finger and hand spreaders were measured and compared with loads and strains at fracture. Six groups each of 10 teeth were tested: maxillary central incisor, premolar and molar; and mandibular incisor, premolar and molar. Root strains were measured using strain gauges mounted on the apical and middle third of the buccal root surface. Statistical analysis was performed at the 95% level of confidence. The maximum loads and strains generated by finger spreaders were significantly lower than those generated using a hand spreader (D11T). These loads and strains were also significantly lower than the values at fracture. Most fracture lines were in a buccolingual direction, but maxillary premolars with two separate roots and the mesiobuccal root of maxillary molars showed more variation in fracture site. The results suggest that lateral condensation alone should not be a direct cause of vertical root fracture. The use of finger spreaders, however, is associated with lower risk.