Survey of blood stream infections attributable to gram-positive cocci: frequency of occurrence and antimicrobial susceptibility of isolates collected in 1997 in the United States, Canada, and Latin America from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program. SENTRY Participants Group.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 1999 Apr; 33(4):283-97.DM
The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program was established in January, 1997 to monitor the predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns of nosocomial and community-acquired infections via a network of sentinel hospitals in the United States (30 sites), Canada (eight sites), Latin America (10 sites), and Europe (24 sites). During the first 12-month study period (January to December, 1997), a total of 9519 blood stream infections (BSI) were reported by SENTRY participants in the U.S. (6150), Canada (1727), and Latin America (1642). The Gram-positive cocci, Staphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), enterococci, and streptococci accounted for 53.9% (5131 infections) of all BSI (56.5% U.S., 55.7% Canada, and 42.9% Latin America). The staphylococci, Enterococcus spp., S. pneumoniae, beta-hemolytic streptococci, and viridans group streptococci accounted for 6 of the top 11 BSI pathogens in the U.S. and Canada, whereas only S. aureus (1st), CoNS (3rd), and Enterococcus spp. (9th) were among the top 11 pathogens in Latin American hospitals. The results of this survey affirm the importance of Gram-positive cocci as causes of BSI in both North America and Latin America and demonstrate that important antimicrobial resistance exists among isolates of staphylococci, streptococci, and enterococci from all three geographic regions. This includes oxacillin-resistance among S. aureus (26.9% U.S., 29.2% Latin America, and 4.0% Canada) and CoNS (71.5% U.S., 68.4% Latin America, and 65.6% Canada), penicillin resistance among viridans group streptococci (48.5% U.S., 45.1% Canada, and 33.3% Latin America) and pneumococci (36.1% U.S., 27.5% Canada, and 65.6% Latin America), high-level resistance (HLR) to aminoglycosides among enterococci (27.2 to 70.1% U.S., 33.3 to 75.7% Canada and 16.7 to 51.5% Latin America), and macrolide resistance among beta-hemolytic streptococci (12.4 to 14.2% U.S., 10.5 to 12.3% Canada, and 0.0 to 4.0% Latin America), viridans group streptococci (32.4 to 39.7% U.S., 22.5-35.2% Canada, and 20.0% Latin America), and pneumococci (10.0 to 10.6% U.S., 9.8-10.8% Canada, and 9.4-18.7% Latin America). BSI isolates of Gram-positive cocci from the U.S. and Latin America were considerably more resistant than those from Canada. New agents with Gram-positive activity will be essential for optimal treatment of BSI attributable to Gram-positive cocci in both North and Latin America.