Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 2. Recommendations on obesity and weight loss. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.CMAJ. 1999 May 04; 160(9 Suppl):S7-12.CMAJ
To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of weight loss and maintenance of healthy weight on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women).
The health outcome considered was change in blood pressure. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered.
A MEDLINE search was conducted for the years 1992-1996 with the terms hypertension and obesity in combination and antihypertensive therapy and obesity in combination. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of the articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design and graded according to level of evidence.
A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension.
BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS
Weight loss and the maintenance of healthy body weight reduces the blood pressure of both hypertensive and normotensive people. The indirect benefits of a health body weight are well known. The negative effects of weight loss are primarily the frustrations associated with attaining and maintaining a healthy weight. The costs associated with weight loss programs were not measured in the studies reviewed.
(1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine weight (in kilograms), height (in metres) and BMI for all adults. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the population at large, it is recommended that Canadians attain and maintain a healthy BMI (20-25). (3) All overweight hypertensive patients (BMI greater than 25) should be advised to reduce their weight.
These recommendations are similar to those of the World Hypertension League, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group on Primary Prevention of Hypertension, the Canadian Hypertension Society and the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control. They have not been clinically tested.
The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, and the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada.