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Longitudinal bone mineral density changes in female child artistic gymnasts.
J Bone Miner Res. 1999 Jun; 14(6):994-1002.JB

Abstract

Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), and related factors, in female child artistic gymnasts (n = 9) and their age- (+/-0.3 years), height- (+/-2.8 cm), and weight- (+/-1.7 kg) matched controls (n = 9) were prospectively examined. It was hypothesized that gymnasts would possess higher BMD at baseline, 6, and 12 months later and have greater gains in BMD over 1 year compared with controls. BMD (g/cm2) of the total proximal femur (TPF), Ward's triangle (WT), trochanter (Troch), femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS, L1-L4), and total body (TB) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was measured by a 7-day recall; daily dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated from 3-day records. Serum osteocalcin and urinary pyridinium cross-links were measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Gymnasts versus controls possessed significantly higher BMD at all sites measured. Although not significantly different (p > 0.05), gymnasts compared with controls had moderately larger percentage changes in Troch (% Delta = 8.6 +/- 3.0 vs. 3.8 +/- 5.1%, d = 0.41), FN (% Delta = 6.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.55), LS (% Delta = 7.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.26), and TB BMD (% Delta = 5.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.7%, d = 0.98) as evidenced by the magnitude of the effect sizes (d). Gymnasts versus controls possessed a lower percentage body fat (p < 0.01) and engaged in more hours of very hard activity (p < 0.0001). Calcium, as a percentage of adequate intake, decreased over 12 months (p < 0.01), and urinary cross-links significantly decreased over 6 months in both groups. Female child gymnasts possess higher BMD at the TPF and related sites, LS, and TB compared with nongymnast controls, and 1 year of gymnastics training moderately increases Troch, FN, LS, and TB BMD for gymnasts compared with controls. These findings lend support to the idea that gymnastics training in childhood helps maximize peak BMD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10352109

Citation

Nickols-Richardson, S M., et al. "Longitudinal Bone Mineral Density Changes in Female Child Artistic Gymnasts." Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, vol. 14, no. 6, 1999, pp. 994-1002.
Nickols-Richardson SM, O'Connor PJ, Shapses SA, et al. Longitudinal bone mineral density changes in female child artistic gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14(6):994-1002.
Nickols-Richardson, S. M., O'Connor, P. J., Shapses, S. A., & Lewis, R. D. (1999). Longitudinal bone mineral density changes in female child artistic gymnasts. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, 14(6), 994-1002.
Nickols-Richardson SM, et al. Longitudinal Bone Mineral Density Changes in Female Child Artistic Gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res. 1999;14(6):994-1002. PubMed PMID: 10352109.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Longitudinal bone mineral density changes in female child artistic gymnasts. AU - Nickols-Richardson,S M, AU - O'Connor,P J, AU - Shapses,S A, AU - Lewis,R D, PY - 1999/6/3/pubmed PY - 1999/6/3/medline PY - 1999/6/3/entrez SP - 994 EP - 1002 JF - Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research JO - J. Bone Miner. Res. VL - 14 IS - 6 N2 - Changes in bone mineral density (BMD), and related factors, in female child artistic gymnasts (n = 9) and their age- (+/-0.3 years), height- (+/-2.8 cm), and weight- (+/-1.7 kg) matched controls (n = 9) were prospectively examined. It was hypothesized that gymnasts would possess higher BMD at baseline, 6, and 12 months later and have greater gains in BMD over 1 year compared with controls. BMD (g/cm2) of the total proximal femur (TPF), Ward's triangle (WT), trochanter (Troch), femoral neck (FN), lumbar spine (LS, L1-L4), and total body (TB) were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was measured by a 7-day recall; daily dietary intakes of energy and nutrients were estimated from 3-day records. Serum osteocalcin and urinary pyridinium cross-links were measured by radioimmunoassay and high performance liquid chromatography, respectively. Gymnasts versus controls possessed significantly higher BMD at all sites measured. Although not significantly different (p > 0.05), gymnasts compared with controls had moderately larger percentage changes in Troch (% Delta = 8.6 +/- 3.0 vs. 3.8 +/- 5.1%, d = 0.41), FN (% Delta = 6.1 +/- 1.2 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.55), LS (% Delta = 7.8 +/- 1.1 vs. 6.8 +/- 1.6%, d = 0.26), and TB BMD (% Delta = 5.6 +/- 0.8 vs. 3.4 +/- 0.7%, d = 0.98) as evidenced by the magnitude of the effect sizes (d). Gymnasts versus controls possessed a lower percentage body fat (p < 0.01) and engaged in more hours of very hard activity (p < 0.0001). Calcium, as a percentage of adequate intake, decreased over 12 months (p < 0.01), and urinary cross-links significantly decreased over 6 months in both groups. Female child gymnasts possess higher BMD at the TPF and related sites, LS, and TB compared with nongymnast controls, and 1 year of gymnastics training moderately increases Troch, FN, LS, and TB BMD for gymnasts compared with controls. These findings lend support to the idea that gymnastics training in childhood helps maximize peak BMD. SN - 0884-0431 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10352109/Longitudinal_bone_mineral_density_changes_in_female_child_artistic_gymnasts_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1999.14.6.994 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -