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Benefits and risks of oral contraceptives.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun; 180(6 Pt 2):S343-8.AJ

Abstract

The major benefits of modern low-dose oral contraceptives include relative safety and a high degree of efficacy, decreasing the need for abortion or surgical sterilization; reduced risks of bacterial (but not viral) pelvic inflammatory disease and of endometrial and ovarian cancer; improved menstrual regularity, with less dysmenorrhea and blood flow; and, when low-dose combination (not progestogen-only) oral contraceptives are used, reduced acne and hirsutism. Major risks are cardiovascular. Preliminary data from nonrandomized studies suggest that oral contraceptives containing third-generation progestogens are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly in carriers of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation. The risk of arterial thrombosis, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, may be directly related to estrogen dose, particularly in women who have hypertension, smoke, or are >35 years old. Considering that only users aged >/=30 years who smoke >/=25 cigarettes/d have a higher estimated mortality rate than that of pregnant women, the benefits of oral contraceptives appear to outweigh their risks.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Institute for Women's Health, MCP Hahnemann University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10368519

Citation

Sherif, K. "Benefits and Risks of Oral Contraceptives." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 180, no. 6 Pt 2, 1999, pp. S343-8.
Sherif K. Benefits and risks of oral contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(6 Pt 2):S343-8.
Sherif, K. (1999). Benefits and risks of oral contraceptives. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180(6 Pt 2), S343-8.
Sherif K. Benefits and Risks of Oral Contraceptives. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(6 Pt 2):S343-8. PubMed PMID: 10368519.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Benefits and risks of oral contraceptives. A1 - Sherif,K, PY - 1999/6/16/pubmed PY - 1999/6/16/medline PY - 1999/6/16/entrez KW - Americas KW - Biology KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Agents KW - Contraceptive Agents, Estrogen KW - Contraceptive Agents, Female KW - Contraceptive Agents, Progestin KW - Contraceptive Methods--beneficial effects KW - Contraceptive Methods--side effects KW - Developed Countries KW - Ethinyl Estradiol KW - Family Planning KW - Literature Review KW - North America KW - Northern America KW - Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose--beneficial effects KW - Oral Contraceptives, Low-dose--side effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--beneficial effects KW - Oral Contraceptives--side effects KW - Risk Factors KW - United States SP - S343 EP - 8 JF - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology JO - Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. VL - 180 IS - 6 Pt 2 N2 - The major benefits of modern low-dose oral contraceptives include relative safety and a high degree of efficacy, decreasing the need for abortion or surgical sterilization; reduced risks of bacterial (but not viral) pelvic inflammatory disease and of endometrial and ovarian cancer; improved menstrual regularity, with less dysmenorrhea and blood flow; and, when low-dose combination (not progestogen-only) oral contraceptives are used, reduced acne and hirsutism. Major risks are cardiovascular. Preliminary data from nonrandomized studies suggest that oral contraceptives containing third-generation progestogens are associated with increased risk of venous thromboembolism, particularly in carriers of the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation. The risk of arterial thrombosis, such as myocardial infarction or stroke, may be directly related to estrogen dose, particularly in women who have hypertension, smoke, or are >35 years old. Considering that only users aged >/=30 years who smoke >/=25 cigarettes/d have a higher estimated mortality rate than that of pregnant women, the benefits of oral contraceptives appear to outweigh their risks. SN - 0002-9378 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10368519/Benefits_and_risks_of_oral_contraceptives_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9378(99)70694-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -