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Cardiovascular disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke.
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun; 180(6 Pt 2):S349-56.AJ

Abstract

Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease among persons of both sexes. The risk of cardiovascular disease is further increased among users of oral contraceptives who smoke, particularly those who are >/=35 years old or carry the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation. Other important cardiovascular disease risk factors in women include waist/hip girth ratio >0.8, high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (>115 mg/dL), high triglyceride level (>/=150 mg/dL) with low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (</=45 mg/dL), high ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (4.0), high ratio of low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (3.0), glucose values >/=100 mg/dL, hypertension, lack of physical activity, and high-fat diet. Most excess cardiovascular disease among users of oral contraceptives is due to thrombosis (not atherosclerosis); studies indicate that the lower the oral contraceptive estrogen dose is, the lower is this risk. Oral contraceptives containing the third-generation progestins desogestrel and gestodene have been associated with greater risks of venous thromboembolism than are associated with older progestins, although there is some controversy surrounding these findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Framingham Cardiovascular Institute, Framingham, Massachusetts, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10368520

Citation

Castelli, W P.. "Cardiovascular Disease: Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Risk Among Users of Oral Contraceptives Who Smoke." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 180, no. 6 Pt 2, 1999, pp. S349-56.
Castelli WP. Cardiovascular disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(6 Pt 2):S349-56.
Castelli, W. P. (1999). Cardiovascular disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180(6 Pt 2), S349-56.
Castelli WP. Cardiovascular Disease: Pathogenesis, Epidemiology, and Risk Among Users of Oral Contraceptives Who Smoke. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999;180(6 Pt 2):S349-56. PubMed PMID: 10368520.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cardiovascular disease: pathogenesis, epidemiology, and risk among users of oral contraceptives who smoke. A1 - Castelli,W P, PY - 1999/6/16/pubmed PY - 1999/6/16/medline PY - 1999/6/16/entrez KW - Americas KW - Behavior KW - Biology KW - Cancer--women KW - Cardiovascular Effects--etiology KW - Cardiovascular Effects--women KW - Contraception KW - Contraceptive Methods KW - Developed Countries KW - Diseases KW - Embolism KW - Epidemiology KW - Family Planning KW - Health KW - Literature Review KW - Massachusetts KW - Neoplasms KW - North America KW - Northern America KW - Oral Contraceptives KW - Physiology KW - Public Health KW - Pulmonary Effects--women KW - Recommendations KW - Risk Factors--women KW - Smoking--women KW - Thromboembolism--women KW - United States KW - Vascular Diseases KW - Women SP - S349 EP - 56 JF - American journal of obstetrics and gynecology JO - Am J Obstet Gynecol VL - 180 IS - 6 Pt 2 N2 - Smoking increases the risk of lung cancer and cardiovascular disease among persons of both sexes. The risk of cardiovascular disease is further increased among users of oral contraceptives who smoke, particularly those who are >/=35 years old or carry the coagulation factor V Leiden mutation. Other important cardiovascular disease risk factors in women include waist/hip girth ratio >0.8, high concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (>115 mg/dL), high triglyceride level (>/=150 mg/dL) with low concentration of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (</=45 mg/dL), high ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (4.0), high ratio of low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein (3.0), glucose values >/=100 mg/dL, hypertension, lack of physical activity, and high-fat diet. Most excess cardiovascular disease among users of oral contraceptives is due to thrombosis (not atherosclerosis); studies indicate that the lower the oral contraceptive estrogen dose is, the lower is this risk. Oral contraceptives containing the third-generation progestins desogestrel and gestodene have been associated with greater risks of venous thromboembolism than are associated with older progestins, although there is some controversy surrounding these findings. SN - 0002-9378 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10368520/Cardiovascular_disease:_pathogenesis_epidemiology_and_risk_among_users_of_oral_contraceptives_who_smoke_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-9378(99)70695-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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