Bioindicator and exposure data for a population based study of manganese.Neurotoxicology. 1999 Apr-Jun; 20(2-3):343-53.N
Exposure data and bioindicators were obtained for a study whose objective was detection of early manifestations of manganese (Mn) neurotoxicity in a population with potential environmental exposure. The study included persons with no history of neurotoxic workplace exposure in Southwest Quebec, drawn from seven postal code regions, defining a set of geographically contiguous zones. Blood samples were analyzed for total Mn (MnB), lead (PbB), total mercury (HgT) and serum iron (FeS). Drinking water samples from participants' residences were analyzed for manganese (MnW). At 4 sites, limited 24-hour high volume air samples for total particulates (TP) and PM10, were analyzed for Mn and Pb. Sociodemographic and dietary information was obtained by self-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean (GM) for MnB values (n = 297) was 7.14 micrograms/L. Levels of MnB in women (n = 156; GM 7.50 micrograms/L) were significantly higher than in men (n = 141; GM 6.75 micrograms/L). No relationship was found between MnB and PbB or HgT. FeS was significantly higher in men (GM 18.38 mumol/L) than women (GM 15.0 mumol/L). For women, MnB was correlated to FeS, with a tendency to decrease with increasing age. For men, no relationship was found between MnB levels and either FeS or age, although FeS showed a strong inverse relationship with age. The 24-hour mean levels of MnTP at the 4 sites varied between 0.009 microgram/m3 and 0.035 microgram/m3; intersite differences were not significant. For Mn in PM10 (MnPM10), mean values ranged from 0.007 microgram/m3 to 0.019 microgram/m3; intersite differences were significant. A total of 278 MnW samples were obtained, 16 from residences served by wells. The GM for MnW was 4.11 micrograms/L (range: 0.50-71.1 micrograms/L, excluding wells; MnW for wells ranged from non-detectable to 158.9 micrograms/L. Individually, there was no relation between MnW and MnB. Geographic analysis of the MnB and MnW data by an algorithm grouping contiguous postal code zones, combined with air data, lead to definition of a geographic parameter, distinguishing two regions relative to a former manganese alloy plant, which contributed significantly to MnB. A multiple regression model was developed, explaining 6.7% of the variability in MnB (F = 5.12; p < 0.001); when controlling for gender, geographic region with higher levels of airborne manganese and the frequency of consumption of cereals and leaf vegetables contributed positively to MnB levels, while serum iron was negatively related.