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A prospective study of risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer. The Seattle Diabetic Foot Study.
Diabetes Care 1999; 22(7):1036-42DC

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Little prospective research exists on risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer that considers the independent effects of multiple potential etiologic agents. We prospectively studied the effects of diabetes characteristics, foot deformity, behavioral factors, and neurovascular function on foot ulcer risk among 749 diabetic veterans with 1,483 lower limbs.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Eligible subjects included all diabetic enrollees of a general internal medicine clinic without foot ulcer, of whom 83% agreed to participate. Baseline assessment included history and lower-limb physical examination, tests for sensory and autonomic neuropathy, and measurements of macro- and microvascular perfusion in the foot. Subjects were followed for the occurrence of a full thickness skin defect on the foot that took > 14 days to heal, with a mean follow-up of 3.7 years.

RESULTS

Using stepwise Cox regression analysis, the following factors were independently related to foot ulcer risk: foot insensitivity to the 5.07 monofilament (relative risk [95% CI]) 2.2 (1.5-3.1), past history of amputation 2.8 (1.8-4.3) or foot ulcer 1.6 (1.2-2.3), insulin use 1.6 (1.1-2.2), Charcot deformity 3.5 (1.2-9.9), 15 mmHg higher dorsal foot transcutaneous PO2 0.8 (0.7-0.9), 20 kg higher body weight 1.2 (1.1-1.4), 0.3 higher ankle-arm index 0.8 (0.7-1.0), poor vision 1.9 (1.4-2.6), and 13 mmHg orthostatic blood pressure fall 1.2 (1.1-1.5). Higher ulcer risk was associated with hammer/claw toe deformity and history of laser photocoagulation in certain subgroups. Unrelated to foot ulcer risk in multivariate models were diabetes duration and type, race, smoking status, diabetes education, joint mobility, hallux blood pressure, and other foot deformities.

CONCLUSIONS

Certain foot deformities, reduced skin oxygenation and foot perfusion, poor vision, greater body mass, and both sensory and autonomic neuropathy independently influence foot ulcer risk, thereby providing support for a multifactorial etiology for diabetic foot ulceration.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, USA. eboyko@u.washington.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10388963

Citation

Boyko, E J., et al. "A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcer. the Seattle Diabetic Foot Study." Diabetes Care, vol. 22, no. 7, 1999, pp. 1036-42.
Boyko EJ, Ahroni JH, Stensel V, et al. A prospective study of risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer. The Seattle Diabetic Foot Study. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(7):1036-42.
Boyko, E. J., Ahroni, J. H., Stensel, V., Forsberg, R. C., Davignon, D. R., & Smith, D. G. (1999). A prospective study of risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer. The Seattle Diabetic Foot Study. Diabetes Care, 22(7), pp. 1036-42.
Boyko EJ, et al. A Prospective Study of Risk Factors for Diabetic Foot Ulcer. the Seattle Diabetic Foot Study. Diabetes Care. 1999;22(7):1036-42. PubMed PMID: 10388963.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A prospective study of risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer. The Seattle Diabetic Foot Study. AU - Boyko,E J, AU - Ahroni,J H, AU - Stensel,V, AU - Forsberg,R C, AU - Davignon,D R, AU - Smith,D G, PY - 1999/7/2/pubmed PY - 1999/7/2/medline PY - 1999/7/2/entrez SP - 1036 EP - 42 JF - Diabetes care JO - Diabetes Care VL - 22 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Little prospective research exists on risk factors for diabetic foot ulcer that considers the independent effects of multiple potential etiologic agents. We prospectively studied the effects of diabetes characteristics, foot deformity, behavioral factors, and neurovascular function on foot ulcer risk among 749 diabetic veterans with 1,483 lower limbs. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Eligible subjects included all diabetic enrollees of a general internal medicine clinic without foot ulcer, of whom 83% agreed to participate. Baseline assessment included history and lower-limb physical examination, tests for sensory and autonomic neuropathy, and measurements of macro- and microvascular perfusion in the foot. Subjects were followed for the occurrence of a full thickness skin defect on the foot that took > 14 days to heal, with a mean follow-up of 3.7 years. RESULTS: Using stepwise Cox regression analysis, the following factors were independently related to foot ulcer risk: foot insensitivity to the 5.07 monofilament (relative risk [95% CI]) 2.2 (1.5-3.1), past history of amputation 2.8 (1.8-4.3) or foot ulcer 1.6 (1.2-2.3), insulin use 1.6 (1.1-2.2), Charcot deformity 3.5 (1.2-9.9), 15 mmHg higher dorsal foot transcutaneous PO2 0.8 (0.7-0.9), 20 kg higher body weight 1.2 (1.1-1.4), 0.3 higher ankle-arm index 0.8 (0.7-1.0), poor vision 1.9 (1.4-2.6), and 13 mmHg orthostatic blood pressure fall 1.2 (1.1-1.5). Higher ulcer risk was associated with hammer/claw toe deformity and history of laser photocoagulation in certain subgroups. Unrelated to foot ulcer risk in multivariate models were diabetes duration and type, race, smoking status, diabetes education, joint mobility, hallux blood pressure, and other foot deformities. CONCLUSIONS: Certain foot deformities, reduced skin oxygenation and foot perfusion, poor vision, greater body mass, and both sensory and autonomic neuropathy independently influence foot ulcer risk, thereby providing support for a multifactorial etiology for diabetic foot ulceration. SN - 0149-5992 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10388963/A_prospective_study_of_risk_factors_for_diabetic_foot_ulcer__The_Seattle_Diabetic_Foot_Study_ L2 - http://care.diabetesjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10388963 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -