[Pharmacological mechanisms of the treatment of dyskinesias in Parkinson disease].Rev Neurol. 1999 May 1-15; 28(9):889-98.RN
The progression of Parkinson's disease (PD) and levodopa therapy leads to development of motor and psychic complications that cause serious limitations to the management of the advanced disease.
This article reviews the current literature regarding epidemiological, clinical, pathophysiological and therapeutics of levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID).
1) The most important risk factors for LID are the cumulated doses of levodopa, young age at onset and severity of PD. 2) Pathophysiological data include the nigrostriatal system denervation, the prolonged exposure to levodopa and the integrity of striatal eferences; in addition there are some alterations of dopamine receptors and other neurotransmitter systems. 3) Some pharmacological measures, different for each type of LID, and surgery (pallidotomy, pallidal stimulation, subthalamic stimulation) can be useful for the therapy of LID.