Metabolic and genetic determinants of HDL metabolism and hepatic lipase activity in normolipidemic females.J Lipid Res. 1999 Jul; 40(7):1211-21.JL
The metabolic and genetic determinants of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and HDL turnover were studied in 36 normolipidemic female subjects on a whole-food low-fat metabolic diet. Lipid, lipoprotein, and apolipoprotein levels, lipoprotein size, and apolipoprotein turnover parameters were determined, as were genetic variation at one site in the hepatic lipase promoter and six sites in the apolipoprotein AI/CIII/AIV gene cluster. Menopause had no significant effect on HDL-C or turnover. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that HDL-C was most strongly correlated with HDL size, apolipoprotein A-II (apoA-II), and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, which together could account for 90% of the variation in HDL-C. HDL size was inversely correlated with triglycerides, body mass index, and hepatic lipase activity, which together accounted for 82% of the variation in HDL size. The hepatic lipase promoter genotype had a strong effect on hepatic lipase activity and could account for 38% of the variation in hepatic lipase activity. The apoA-I transport rate (AI-TR) was the major determinant of apoA-I levels, but AI-TR was not associated with six common genetic polymorphism in the apoAI/CIII/AIV gene cluster.A simplified model of HDL metabolism is proposed, in which A-I and apoA-II levels combined with triglycerides, and hepatic lipase activity could account for 80% of the variation in HDL-C.