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Estimates of animal and plant protein intake in US adults: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991.
J Am Diet Assoc. 1999 Jul; 99(7):813-20.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To describe the sources of protein intake in a sample of the US adult population and among subgroups defined by race-ethnicity, age, and gender.

DESIGN

The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991, is a stratified random sample of the total civilian noninstitutionalized population, drawn from the 50 United States and the District of Columbia. For all foods consumed by the participants, based on a 24-hour dietary recall, protein sources and the contribution of each protein type to the total protein intake were determined.

SUBJECTS

Adult participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 7,924).

STATISTICAL ANALYSES

Weighted total, age-specific, and age-adjusted mean protein intakes were calculated using SAS and WesVarPC. Statistical differences were determined by 2-tailed t tests.

RESULTS

The main protein source in the American diet is animal protein (69%). Meat, fish, and poultry protein combined contributed the most to animal protein (42%), followed by dairy protein (20%). Grains (18%) contributed the most to plant protein consumption. Women consumed a lower percentage of beef (14%) and pork (7%) protein than did men (18% and 9%, respectively). Women also consumed a higher percentage of poultry (13%), dairy (22%), and fruit and vegetable (11%) protein than did men (11%, 19%, and 9%, respectively). Blacks reported eating a higher percentage of poultry (18%) and pork (11%) protein and a lower percent of dairy protein (14%) than did whites (12%, 7%, and 22%, respectively) and Mexican-Americans (11%, 8%, and 17%, respectively). Mexican-Americans consumed a higher percentage of legume (7%) and egg (7%) protein than did whites (4% and 4%, respectively) and blacks (4% and 5%, respectively). Whites consumed a higher percentage of grain protein (19%) than did blacks (16%) and Mexican-Americans (15%).

CONCLUSIONS

These results show that, although the percentage of total energy from protein may be similar among race-ethnicities and between men and women, their sources of protein are different. These differences should be taken into account when providing nutrition education for specific populations.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10405679

Citation

Smit, E, et al. "Estimates of Animal and Plant Protein Intake in US Adults: Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991." Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 99, no. 7, 1999, pp. 813-20.
Smit E, Nieto FJ, Crespo CJ, et al. Estimates of animal and plant protein intake in US adults: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99(7):813-20.
Smit, E., Nieto, F. J., Crespo, C. J., & Mitchell, P. (1999). Estimates of animal and plant protein intake in US adults: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(7), 813-20.
Smit E, et al. Estimates of Animal and Plant Protein Intake in US Adults: Results From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. J Am Diet Assoc. 1999;99(7):813-20. PubMed PMID: 10405679.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Estimates of animal and plant protein intake in US adults: results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991. AU - Smit,E, AU - Nieto,F J, AU - Crespo,C J, AU - Mitchell,P, PY - 1999/7/16/pubmed PY - 1999/7/16/medline PY - 1999/7/16/entrez SP - 813 EP - 20 JF - Journal of the American Dietetic Association JO - J Am Diet Assoc VL - 99 IS - 7 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To describe the sources of protein intake in a sample of the US adult population and among subgroups defined by race-ethnicity, age, and gender. DESIGN: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988-1991, is a stratified random sample of the total civilian noninstitutionalized population, drawn from the 50 United States and the District of Columbia. For all foods consumed by the participants, based on a 24-hour dietary recall, protein sources and the contribution of each protein type to the total protein intake were determined. SUBJECTS: Adult participants in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (n = 7,924). STATISTICAL ANALYSES: Weighted total, age-specific, and age-adjusted mean protein intakes were calculated using SAS and WesVarPC. Statistical differences were determined by 2-tailed t tests. RESULTS: The main protein source in the American diet is animal protein (69%). Meat, fish, and poultry protein combined contributed the most to animal protein (42%), followed by dairy protein (20%). Grains (18%) contributed the most to plant protein consumption. Women consumed a lower percentage of beef (14%) and pork (7%) protein than did men (18% and 9%, respectively). Women also consumed a higher percentage of poultry (13%), dairy (22%), and fruit and vegetable (11%) protein than did men (11%, 19%, and 9%, respectively). Blacks reported eating a higher percentage of poultry (18%) and pork (11%) protein and a lower percent of dairy protein (14%) than did whites (12%, 7%, and 22%, respectively) and Mexican-Americans (11%, 8%, and 17%, respectively). Mexican-Americans consumed a higher percentage of legume (7%) and egg (7%) protein than did whites (4% and 4%, respectively) and blacks (4% and 5%, respectively). Whites consumed a higher percentage of grain protein (19%) than did blacks (16%) and Mexican-Americans (15%). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that, although the percentage of total energy from protein may be similar among race-ethnicities and between men and women, their sources of protein are different. These differences should be taken into account when providing nutrition education for specific populations. SN - 0002-8223 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10405679/Estimates_of_animal_and_plant_protein_intake_in_US_adults:_results_from_the_Third_National_Health_and_Nutrition_Examination_Survey_1988_1991_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0002-8223(99)00193-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -