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Visual symptoms and G-LOC in the operational environment and during centrifuge training of Turkish jet pilots.
Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999 Jul; 70(7):709-12.AS

Abstract

BACKGROUND

High-performance fighter aircraft produce high-sustained +Gz forces with rapid onset rates. Because of this G-producing capability, military jet pilots are subjected to physiological stress, which may lead to visual disturbances and G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC). Although visual disturbances are very common in jet flights, G-LOC is relatively rare but more dangerous. The frequency and causes of G-LOC need to be determined in the interest of flight safety.

METHODS

Part I. A survey was conducted on Turkish jet pilots to reveal the incidence of symptoms due to +Gz acceleration. Anonymous questionnaires were given to F-16, F-4, and F-5 pilots. They consisted of inquiries about the occurrence of visual symptoms and/or G-LOC during +Gz acceleration in the operational environment. Part II. During the years 1992-1996, 486 F-16, 801 F-4, and 256 F-5 fighter pilots underwent high "G" training at Turkish Aerospace Medical Center and they were assessed in terms of G-LOC rates.

RESULTS

Part I. A total of 325 pilots who flew T-37 in undergraduate pilot training (UPT) answered the questionnaire. The pilots were divided into 3 groups according to the types of aircraft, which they fly now: 116 F-16, 182 F-4, and 27 F-5 pilots. A total of 311 pilots (95.7%) reported having experienced greyouts and/or blackouts. With 25 pilots (7.7%) experiencing G-LOC, the G-LOC frequency according to the type of aircraft was: 5.2% (T-37) [in UPT]; 4.3% (F-16), 1.6% (F-4), and 0% (F-5). Part II. In centrifuge training, the incidence of G-LOC in pilots of the various types of aircraft were: 12% (F-16), 6.4% (F-4), and 8.6% (F-5).

CONCLUSIONS

Centrifuge training reduces G-LOC rates of subsequent centrifuge training; and it is hoped might reduce the G-LOC rate in the operational environment. Almost all jet pilots reported having experienced +Gz related visual symptoms, but G-LOC seems to be a more common problem for pilots who fly rapid onset rate aircraft than pilots who fly high "G" capable but lower G onset rate aircraft.

Authors+Show Affiliations

GATA, Aerospace Medical Center, Eskisehir, Turkey.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

10417010

Citation

Yilmaz, U, et al. "Visual Symptoms and G-LOC in the Operational Environment and During Centrifuge Training of Turkish Jet Pilots." Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, vol. 70, no. 7, 1999, pp. 709-12.
Yilmaz U, Cetinguc M, Akin A. Visual symptoms and G-LOC in the operational environment and during centrifuge training of Turkish jet pilots. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999;70(7):709-12.
Yilmaz, U., Cetinguc, M., & Akin, A. (1999). Visual symptoms and G-LOC in the operational environment and during centrifuge training of Turkish jet pilots. Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, 70(7), 709-12.
Yilmaz U, Cetinguc M, Akin A. Visual Symptoms and G-LOC in the Operational Environment and During Centrifuge Training of Turkish Jet Pilots. Aviat Space Environ Med. 1999;70(7):709-12. PubMed PMID: 10417010.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Visual symptoms and G-LOC in the operational environment and during centrifuge training of Turkish jet pilots. AU - Yilmaz,U, AU - Cetinguc,M, AU - Akin,A, PY - 1999/7/23/pubmed PY - 1999/7/23/medline PY - 1999/7/23/entrez SP - 709 EP - 12 JF - Aviation, space, and environmental medicine JO - Aviat Space Environ Med VL - 70 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND: High-performance fighter aircraft produce high-sustained +Gz forces with rapid onset rates. Because of this G-producing capability, military jet pilots are subjected to physiological stress, which may lead to visual disturbances and G-induced loss of consciousness (G-LOC). Although visual disturbances are very common in jet flights, G-LOC is relatively rare but more dangerous. The frequency and causes of G-LOC need to be determined in the interest of flight safety. METHODS: Part I. A survey was conducted on Turkish jet pilots to reveal the incidence of symptoms due to +Gz acceleration. Anonymous questionnaires were given to F-16, F-4, and F-5 pilots. They consisted of inquiries about the occurrence of visual symptoms and/or G-LOC during +Gz acceleration in the operational environment. Part II. During the years 1992-1996, 486 F-16, 801 F-4, and 256 F-5 fighter pilots underwent high "G" training at Turkish Aerospace Medical Center and they were assessed in terms of G-LOC rates. RESULTS: Part I. A total of 325 pilots who flew T-37 in undergraduate pilot training (UPT) answered the questionnaire. The pilots were divided into 3 groups according to the types of aircraft, which they fly now: 116 F-16, 182 F-4, and 27 F-5 pilots. A total of 311 pilots (95.7%) reported having experienced greyouts and/or blackouts. With 25 pilots (7.7%) experiencing G-LOC, the G-LOC frequency according to the type of aircraft was: 5.2% (T-37) [in UPT]; 4.3% (F-16), 1.6% (F-4), and 0% (F-5). Part II. In centrifuge training, the incidence of G-LOC in pilots of the various types of aircraft were: 12% (F-16), 6.4% (F-4), and 8.6% (F-5). CONCLUSIONS: Centrifuge training reduces G-LOC rates of subsequent centrifuge training; and it is hoped might reduce the G-LOC rate in the operational environment. Almost all jet pilots reported having experienced +Gz related visual symptoms, but G-LOC seems to be a more common problem for pilots who fly rapid onset rate aircraft than pilots who fly high "G" capable but lower G onset rate aircraft. SN - 0095-6562 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/10417010/Visual_symptoms_and_G_LOC_in_the_operational_environment_and_during_centrifuge_training_of_Turkish_jet_pilots_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -